AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS
An air conditioning apparatus 1 includes a compressor (321), an indoor heat exchanger (242) that is a useside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with first air (F1), an outdoor heat exchanger (323) that is a heatsourceside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with second air, a refrigerant, a first duct (209), and a casing (230). The refrigerant contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene, and circulates in the compressor (321), the indoor heat exchanger (242), and the outdoor heat exchanger (323) to repeat a refrigeration cycle. The first duct (209) supplies the first air (F1) to a plurality of rooms in an interior. The casing (230) includes a useside space (SP2) that is connected to the first duct (209) and that accommodates the indoor heat exchanger (242). The casing (230) is configured to allow the first air (F1) after heat exchange with the refrigerant at the indoor heat exchanger (242) to be sent out to the first duct (209).
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The present disclosure relates to an air conditioning apparatus.
BACKGROUND ARTHitherto, as an air conditioning apparatus that airconditions a plurality of rooms in an interior by one air conditioning apparatus, for example, a multitype air conditioning apparatus that is described in Japanese Literature 1 (Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 201825377) has been known.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Technical ProblemA multitype air conditioning apparatus such as the multitype air conditioning apparatus that is described in Japanese Literature 1 includes a first indoor unit and a second indoor unit that are disposed in different rooms. In such an air conditioning apparatus, since a refrigerant is caused to circulate in the first indoor unit and the second indoor unit, the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled is large.
An air conditioning apparatus that airconditions a plurality of rooms in an interior has a problem in that the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus needs to be reduced.
Solution to ProblemAn air conditioning apparatus according to a first aspect
includes a compressor, a useside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with first air, a heatsourceside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with second air, a refrigerant that contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene and that circulates in the compressor, the useside heat exchanger, and the heatsourceside heat exchanger to repeat a refrigeration cycle, a first duct that supplies the first air to a plurality of rooms in an interior, and a casing that includes a useside space that is connected to the first duct and that accommodates the useside heat exchanger, the casing being configured to allow the first air after heat exchange with the refrigerant at the useside heat exchanger to be sent out to the first duct.
Since the number of indoorside heat exchangers of this air conditioning apparatus is smaller than the number of indoorside heat exchangers of air conditioning apparatus in which a plurality of indoor units are disposed in a plurality of rooms, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a second aspect is the air conditioning apparatus of the first aspect and includes a second duct that introduces the first air from the interior, a useside unit that includes the casing and that is configured to guide the first air introduced from the interior to the useside heat exchanger with the casing connected to the second duct, and a heatsourceside unit that accommodates the heatsourceside heat exchanger and that differs from the useside unit.
In the air conditioning apparatus, since the useside unit and the heatsourceside unit are different units, the air conditioning apparatus is easily installed.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a third aspect i s the air conditioning apparatus of the first aspect and includes a third duct that introduces the first air from an exterior, a useside unit that includes the casing and that is configured to guide the first air introduced from the exterior to the useside heat exchanger with the casing connected to the third duct, and a heatsourceside unit that accommodates the heatsourceside heat exchanger and that differs from the useside unit.
In the air conditioning apparatus, since the useside unit and the heatsourceside unit are different units, the air conditioning apparatus is easily installed.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a fourth aspect is the air conditioning apparatus of the first aspect and includes a second duct that is connected to the casing and that supplies the first air introduced from the interior to the useside space, wherein the casing is provided with a partition plate that partitions the casing into a heatsourceside space through which the second air introduced from an exterior passes and the useside space to prevent circulation of air in the heatsourceside space and the useside space, and wherein the heatsourceside heat exchanger is disposed in the heatsourceside space.
In the air conditioning apparatus, since, in one casing, the useside heat exchanger and the heatsourceside heat exchanger are accommodated in the useside space and the heatsourceside space that are separated by the partition plate in the same casing, the air conditioning apparatus is easily installed by using a limited space.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 5th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 6th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 7th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 8th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 9th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43)
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 10th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 11th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 12th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to the 5th aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 13th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 14th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 15th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 16th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 17th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 18th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′(39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 19th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 20th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 21th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 22th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 23th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 24th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 25th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 26th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates
(−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
An air conditioning apparatus according to a 27th aspect is the air conditioning apparatus according to any of the first through 4th aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32,
wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates
(−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates
(0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
In this air conditioning apparatus, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus is filled when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerant” includes at least compounds that are specified in ISO 817 (International Organization for Standardization), and that are given a refrigerant number (ASHRAE number) representing the type of refrigerant with “R” at the beginning; and further includes refrigerants that have properties equivalent to those of such refrigerants, even though a refrigerant number is not yet given. Refrigerants are broadly divided into fluorocarbon compounds and nonfluorocarbon compounds in terms of the structure of the compounds. Fluorocarbon compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). Nonfluorocarbon compounds include propane (R290), propylene (R1270), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), carbon dioxide (R744), ammonia (R717), and the like.
In the present specification, the phrase “composition comprising a refrigerant” at least includes (1) a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants), (2) a composition that further comprises other components and that can be mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine, and (3) a working fluid for a refrigerating machine containing a refrigeration oil. In the present specification, of these three embodiments, the composition (2) is referred to as a “refrigerant composition” so as to distinguish it from a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants). Further, the working fluid for a refrigerating machine (3) is referred to as a “refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid” so as to distinguish it from the “refrigerant composition.”
In the present specification, when the term “alternative” is used in a context in which the first refrigerant is replaced with the second refrigerant, the first type of “alternative” means that equipment designed for operation using the first refrigerant can be operated using the second refrigerant under optimum conditions, optionally with changes of only a few parts (at least one of the following: refrigeration oil, gasket, packing, expansion valve, dryer, and other parts) and equipment adjustment. In other words, this type of alternative means that the same equipment is operated with an alternative refrigerant. Embodiments of this type of “alternative” include “dropin alternative,” “nearly dropin alternative,” and “retrofit,” in the order in which the extent of changes and adjustment necessary for replacing the first refrigerant with the second refrigerant is smaller.
The term “alternative” also includes a second type of “alternative,” which means that equipment designed for operation using the second refrigerant is operated for the same use as the existing use with the first refrigerant by using the second refrigerant. This type of alternative means that the same use is achieved with an alternative refrigerant.
In the present specification, the term “refrigerating machine” refers to machines in general that draw heat from an object or space to make its temperature lower than the temperature of ambient air, and maintain a low temperature. In other words, refrigerating machines refer to conversion machines that gain energy from the outside to do work, and that perform energy conversion, in order to transfer heat from where the temperature is lower to where the temperature is higher.
In the present specification, a refrigerant having a “WCF lower flammability” means that the most flammable composition (worst case of formulation for flammability: WCF) has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Further, in the present specification, a refrigerant having “ASHRAE lower flammability” means that the burning velocity of WCF is 10 cm/s or less, that the most flammable fraction composition (worst case of fractionation for flammability: WCFF), which is specified by performing a leakage test during storage, shipping, or use based on ANSI/ASHRAE 342013 using WCF, has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less, and that flammability classification according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013 is determined to classified as be “Class 2L.”
In the present specification, a refrigerant having an “RCL of x % or more” means that the refrigerant has a refrigerant concentration limit (RCL), calculated in accordance with the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013, of x % or more. RCL refers to a concentration limit in the air in consideration of safety factors. RCL is an index for reducing the risk of acute toxicity, suffocation, and flammability in a closed space where humans are present. RCL is determined in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard. More specifically, RCL is the lowest concentration among the acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL), the oxygen deprivation limit (ODL), and the flammable concentration limit (FCL), which are respectively calculated in accordance with sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, and 7.1.3 of the ASHRAE Standard.
In the present specification, temperature glide refers to an absolute value of the difference between the initial temperature and the end temperature in the phase change process of a composition containing the refrigerant of the present disclosure in the heat exchanger of a refrigerant system.
(2) Refrigerant (21) Refrigerant ComponentAny one of various refrigerants such as refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E, details of these refrigerant are to be mentioned later, can be used as the refrigerant.
(22) Use of RefrigerantThe refrigerant according to the present disclosure can be preferably used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine.
The composition according to the present disclosure is suitable for use as an alternative refrigerant for HFC refrigerant such as R410A, R407C and R404 etc, or HCFC refrigerant such as R22 etc.
