HEAT EXCHANGE UNIT

- DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD.

A heat exchange unit is provided with which, even if a flammable refrigerant is used, the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching an electric component unit is reduced. An outdoor unit (20) constitutes a portion of an air-conditioning apparatus (1), and is connected to an indoor unit