(3) Refrigerant CompositionThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant according to the present disclosure, and can be used for the same use as the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. Moreover, the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure can be further mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to thereby obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure further comprises at least one other component in addition to the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise at least one of the following other components, if necessary. As described above, when the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure is used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine, it is generally used as a mixture with at least a refrigeration oil. Therefore, it is preferable that the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure does not substantially comprise a refrigeration oil. Specifically, in the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure, the content of the refrigeration oil based on the entire refrigerant composition is preferably 0 to 1 mass %, and more preferably 0 to 0.1 mass %.
(31) WaterThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may contain a small amount of water. The water content of the refrigerant composition is preferably 0.1 mass % or less based on the entire refrigerant. A small amount of water contained in the refrigerant composition stabilizes double bonds in the molecules of unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds that can be present in the refrigerant, and makes it less likely that the unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds will be oxidized, thus increasing the stability of the refrigerant composition.
(32) TracerA tracer is added to the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure at a detectable concentration such that when the refrigerant composition has been diluted, contaminated, or undergone other changes, the tracer can trace the changes.
The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single tracer, or two or more tracers.
The tracer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used tracers. Preferably, a compound that cannot be an impurity inevitably mixed in the refrigerant of the present disclosure is selected as the tracer.
Examples of tracers include hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorocarbons, fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, fluoroethers, brominated compounds, iodinated compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrous oxide (N_{2}O). The tracer is particularly preferably a hydrofluorocarbon, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon, a chlorofluorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, a hydrochlorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, or a fluoroether.
The following compounds are preferable as the tracer.
FC14 (tetrafluoromethane, CF_{4})
HCC40 (chloromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
HFC23 (trifluoromethane, CHF_{3})
HFC41 (fluoromethane, CH_{3}Cl)
HFC125 (pentafluoroethane, CF_{3}CHF_{2})
HFC134a (1,1,1,2tetrafluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{2}F)
HFC134 (1,1,2,2tetrafluoroethane, CHF_{2}CHF_{2})
HFC143a (1,1,1trifluoroethane, CF_{3}CH_{3})
HFC143 (1,1,2trifluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{2}F)
HFC152a (1,1difluoroethane, CHF_{2}CH_{3})
HFC152 (1,2difluoroethane, CH_{2}FCH_{2}F)
HFC161 (fluoroethane, CH_{3}CH_{2}F)
HFC245fa (1,1,1,3,3pentafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CHF_{2})
HFC236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CH_{2}CF_{3})
HFC236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3hexafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCHF_{2})
HFC227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3heptafluoropropane, CF_{3}CHFCF_{3})
HCFC22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF_{2})
HCFC31 (chlorofluoromethane, CH_{2}ClF)
CFC1113 (chlorotrifluoroethylene, CF_{2}═CClF)
HFE125 (trifluoromethyldifluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCHF_{2})
HFE134a (trifluoromethylfluoromethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}F)
HFE143a (trifluoromethylmethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{3})
HFE227ea (trifluoromethyltetrafluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCHFCF_{3})
HFE236fa (trifluoromethyltrifluoroethyl ether, CF_{3}OCH_{2}CF_{3})
The tracer compound may be present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 10 parts per million (ppm) to about 1000 ppm. Preferably, the tracer compound is present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 30 ppm to about 500 ppm, and most preferably, the tracer compound is present at a total concentration of about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm.
(33) Ultraviolet Fluorescent DyeThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single ultraviolet fluorescent dye, or two or more ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.
Examples of ultraviolet fluorescent dyes include naphthalimide, coumarin, anthracene, phenanthrene, xanthene, thioxanthene, naphthoxanthene, fluorescein, and derivatives thereof. The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is particularly preferably either naphthalimide or coumarin, or both.
(34) StabilizerThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single stabilizer, or two or more stabilizers.
The stabilizer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used stabilizers.
Examples of stabilizers include nitro compounds, ethers, and amines.
Examples of nitro compounds include aliphatic nitro compounds, such as nitromethane and nitroethane; and aromatic nitro compounds, such as nitro benzene and nitro styrene.
Examples of ethers include 1,4dioxane.
Examples of amines include 2,2,3,3,3pentafluoropropylamine and diphenylamine.
Examples of stabilizers also include butylhydroxyxylene and benzotriazole.
The content of the stabilizer is not limited. Generally, the content of the stabilizer is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(35) Polymerization InhibitorThe refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single polymerization inhibitor, or two or more polymerization inhibitors.
The polymerization inhibitor is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used polymerization inhibitors.
Examples of polymerization inhibitors include 4methoxy1naphthol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone methyl ether, dimethyltbutylphenol, 2,6ditertbutylpcresol, and benzotriazole.
The content of the polymerization inhibitor is not limited. Generally, the content of the polymerization inhibitor is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.
(4) Refrigeration OilContaining Working FluidThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant or refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure and a refrigeration oil, for use as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine. Specifically, the refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure is obtained by mixing a refrigeration oil used in a compressor of a refrigerating machine with the refrigerant or the refrigerant composition. The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid generally comprises 10 to 50 mass % of refrigeration oil.
(41) Refrigeration OilThe refrigeration oil is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used refrigeration oils. In this case, refrigeration oils that are superior in the action of increasing the miscibility with the mixture and the stability of the mixture, for example, are suitably selected as necessary.
The base oil of the refrigeration oil is preferably, for example, at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE), and polyvinyl ethers (PVE).
The refrigeration oil may further contain additives in addition to the base oil. The additive may be at least one member selected from the group consisting of antioxidants, extremepressure agents, acid scavengers, oxygen scavengers, copper deactivators, rust inhibitors, oil agents, and antifoaming agents.
A refrigeration oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 400 cSt at 40° C. is preferable from the standpoint of lubrication.
The refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may further optionally contain at least one additive. Examples of additives include compatibilizing agents described below.
(42) Compatibilizing AgentThe refrigeration oilcontaining working fluid according to the present disclosure may comprise a single compatibilizing agent, or two or more compatibilizing agents.
The compatibilizing agent is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used compatibilizing agents.
Examples of compatibilizing agents include polyoxyalkylene glycol ethers, amides, nitriles, ketones, chlorocarbons, esters, lactones, aryl ethers, fluoroethers, and 1,1,1trifluoroalkanes. The compatibilizing agent is particularly preferably a polyoxyalkylene glycol ether.
(5) Various RefrigerantsHereinafter, the refrigerants A to E, which are the refrigerants used in the present embodiment, will be described in detail.
In addition, each description of the following refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E is each independent. The alphabet which shows a point or a line segment, the number of an Examples, and the number of a comparative examples are all independent of each other among the refrigerant A, the refrigerant B, the refrigerant C, the refrigerant D, and the refrigerant E. For example, the first embodiment of the refrigerant A and the first embodiment of the refrigerant B are different embodiment from each other.
(51) Refrigerant AThe refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising HFO1132(E) and R1234yf, and optionally further comprising HFO1123, and may further satisfy the following requirements. This refrigerant also has various properties desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e., it has a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant A is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CG);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant A has a WCF lower flammability according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant exhibits a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition and the WCFF composition have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more, furthermore, the refrigerant has a condensation temperature glide of 1° C. or less.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x^{2}−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x^{2}−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more furthermore, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO that connect the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point o (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO (excluding the points O and h);
the line segment dg is represented by coordinates
(0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment gh is represented by coordinates
(−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments hO and Od are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0) or
on the line segments lg, gh, and il (excluding the points h and i);
the line segment lg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments hi and il are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect
the following 4 points:
point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, de, and ef (excluding the points O and f);
the line segment de is represented by coordinates
(0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0064z^{2}1.1565z+65.501, 0.0064z^{2}+0.1565z+34.499, z), and
the line segments fO and Od are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments le, ef, fi, and il that connect the following 4 points:
point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0),
or on the line segments le, ef, and il (excluding the points f and i);
the line segment le is represented by coordinates (0.0047y^{2}−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y^{2}+0.5177y+12.402),
the line segment ef is represented by coordinates
(−0.0134z^{2}−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z^{2}+0.0825z+43.308, z), and
the line segments fi and il are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oa, ab, bc, and cO that connect the following 4 points:
point a (93.4, 0.0, 6.6),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8),
point c (77.6, 22.4, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Oa, ab, and bc (excluding the points O and c);
the line segment ab is represented by coordinates
(0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, −0.0052y^{2}+0.5588y+6.615),
the line segment bc is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
the line segments cO and Oa are straight lines.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments kb, bj, and jk that connect the following 3 points:
point k (72.5, 14.1, 13.4),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8), and
point j (72.5, 23.2, 4.3),
or on the line segments kb, bj, and jk;
the line segment kb is represented by coordinates
(0.0052y^{2}−1.5588y+93.385, y, and −0.0052y^{2}+0.5588y+6.615),
the line segment bj is represented by coordinates
(−0.0032z^{2}−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z^{2}+0.1791z+22.407, z), and
the line segment jk is a straight line.
When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant A)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant A. However, refrigerant A is not limited to the Examples.
The GWP of R1234yf and a composition consisting of a mixed refrigerant R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of R410A and compositions each comprising a mixture of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Further, the RCL of the mixture was calculated with the LFL of HFO1132(E) being 4.7 vol. %, the LFL of HFO1123 being 10 vol. %, and the LFL of R1234yf being 6.2 vol. %, in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard 342013.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 1 to 34 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
These results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x^{2}−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x^{2}−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x^{2}−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A,
and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment AA′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A, Example 1, and point A′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment A′B was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A′, Example 3, and point B by the least square method.
The point on the line segment DC′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point D, Example 6, and point C′ by the least square method.
The point on the line segment C′C was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point C′, Example 4, and point C by the least square method.
Likewise, the results indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BF, FT, TE, EO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2),
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
point E (58.0, 42.0, 0.0) and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line EO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x^{2}−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x^{2}−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x^{2}−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x^{2}+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x^{2}−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x^{2}−0.2499x+38.2), and
the line segment TE is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x^{2}−0.7607x+63.525, −0.0067x^{2}−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments BF, FO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The point on the line segment FT was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points T, E′, and F, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment TE was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points E, R, and T, by the least square method.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which the sum of these components is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segment LM connecting point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0) and point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m^{3 }or more.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123 and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment QR connecting point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6) and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9) or on the left side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a temperature glide of 1° C. or less.
The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment ST connecting point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1) and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3) or on the right side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or less relative to that of 410A.
In these compositions, R1234yf contributes to reducing flammability, and suppressing deterioration of polymerization etc. Therefore, the composition preferably contains R1234yf.
Further, the burning velocity of these mixed refrigerants whose mixed formulations were adjusted to WCF concentrations was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Compositions having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Each WCFF concentration was obtained by using the WCF concentration as the initial concentration and performing a leak simulation using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0.
Tables 35 and 36 show the results.
The results in Table 35 clearly indicate that when a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf contains HFO1132(E) in a proportion of 72.0 mass % or less based on their sum, the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability.
The results in Tables 36 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, and a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segments JP, PN, and NK connecting the following 6 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1,31.9,5.0)
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1)
point N′ (65.0, 7.7, 27.3) and
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability, and a WCFF lower flammability.
In the diagram, the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.113 5x^{2}+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x^{2}−13.112x+380.43),
and the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x^{2}−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x^{2}+28.955x−831.91).
The point on the line segment PN was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points P, L, and N, by the least square method.
The point on the line segment NK was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points N, N′, and K, by the least square method.
(52) Refrigerant BThe refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is
a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % or 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant, or
a mixed refrigerant comprising HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., (1) a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A, (2) a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, (3) a sufficiently low GWP, and (4) a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising 72.0 mass % or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising 47.1% or less of HFO1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability and WCFF lower flammability, and is determined to be “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard, and which is further easier to handle.
When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 62.0 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 45.1 mass % or more of HFO1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO1132(E) and/or HFO1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved.
The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.75 mass % or more, and more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant B)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant B. However, the refrigerant B is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 37 and 38.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
Tables 1 and 2 show GWP, COP, and refrigerating capacity, which were calculated based on these results. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The compositions each comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A. Moreover, compositions each comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCFF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A.
(53) Refrigerant CThe refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), and satisfies the following requirements. The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e. it has a coefficient of performance and a refrigerating capacity that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.
RequirementsPreferable refrigerant C is as follows:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and further ensures a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A. Additionally, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability and a WCFF lower flammability, and is classified as “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard.
When the refrigerant C according to the present disclosure further contains R32 in addition to HFO1132 (E), HFO1123, and R1234yf, the refrigerant may be a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.02a^{2}−2.46a+93.4, 0, −0.02a^{2}+2.46a+6.6),
point b′ (−0.008a^{2}−1.38a+56, 0.018a^{2}−0.53a+26.3, −0.01a^{2}+1.91a+17.7),
point c (−0.016a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.016a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0)
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c);
if 10.0<a≤16.5, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0244a^{2}−2.5695a+94.056, 0, −0.0244a^{2}+2.5695a+5.944),
point b′ (0.1161a^{2}−1.9959a+59.749, 0.014a^{2}−0.3399a+24.8, −0.1301a^{2}+2.3358a+15.451),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+1.02a+77.6, 0.0161a^{2}−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c); or
if 16.5<a≤21.8, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:
point a (0.0161a^{2}−2.3535a+92.742, 0, −0.0161a^{2}+2.3535a+7.258),
point b′ (−0.0435a^{2}−0.0435a+50.406, 0.0304a^{2}+1.8991a−0.0661, 0.0739a^{2}−1.8556a+49.6601),
point c (−0.0161a^{2}+0.9959a+77.851, 0.0161a^{2}−0.9959a+22.149, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c). Note that when point b in the ternary composition diagram is defined as a point where a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A and a COP ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A are both achieved, point b′ is the intersection of straight line ab and an approximate line formed by connecting the points where the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 95%. When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure meets the above requirements, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant C)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant C. However, the refrigerant C is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 39 to 96.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
For each of these mixed refrigerants, the COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to those of R410 were obtained. Calculation was conducted under the following conditions.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 39 to 96 show the resulting values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.
The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.
COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption
The above results indicate that the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass %, a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) is on the left side, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0134a^{2}−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a^{2}+0.9681a+31.4) and point B (0.0, 0.0144a^{2}−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a^{2}+0.6377a+41.3);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0112a^{2}−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a^{2}+0.9337a+31.516) and point B (0.0, 0.0075a^{2}−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a^{2}+0.5156a+41.801);
if 18.2a<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0107a^{2}−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a^{2}+0.9142a+31.695) and point B (0.0, 0.009a^{2}−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a^{2}+0.6045a+40.682);
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0103a^{2}−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a^{2}+0.9225a+31.207) and point B (0.0, 0.0046a^{2}−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a^{2}+0.41a+42.714); and
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0085a^{2}−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a^{2}+0.8102a+32.9) and point B (0.0, 0.0012a^{2}−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a^{2}+0.1659a+47.05).
Actual points having a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more form a curved line that connects point A and point B in
Similarly, it was also found that in the ternary composition diagram, if 0<a≤11.1, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on, or on the left side of, a straight line D′C that connects point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a^{2}+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a^{2}−1.968a+24.6) and point C (−0.2304a^{2}−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a^{2}−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0); or if 11.1<a≤46.7, when coordinates are in the entire region, the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 92.5% or more.
In
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results are shown in Tables 97 to 104.
The results in Tables 97 to 100 indicate that the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0) and point I (0.026a^{2}−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a^{2}+0.7478a+28.0);
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0) and point I (0.02a^{2}−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a^{2}+0.6013a+28.895); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0) and point I (0.0135a^{2}−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a^{2}+0.4068a+30.273); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0) and point I (0.0111a^{2}−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a^{2}+0.3152a+31.014); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098,0.0) and point I (0.0061a^{2}−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a^{2}−0.0082a+36.098).
Three points corresponding to point G (Table 105) and point I (Table 106) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
The results in Tables 101 to 104 indicate that the refrigerant is determined to have a WCFF lower flammability, and the flammability classification according to the ASHRAE Standard is “2L (flammability)” in the following cases:
When the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0049a^{2}−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a^{2}−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0) and point K′(0.0514a^{2}−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a^{2}+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a^{2}+1.0231a+32.4); if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates are on a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0243a^{2}−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a^{2}+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0) and point K′(0.0341a^{2}−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a^{2}+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a^{2}+0.8577a+33.177); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0246a^{2}−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a^{2}+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0) and point K′ (0.0196a^{2}−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a^{2}−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a^{2}+0.8999a+32.783); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0183a^{2}−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a^{2}+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0) and point K′ (−0.0051a^{2}+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a^{2}−1.0929a+74.05); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (−0.0134a^{2}+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a^{2}−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0) and point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557).
Actual points having a WCFF lower flammability form a curved line that connects point J and point K′ (on the straight line AB) in
Three points corresponding to point J (Table 107) and point K′ (Table 108) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.
Points A, B, C, and D′ were obtained in the following manner according to approximate calculation.
Point A is a point where the content of HFO1123 is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved. Three points corresponding to point A were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 109).
Point B is a point where the content of HFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point B were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 110).
Point D′ is a point where the content of HFO1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point D′ were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 111).
Point C is a point where the content of R1234yf is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.
Three points corresponding to point C were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 112).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant; i.e., a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, a sufficiently low GWP, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point c (36.5, 18.2, 45.3),
point f (47.6, 18.3, 34.1), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ac is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2}−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
the line segment fd is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
the line segments cf and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:
point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point b (42.6, 14.5, 42.9),
point e (51.4, 14.6, 34.0), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0181y^{2}−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y^{2}+1.2288y+28.904);
the line segment ed is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y^{2}+0.7y+28); and
the line segments be and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 100 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point i (55.1, 18.3, 26.6), and
point j (77.5. 18.4, 4.1),
or on these line segments;
the line segment gi is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
the line segments ij and jg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:
point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point h (61.8, 14.6, 23.6), and
point k (77.5, 14.6, 7.9),
or on these line segments;
the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (0.02y^{2}−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y^{2}+1.4583y+6.604); and
the line segments hk and kg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.
The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant D)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant D. However, the refrigerant D is not limited to the Examples.
The composition of each mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using the NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
The results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in amounts (mass %) shown in Tables 116 to 144 based on the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf. The coefficient of performance (COP) ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410 of the mixed refrigerants shown in Tables 116 to 144 were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 116 to 144 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI),
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y^{2}−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y^{2}+0.7616y+28.0),
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y^{2}−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y^{2}+0.9003y+41.7), and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines, the refrigerant D has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM),
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y^{2}−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y^{2}+2.34y+47.4),
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y^{2}−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y^{2}+1.2541y+51.02),
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y^{2}−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y^{2}+0.8033y+60.4), and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments,
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y^{2}−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y^{2}−0.3299y+62.488),
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y^{2}−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y^{2}+0.7403y+43.365), and
the line segment UO is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments,
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y^{2}−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y^{2}+0.975y+15.235),
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874),
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y^{2}−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y^{2}−0.1158y+38.512),
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y^{2}−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y^{2}+0.2222y+32.324), and
the line segment TL is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.
The results further indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments,
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y^{2}−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y^{2}−0.2897y+59.9),
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y^{2}−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y^{2}+0.8683y+16.874), and
the line segment TP is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.
(55) Refrigerant EThe refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32).
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410Aalternative refrigerant, i.e., a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A and a sufficiently low GWP.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
(−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z),
the line segments NR and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates
(−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates
(0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates
(−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates
(0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 250 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
point e′ (41.8, 39.8, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments c′d′, d′e′, and e′a′ (excluding the points c′ and a′);
the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates
(−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z),
the line segment d′e′ is represented by coordinates
(−0.0535z^{2}+0.3229z+53.957, 0.0535z^{2}+0.6771z+46.043, z), and
the line segments Oc′, e′a′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5),
point e (72.2, 9.4, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments cd, de, and ea′ (excluding the points c and a′);
the line segment cde is represented by coordinates
(−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and
the line segments Oc, ea′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments c′d′ and d′a (excluding the points c′ and a);
the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates
(−0.0297z^{2}−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z^{2}+1.1915z+43.3, z), and
the line segments Oc′, d′a, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein
when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments cd and da (excluding the points c and a);
the line segment cd is represented by coordinates
(−0.017z^{2}+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z^{2}+0.9852z+22.316, z), and
the line segments Oc, da, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.
The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and even more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.
Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.
(Examples of Refrigerant E)The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant E. However, the refrigerant E is not limited to the Examples.
Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 145 and 146.
The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions for equipment, storage, shipping, leak, and recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 342013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.
For each mixed refrigerant, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 342013. When the burning velocities of the WCF composition and the WCFF composition are 10 cm/s or less, the flammability of such a refrigerant is classified as Class 2L (lower flammability) in the ASHRAE flammability classification.
A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in
Tables 145 and 146 show the results.
The results in Table 1 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments IK and KL that connect the following 3 points:
point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), and
point L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
(0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z^{2}+0.7429z+28.00, z), and
the line segment KL is represented by coordinates
(0.0098z^{2}−1.238z+67.852, −0.0098z^{2}+0.238z+32.148, z),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has WCF lower flammability.
For the points on the line segment IK, an approximate curve (x=0.025z^{2}1.7429z+72.00) was obtained from three points, i.e., I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), and K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates
(x=0.025z^{2}−1.7429z+72.00, y=100−z−x=−0.00922z^{2}+0.2114z+32.443, z).
Likewise, for the points on the line segment KL, an approximate curve was determined from three points, i.e., K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), Example 10 (41.1, 31.2, 27.7), and L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0) by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The results in Table 146 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments MP and PQ that connect the following 3 points:
point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), and
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has ASHRAE lower flammability.
In the above, the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z^{2}−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z^{2}−0.016z+52.9, z), and the line segment PQ is represented by coordinates
(0.0135z^{2}−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z^{2}−0.0819z+55.867, z).
For the points on the line segment MP, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points M, N, and P, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates. For the points on the line segment PQ, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points P, U, and Q, by using the leastsquare method to determine coordinates.
The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.
The COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity (which may be referred to as “cooling capacity” or “capacity”) ratio relative to those of R410 of the mixed refrigerants were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.
Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%
Tables 147 to 166 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.
The above results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A″ (63.0, 0.0, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments, the refrigerant has a GWP of 250 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 125 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
point B (0.0, 90.5, 9.5), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 65 or less.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point C (50.0, 31.6, 18.4),
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), and
point D (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment CU is represented by coordinates (−0.0538z^{2}+0.7888z+53.701, 0.0538z^{2}−1.7888z+46.299, z), and the line segment UD is represented by coordinates
(−3.4962z^{2}+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z^{2}−211.71z+3246.1, z).
The points on the line segment CU are determined from three points, i.e., point C, Comparative Example 10, and point U, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment UD are determined from three points, i.e., point U, Example 2, and point D, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point E (55.2, 44.8, 0.0),
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), and
point F (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment ET is represented by coordinates (−0.0547z^{2}−0.5327z+53.4, 0.0547z^{2}−0.4673z+46.6, z), and the line segment TF is represented by coordinates
(−0.0982z^{2}+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z^{2}−1.9622z+59.069, z).
The points on the line segment ET are determined from three points, i.e., point E, Example 2, and point T, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment TF are determined from three points, i.e., points T, S, and F, by using the leastsquare method.
The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:
point G (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
point R (21.0, 69.5, 9.5), and
point H (0.0, 85.9, 14.1),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A.
In the above, the line segment GR is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z^{2}−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z^{2}+0.1544z+61.5, z), and the line segment RH is represented by coordinates
(−0.3123z^{2}+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z^{2}−5.234z+88.94, z).
The points on the line segment GR are determined from three points, i.e., point G, Example 5, and point R, by using the leastsquare method.
The points on the line segment RH are determined from three points, i.e., point R, Example 7, and point H, by using the leastsquare method.
In contrast, as shown in, for example, Comparative Examples 8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 18, when R32 is not contained, the concentrations of HFO1132(E) and HFO1123, which have a double bond, become relatively high; this undesirably leads to deterioration, such as decomposition, or polymerization in the refrigerant compound.
(6) First EmbodimentHere, the air conditioning apparatus 1 is installed in a twostory house 100. The house 100 includes rooms 101 and 102 on the first floor and rooms 103 and 104 on the second floor. The house 100 includes a basement 105.
The air conditioning apparatus 1 is a socalled duct air conditioning system. The air conditioning apparatus 1 includes an indoor unit 2 that is a useside unit, an outdoor unit 3 that is a heatsourceside unit, refrigerant connection pipes 306 and 307, and a first duct 209 that sends air that has been airconditioned at the indoor unit 2 to the rooms 101 to 104. The first duct 209 branches into the rooms 101 to 104, and the branching portions are connected to ventilation ports 101a to 104a of the corresponding rooms 101 to 104. For convenience of explanation, the indoor unit 2, the outdoor unit 3, and the refrigerant connection pipes 306 and 307 are considered together as air conditioning equipment 80. The indoor unit 2 that is a useside unit and the outdoor unit 3 that is a heatsource unit are different members.
In
In this way, the indoor unit 2 includes the gas furnace unit 205 that constitutes the different heat source section 270 in addition to the members that constitute the heat pump section 360. The indoor unit 2 also includes an indoor fan 240 for introducing air in the rooms 101 to 104 into a casing 230 and supplying air that has been airconditioned at the heat pump section 360 and the different heat source section 270 (the gas furnace unit 205) into the rooms 101 to 104. The indoor unit 2 is provided with a blowout air temperature sensor 233 that detects a blowout air temperature Trd that is the temperature of air in an air outlet 231 of the casing 230 and an indoor temperature sensor 234 that detects an indoor temperature Tr that is the temperature of air in an air inlet 232 of the casing 230. The indoor temperature sensor 234 may be provided in the rooms 101 to 104 instead of in the indoor unit 2. A second duct 210 is connected to the air inlet 232 of the casing 230. The indoor unit 2 that is a useside unit includes the casing 230 and equipment that is accommodated therein. The indoor unit 2 is configured to guide indoor air F1 that is first air introduced from the interior to an indoor heat exchanger 242 that is a useside heat exchanger.
(61) Heat Pump Section 360
In the heat pump section 360 of the air conditioning equipment 80, a refrigerant circuit 320 is formed by connecting the indoor unit 2 and the outdoor unit 3 via the refrigerant connection pipes 306 and 307. The refrigerant connection pipes 306 and 307 are refrigerant pipes that are constructed at a site when installing the air conditioning equipment 80.
The indoor unit 2 is installed in the basement 105 of the house 100. The location of installation of the indoor unit 2 is not limited to the basement 105, and may be other locations in the interior. The indoor unit 2 includes the indoor heat exchanger 242 that serves as a refrigerant heat dissipater that heats air by heat dissipation of a refrigerant in a refrigeration cycle, and an indoor expansion valve 241.
At the time of a cooling operation, the indoor expansion valve 241 decompresses a refrigerant that circulates in the refrigerant circuit 320 and causes the refrigerant to flow to the indoor heat exchanger 242. Here, the indoor expansion valve 241 is an electric expansion valve that is connected to a liquid side of the indoor heat exchanger 242.
The indoor heat exchanger 242 is disposed closest to a downwind side in a ventilation path extending from the air inlet 232, formed in the casing 230, to the air outlet 231, formed in the casing 230.
The outdoor unit 3 is installed outside the house 100. The outdoor unit 3 includes a compressor 321, an outdoor heat exchanger 323, an outdoor expansion valve 324, and a fourway valve 328. The compressor 321 is a hermetic compressor in which a compression element (not shown) and a compressor motor 322 that rotationally drives the compression element are accommodated in a casing.
The compressor motor 322 is configured so that electric power is supplied thereto via an inverter device (not shown), and an operating capacity can be varied by changing the frequency (that is, the number of rotations) of the inverter device.
The outdoor heat exchanger 323 is a heat exchanger that functions as a refrigerant evaporator that evaporates a refrigerant in a refrigeration cycle by using outdoor air. An outdoor fan 325 for sending outdoor air to the outdoor heat exchanger 323 is provided in the vicinity of the outdoor heat exchanger 323. The outdoor fan 325 is rotationally driven by an outdoor fan motor 326.
At the time of a heating operation, the outdoor expansion valve 324 decompresses a refrigerant that circulates in the refrigerant circuit 320 and causes the refrigerant to flow to the outdoor heat exchanger 323. Here, the outdoor expansion valve 324 is an electric expansion valve that is connected to a liquid side of the outdoor heat exchanger 323. The outdoor unit 3 is provided with an outdoor temperature sensor 327 that detects the temperature of outdoor air that exists at the outside of the house 100, where the outdoor unit 3 is disposed, that is, an outside air temperature Ta.
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit 320 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and any one of the refrigerants A to E above may be used.
The fourway valve 328 is a valve that switches the direction of flow of a refrigerant. At the time of the cooling operation, the fourway valve 328 connects a discharge side of the compressor 321 and a gas side of the outdoor heat exchanger 323, and connects a suction side of the compressor 321 and the gas refrigerant connection pipe 307 (a cooling operation state: refer to the solid line of the fourway valve 328 in
At the time of the heating operation, the fourway valve 328 connects the discharge side of the compressor 321 and the gas refrigerant connection pipe 307, and connects the suction side of the compressor 321 and the gas side of the outdoor heat exchanger 323 (a heating operation state: refer to the broken line of the fourway valve 328 in
(62) Outline of Important Structure of Air Conditioning Apparatus 1
When a heat pump heating operation is being performed, in the air conditioning apparatus 1, a refrigerant that contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene circulates in the compressor 321, the indoor heat exchanger 242 that is a useside heat exchanger, and the outdoor heat exchanger 323 that is a heatsourceside heat exchanger to repeat a refrigeration cycle. The indoor heat exchanger 242 causes heat to be exchanged between the indoor air F1 that is the first air, and the refrigerant. The indoor air F1 is supplied to the indoor heat exchanger 242 by the indoor fan 240. Indoor air F3 (the first air) that has been heated in the indoor heat exchanger 242 is sent to each of the rooms 101 to 104 from the indoor unit 2 via the first duct 209 to heat the rooms 101 to 104. The outdoor heat exchanger 323 causes heat to be exchanged between outdoor air that is second air, and the refrigerant. The casing 230 includes a useside space SP2 that is connected to the first duct 209 and that accommodates the indoor heat exchanger 242, and is configured to allow the indoor air F3 that has exchanged heat with the refrigerant at the indoor heat exchanger 242 to be sent out to the first duct 209.
When a different heat source heating operation is being performed, a hightemperature combustion gas that has been sent to a furnace heat exchanger 255 exchanges heat with the indoor air F1 that is supplied by the indoor fan 240, is cooled, and becomes a lowtemperature combustion gas in the furnace heat exchanger 255. The lowtemperature combustion gas is discharged from the gas furnace unit 205 via a discharge pipe 257. On the other hand, the indoor air F2 that has been heated in the furnace heat exchanger 255 is sent to each of the rooms 101 to 104 from the indoor unit 2 via the first duct 209 to heat the rooms 101 to 104.
(63) Different Heat Source Section 270
The different heat source section 270 is constituted by the gas furnace unit 205 that is a part of the indoor unit 2 of the air conditioning equipment 80.
The gas furnace unit 205 is provided in the casing 230 that is installed in the basement 105 of the house 100. The gas furnace unit 205 is a gascombustion heating device, and includes a fuel gas valve 251, a furnace fan 252, a combustion section 254, the furnace heat exchanger 255, an air supply pipe 256, and the discharge pipe 257.
The fuel gas valve 251 is, for example, an electromagnetic valve whose opening and closing are controllable, and is provided at a fuel gas supply pipe 258 that extends to the combustion section 254 from the outside of the casing 230. As the fuel gas, for example, natural gas or petroleum gas is used.
The furnace fan 252 is a fan that generates an airflow in which air is introduced into the combustion section 254 via the air supply pipe 256, then, the air is sent to the furnace heat exchanger 255, and the air is discharged from the discharge pipe 257. The furnace fan 252 is rotationally driven by a furnace fan motor 253.
The combustion section 254 is equipment that acquires a hightemperature combustion gas by igniting a mixed gas containing fuel gas and air by, for example, a gas burner (not shown).
The furnace heat exchanger 255 is a heat exchanger that heats air by heat dissipation of the combustion gas acquired at the combustion section 254, and functions as a different heat source heat dissipater that heats air by heat dissipation by using a heat source (here, heat by gas combustion) differing from that of the heat pump section 360.
The furnace heat exchanger 255 is disposed on an upwind side with respect to the indoor heat exchanger 242, serving as a refrigerant dissipater, in the ventilation path from the air inlet 232, formed in the casing 230, to the air outlet 231, formed in the casing 230.
(64) Indoor Fan 240
The indoor fan 240 is a fan for supplying air that is heated by the indoor heat exchanger 242, serving as a refrigerant heat dissipater, that constitutes the heat pump section 360 and by the furnace heat exchanger 255, serving as a different heat source dissipater, that constitutes the different heat source section 270 into the rooms 101 to 104.
In the ventilation path extending from the air inlet 232, formed in the casing 230, to the air outlet 231, formed in the casing 230, the indoor fan 240 is disposed on the upwind side with respect to both the indoor heat exchanger 242 and the furnace heat exchanger 255. The indoor fan 240 includes a blade 243 and a fan motor 244 that rotationally drives the blade 243.
(65) Controller 30
The indoor unit 2 is provided with an indoorside control board 21 that controls the operation of each portion of the indoor unit 2. The outdoor unit 3 is provided with an outdoorside control board 31 that controls the operation of each portion of the outdoor unit 3. The indoorside control board 21 and the outdoorside control board 31 each include, for example, a microcomputer, and each exchange, for example, control signals with a thermostat 40. Control signals are not exchanged between the indoorside control board 21 and the outdoorside control board 31. A control device including the indoorside control board 21 and the outdoorside control board 31 is called a controller 30.
(66) Detailed Structure of Controller 30
A transformer 20 applies a voltage of a commercial power source 90 after transformation to a usable low voltage to each of the indoor unit 2, the outdoor unit 3, and the thermostat 40 via power source lines 81 and 82.
(7) Second Embodiment(71) Overall Structure
As shown in
(72) External Appearance of Air Conditioning Apparatus 701
A bottom plate 735 having a first opening 731 and a second opening 732 is mounted on the bottom surface 730f of the casing 730. As shown in
(73) Internal Structure of Air Conditioning Apparatus 701
(731) HeatSourceSide Space SP1 and UseSide Space SP2 in Casing 730
The heatsource space SP1 and the useside space SP2 are separated by a partition plate 739. Outdoor air flows to the heatsourceside space SP1 and indoor air flows to the useside space SP2. By separating the heatsource space SP1 and the useside space SP2 by the partition plate 739, the flow of air between the heatsource space SP1 and the useside space SP2 is blocked. Therefore, in an ordinary state, the indoor air and the outdoor air do not mix in the casing 730 and the interior and the exterior do not communicate with each other via the air conditioning apparatus 701.
(732) Structure in HeatSourceSide Space SP1
The heatsourceside space SP1 accommodates, in addition to the heatsourceside fan 747, a compressor 741, a fourway valve 742, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, and an accumulator 746. The heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 includes a plurality of heattransfer tubes (not shown) in which a refrigerant flows, and a plurality of heattransfer fins (not shown) in which air flows between gaps thereof. The plurality of heattransfer tubes are arranged in an updown direction (hereunder may be referred to as “row direction”), and each heattransfer tube extends in a direction substantially orthogonal to the updown direction (in a substantially horizontal direction). The plurality of heattransfer tubes are arranged in a plurality of columns in order from a side close to the casing 730. At an end portion of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, for example, the heattransfer tubes are connected to each other by being bent into a U shape or by using a Ushaped tube so that the flow of a refrigerant from a certain column to another column and/or a certain row to another row is turned back. The plurality of heattransfer fins that extend so as to be long in the updown direction are arranged side by side in a direction in which the heattransfer tubes extend with a predetermined interval between the plurality of heattransfer fins. The plurality of heattransfer fins and the plurality of heattransfer tubes are assembled to each other so that each heattransfer fin extends through the plurality of heattransfer tubes. The plurality of heattransfer fins are also disposed in a plurality of columns.
In top view, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 has a C shape, and is disposed opposite to the front surface 730b, the left surface 730d, and the rear surface 730e of the casing 730. A portion that is not surrounded by the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 is a portion that is opposite to the partition plate 739. Side end portions that are two ends of the C shape are disposed near the partition plate 739, and a portion between the two end portions of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 and the partition plate 739 is closed by a metal plate (not shown) that blocks air passage. The height of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 is substantially the same as the height from the bottom surface 730f to the upper surface 730a of the casing 730. Due to such a structure, a flow path of air that enters from the slits 734, passes through the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, and exits from the third opening 733 is formed. When outdoor air sucked into the heatsourceside space SP1 via the slits 734 passes through the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, the outdoor air exchanges heat with a refrigerant that flows in the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743. Air after the heat exchange by the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 is discharged to the outside of the casing 730 from the third opening 733 by the heatsourceside fan 747.
(733) Structure in UseSide Space SP2
An expansion valve 744, a useside heat exchanger 745, and a useside fan 748 are disposed in the useside space SP2. As the useside fan 748, for example, a centrifugal fan is used. As a centrifugal fan, for example, a sirocco fan exists. The expansion valve 744 may be disposed in the heatsourceside space SP1. As shown in
The useside heat exchanger 745 includes a plurality of heattransfer tubes 745a (see
The useside heat exchanger 745 has a shape that is short in the frontrear direction and long in the updown direction and the leftright direction. A drain pan 752 has a shape like a shape formed by removing an upper surface of a parallelepiped that extends so as to be long in the leftright direction. In top view, the drain pan 752 has a frontreardirection dimension that is longer than a frontrear length of the useside heat exchanger 745. The useside heat exchanger 745 is fitted in such a drain pan 752. The drain pan 752 receives dew condensation water that is produced at the useside heat exchanger 745 and that falls dropwise downward. The drain pan 752 extends to the partition plate 739 from the right surface 730c of the casing 730. A drainage port 752a of the drain pan 752 extends through the right surface 730c of the casing 730, and the dew condensation water received by the drain pan 752 passes through the drainage port 752a and is caused to drain away to the outside of the casing 730.
The useside heat exchanger 745 extends up to the vicinity of the partition plate 739 from the vicinity of the right surface 730c of the casing 730. A portion between the right surface 730c of the casing 730 and a right portion 745c of the useside heat exchanger 745 and a portion between the partition plate 739 and a left portion 745d of the useside heat exchanger 745 are closed by metal plates. The drain pan 752 is supported by a support frame 736 at a height h1 from the bottom plate 735 so as to be upwardly separated from the bottom plate 735. A support of the useside heat exchanger 745 includes rodshaped frame members combined around the upper, lower, left, and right sides of the useside heat exchanger 745, and is helped by an auxiliary frame 753 that is directly or indirectly fixed to the casing 730 and the partition plate 739. A portion between the useside heat exchanger 745 and the upper surface 730a of the casing 730 is closed by the useside heat exchanger 745 itself or the auxiliary frame 753. An opening portion between the useside heat exchanger 745 and the bottom plate 735 is closed by the support base 751 and the drain pan 752.
In this way, the useside heat exchanger 745 divides the useside space SP2 into a space on an upstream side with respect to the useside heat exchanger 745 and a space on a downstream side with respect to the useside heat exchanger 745. All air that flows to the downstream side from the upstream side with respect to the useside heat exchanger 745 passes through the useside heat exchanger 745. The useside fan 748 is disposed in the space on the downstream side with respect to the useside heat exchanger 745 and causes an airflow that passes through the useside heat exchanger 745 to be generated. The support base 751 that has been already described further divides the space on the downstream side with respect to the useside heat exchanger 745 into a space on a suction side of the useside fan 748 and a space on a blowout side of the useside fan 748.
(734) Refrigerant Circuit
The refrigerant circuit 711 includes the compressor 741, the fourway valve 742, the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, the expansion valve 744, the useside heat exchanger 745, and the accumulator 746. The fourway valve 742 is switched to a connection state indicated by a solid line at the time of the cooling operation, and is switched to a connection state indicated by a broken line at the time of the heating operation.
At the time of the cooling operation, a gas refrigerant compressed by the compressor 741 passes through the fourway valve 742 and is sent to the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743. The refrigerant dissipates heat to outdoor air at the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, passes along a refrigerant pipe 712, and is sent to the expansion valve 744. At the expansion valve 744, the refrigerant expands and is decompressed, passes along the refrigerant pipe 712, and is sent to the useside heat exchanger 745. A refrigerant having a low temperature and a low pressure sent from the expansion valve 744 exchanges heat at the useside heat exchanger 745, and takes away heat from indoor air. The air cooled by having its heat taken away at the useside heat exchanger 745 passes through the first duct 721 and is supplied to the rooms 810. The gas refrigerant after the heat exchange at the useside heat exchanger 745 or a gasliquid twophase refrigerant passes through a refrigerant pipe 713, the fourway valve 742, and the accumulator 746, and is sucked into the compressor 741.
At the time of the heating operation, a gas refrigerant compressed at the compressor 741 passes through the fourway valve 742 and the refrigerant pipe 713 and is sent to the useside heat exchanger 745. The refrigerant exchanges heat with indoor air at the useside heat exchanger 745 and applies heat to the indoor air. The air heated by the application of heat at the useside heat exchanger 745 passes through the first duct 721 and is supplied to the rooms 810. The refrigerant after the heat exchange at the useside heat exchanger 745 passes along the refrigerant pipe 712 and is sent to the expansion valve 744. A refrigerant having a low temperature and a low pressure that has expanded and that has been decompressed at the expansion valve 744 passes along the refrigerant pipe 712, is sent to the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, exchanges heat at the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, and acquires heat from outdoor air. The gas refrigerant after the heat exchange at the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 or a gasliquid twophase refrigerant passes through the fourway valve 742 and the accumulator 746, and is sucked into the compressor 741.
(735) Control System
For controlling the air conditioning apparatus 701, a plurality of temperature sensors for measuring the temperature of a refrigerant at each portion of the refrigerant circuit 711 and/or a pressure sensor that measures the pressure of each portion and a temperature sensor for measuring the air temperature of each location are provided.
The main controller 760 performs at least on/off control of the compressor 741, on/off control of the heatsourceside fan 747, and on/off control of the useside fan 748. When any or all of the compressor 741, the heatsourceside fan 747, and the useside fan 748 include a motor of a type whose number of rotations is changeable, the main controller 760 may be configured to be capable of controlling the number of rotations of the motor or motors whose number of rotations is changeable among the motors of the compressor 741, the heatsourceside fan 747, and the useside fan 748. In this case, the main controller 760 can control the circulation amount of the refrigerant that flows through the refrigerant circuit 711 by changing the number of rotations of the motor of the compressor 741. The main controller 760 can change the flow rate of outdoor air that flows between the heattransfer fins of the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 by changing the number of rotations of the motor of the heatsourceside fan 747. The main controller 760 can change the flow rate of indoor air that flows between the heattransfer fins of the useside heat exchanger 745 by changing the number of rotations of the motor of the useside fan 748.
A refrigerant leakage sensor 761 is connected to the main controller 760. When the concentration of a refrigerant gas that has leaked into air becomes greater than or equal to a detected lower limit concentration, the refrigerant leakage sensor 761 sends a signal indicating the detection of the leakage of the gas refrigerant to the main controller 760.
The main controller 760 is realized by, for example, a computer. The computer that constitutes the main controller 760 includes a control calculation device and a storage device. For the control calculation device, a processor such as a CPU or a GPU may be used. The control calculation device reads a program that is stored in the storage device and performs a predetermined image processing operation and a computing processing operation in accordance with the program. Further, the control calculation device writes a calculated result to the storage device and reads information stored in the storage device in accordance with the program. However, the main controller 760 may be formed by using an integrated circuit (IC) that can perform control similar to the control that is performed by using a CPU and a memory. Here, IC includes, for example, LSI (largescale integrated circuit), ASIC (applicationspecific integrated circuit), a gate array, and FPGA (field programmable gate array).
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit 711 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and any one of the refrigerants A to E above may be used.
(8) Third EmbodimentThe air conditioning apparatus 601 includes a compressor 633, an outdoor heat exchanger 634 that is a heatsourceside heat exchanger, an air supply heat exchanger 625 that is a useside heat exchanger, an air supply duct 651 that supplies supply air SA to a plurality of rooms in an interior, a returnair duct 652 that introduces indoor air RA from the interior, a suction duct 653 that introduces outdoor air OA from an exterior, and the casing 621. First air before heat exchange with a refrigerant at the air supply heat exchanger 625 is the outdoor air OA, and first air after the heat exchange with the refrigerant at the air supply heat exchanger 625 is the supply air SA. Outdoor air that is subjected to heat exchange at the outdoor heat exchanger 634 is second air. The outdoor air that is the second air and the outdoor air OA that is the first air differ from each other.
A refrigerant that contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene circulates in the compressor 633, the air supply heat exchanger 625, and the outdoor heat exchanger 634, and a refrigeration cycle is repeated. More specifically, the refrigerant is compressed at the compressor 633, is condensed at the outdoor heat exchanger 634, is decompressed at a capillary tube 636, and is evaporated at the air supply heat exchanger 625. An evaporation valve may be used instead of the capillary tube 636.
A space including an air supply passage 641 and an outside air passage 643 in the casing 621 is a useside space that is connected to the air supply duct 651 and that accommodates the air supply heat exchanger 625. The casing 621 is configured to be capable of allowing the supply air SA (the first air) after the heat exchange with the refrigerant at the air supply heat exchanger 625 to be sent out to the air supply duct 651. The air supply duct 651 is a first duct, and the suction duct 653 is a third duct.
Looking at it differently, the air conditioning apparatus 601 may be regarded as including a useside unit 602 and a heatsourceside unit 603. The useside unit 602 and the heatsourceside unit 603 are different units. The useside unit 602 includes the casing 621, the sensible heat exchanger 622, the air supply heat exchanger 625, an exhaust fan 627, an air supply fan 628, and a humidifier 629. The heatsourceside unit 603 includes the compressor 633, the outdoor heat exchanger 634, and the capillary tube 636. The useside unit 602 is configured to guide the outdoor air OA that is the first air introduced from the exterior to the air supply heat exchanger 625 that is a useside heat exchanger with the casing 621 connected to the suction duct 653 that is the third duct.
The air supply passage 641 and a suction passage 644 are formed closer than the sensible heat exchanger 622 to an indoor side. An exhaust passage 642 and the outside air passage 643 are formed closer than the sensible heat exchanger 622 to an outdoor side. The air supply fan 628 and the humidifier 629 are provided in the air supply passage 641. The exhaust fan 627 is provided in the exhaust passage 642. The air supply heat exchanger 625 is provided in the outside air passage 643. The air supply heat exchanger 625 is connected to the heatsourceside unit 603. The compressor 633, the outdoor heat exchanger 634, and the capillary tube 636 that constitute a refrigerant circuit 610 along with the air supply heat exchanger 625 are provided in the heatsourceside unit 603. The compressor 633, the outdoor heat exchanger 634, and the capillary tube 636 are connected to a refrigerant pipe 645. An outdoor fan (not shown) is provided in parallel with the outdoor heat exchanger 634. In the air conditioning apparatus 601, the indoor air RA is sucked into the suction passage 644 by driving the exhaust fan 627, and the outdoor air OA is sucked into the outside air passage 643 by driving the air supply fan 628. At this time, the outdoor air OA sucked into the outside air passage 643 is cooled and dehumidified at the air supply heat exchanger 625 that functions as an evaporator, and reaches the sensible heat exchanger 622. In the sensible heat exchanger 622, the outdoor air OA exchanges sensible heat with the indoor air RA sucked into the suction passage 644. Due to the sensible heat exchange, the outdoor air OA is kept dehumidified and only its temperature becomes substantially equal to the temperature of the indoor air RA. The outdoor air OA is supplied into the interior as the supply air SA. On the other hand, the indoor air RA cooled at the sensible heat exchanger 622 is discharged to the exterior as exhaust EA.
The air conditioning apparatus 601 of the third embodiment cools the outdoor air OA at the air supply heat exchanger 625. The air cooled at the air supply heat exchanger 625 reaches the sensible heat exchanger 622. The air conditioning apparatus 601 causes the air cooled at the air supply heat exchanger 625 and the indoor air RA to exchange sensible heat at the sensible heat exchanger 622. The air conditioning apparatus 601 supplies the air that has exchanged sensible heat with the indoor air RA to be subsequently supplied as the supply air SA to the interior.
However, the structure of introducing the outdoor air is not limited thereto. For example, the air conditioning apparatus previously causes the outdoor air OA and the indoor air RA to exchange sensible heat at the sensible heat exchanger. Then, the air conditioning apparatus cools the air that has exchanged sensible heat with the indoor air RA at the useside heat exchanger. The air conditioning apparatus supplies the air cooled at the useside heat exchanger as the supply air SA into the interior.
The air conditioning apparatus may be configured to heat the outdoor air OA and supply the outdoor air OA into the interior so as to deal with seasons having low outdoor air temperatures. Such an air conditioning apparatus causes, for example, the outdoor air OA and the indoor air RA to exchange sensible heat at the sensible heat exchanger. The air conditioning apparatus then heats the air that has exchanged sensible heat with the indoor air RA at the useside heat exchanger. The air conditioning apparatus supplies the air heated at the useside heat exchanger as the supply air SA into the interior.
Since the air conditioning apparatus has a structure such as that described above, the outdoor air OA whose temperature has been previously adjusted at the sensible heat exchanger can be cooled or heated at the useside heat exchanger afterwards, so that it is possible to increase the refrigeration cycle efficiency.
In the present embodiment, the refrigerant circuit 610 is filled with a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2difluoroethylene, and any one of the refrigerants A to E above may be used.
(9) FeaturesThe air conditioning apparatus (1, 601, 701) of the first embodiment, the second embodiment, and the third embodiment above each include the compressor (321, 633, 741), the indoor heat exchanger 242, the air supply heat exchanger 625 or the useside heat exchanger 745, the outdoor heat exchanger (323, 634) or the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743, any one of the refrigerants A to E, the first duct (209, 721) or the air supply duct 651, and the casing (230, 621, 730).
The indoor heat exchanger 242, the air supply heat exchanger 625, or the useside heat exchanger 745 is a useside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with the first air. The outdoor heat exchanger (323, 634) or the heatsourceside heat exchanger 743 is a heatsourceside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with the second air. The first duct (209, 721) or the air supply duct 651 is a first duct that supplies the first air into the plurality of rooms (101 to 104, 810). The refrigerants A to E contain at least 1,2difluoroethylene, and circulate in the compressor, the useside heat exchanger, and the heatsourceside heat exchanger to repeat the refrigeration cycle. The casings (230, 621, 730) each include the useside space SP2 that is connected to the first duct (209, 721) or the air supply duct 651 and that accommodates the indoor heat exchanger 242, the air supply heat exchanger 625, or the useside heat exchanger 745, and is configured to allow the first air after heat exchange with a refrigerant at the indoor heat exchanger 242, the air supply heat exchanger 625, or the useside heat exchanger 745 to be sent out to the first duct (209, 721) or the air supply duct 651.
Since the air conditioning apparatus (1, 601, 701) having such a structure each supply the first air after heat exchange to the plurality of rooms via the first duct (209, 721) or the air supply duct 651, the structures of the refrigerant circuits (320, 711, 610) are simplified. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the amount of refrigerant with which the air conditioning apparatus (1, 601, 701) are filled.
Although the embodiments of the present disclosure are described above, it is to be understood that various changes may be made in the forms and details without departing from the spirit and the scope of the present disclosure described in the claims.
REFERENCE SIGNS LIST

 1, 601, 701 air conditioning apparatus
 2 indoor unit (example of useside unit)
 3 outdoor unit (example of heatsourceside unit)
 209, 721 first duct
 210, 722 second duct
 230, 621, 730 casing
 242 indoor heat exchanger (example of useside heat exchanger)
 321, 633, 741 compressor
 323, 634 outdoor heat exchanger (example of heatsourceside heat exchanger)
 602 useside unit
 603 heatsourceside unit
 625 air supply heat exchanger (example of useside heat exchanger)
 651 air supply duct (example of first duct)
 653 suction duct (example of third duct)
 739 partition plate
 743 heatsourceside heat exchanger
 745 useside heat exchanger

 [Patent Literature 1] Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 201825377
Claims
1. An air conditioning apparatus comprising:
 a compressor;
 a useside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with first air;
 a heatsourceside heat exchanger that exchanges heat with second air;
 a refrigerant that contains at least 1,2difluoroethylene, and that circulates in the compressor, the useside heat exchanger, and the heatsourceside heat exchanger to repeat a refrigeration cycle;
 a first duct that supplies the first air to a plurality of rooms in an interior; and
 a casing that includes a useside space that is connected to the first duct and that accommodates the useside heat exchanger, the casing being configured to allow the first air after heat exchange with the refrigerant at the useside heat exchanger to be sent out to the first duct.
2. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, comprising:
 a second duct that introduces the first air from the interior;
 a useside unit that includes the casing and that is configured to guide the first air introduced from the interior to the useside heat exchanger with the casing connected to the second duct; and
 a heatsourceside unit that accommodates the heatsourceside heat exchanger and that differs from the useside unit.
3. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, comprising:
 a third duct that introduces the first air from an exterior;
 a useside unit that includes the casing and that is configured to guide the first air introduced from the exterior to the useside heat exchanger with the casing connected to the third duct; and
 a heatsourceside unit that accommodates the heatsourceside heat exchanger and that differs from the useside unit.
4. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, comprising:
 a second duct that is connected to the casing and that supplies the first air introduced from the interior to the useside space,
 wherein the casing is provided with a partition plate that partitions the casing (730) into a heatsourceside space through which the second air introduced from an exterior passes and the useside space to prevent circulation of air in the heatsourceside space and the useside space, and
 wherein the heatsourceside heat exchanger is disposed in the heatsourceside space.
5. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf).
6. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.
7. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
 the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.
8. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1), point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),
 the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.
9. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
 the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
 the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.
10. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.
11. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9), or on the above line segments;
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
 the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
 the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.
12. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 5, point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments,
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
 the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
 the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
 the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and
 the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.
13. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
14. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1,
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises HFO1132(E) and HFO1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
 the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.
15. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0), point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0), point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C); point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0), point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895), point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0), point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273), point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0), point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0), point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
16. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0), point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C); point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0), point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0), point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0), point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0), point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
 if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
 if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
 if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
17. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments U, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment U is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);
 the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and
 the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.
18. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4), point M′(39.2, 5.0, 55.8), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);
 the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);
 the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and
 the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.
19. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);
 the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and
 the line segment UO is a straight line.
20. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4), point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7), point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6), or on these line segments;
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 wherein
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
 the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);
 the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);
 the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);
 the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and
 the line segment TL is a straight line.
21. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8), point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), or on these line segments; the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3tetrafluoro1propene (R1234yf),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and
 the line segment TP is a straight line.
22. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI); (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z), (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.
23. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI); (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment U is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
24. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM); (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
 the line segment MP is represented by coordinates
 the line segment HR is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.
25. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM); (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment MN is represented by coordinates
 the line segment RG is represented by coordinates
 the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.
26. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), or on these line segments; (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z), (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
 the line segment ST is represented by coordinates
 the line segment TP is represented by coordinates
 the line segment PS is a straight line.
27. The air conditioning apparatus according to claim 1, wherein point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0), point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D); (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z), (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
 wherein
 the refrigerant comprises trans1,2difluoroethylene (HFO1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
 when the mass % of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO1132(E), HFO1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
 the line segment DU is represented by coordinates
 the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates
 the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 11, 2018
Publication Date: Dec 3, 2020
Applicant: DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. (Osaka)
Inventors: Mitsushi ITANO (Osaka), Daisuke KARUBE (Osaka), Yuuki YOTSUMOTO (Osaka), Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI (Osaka), Yuzo KOMATSU (Osaka), Shun OHKUBO (Osaka), Tatsuya TAKAKUWA (Osaka), Tetsushi TSUDA (Osaka), Yuuichi YANAGI (Osaka)
Application Number: 16/954,956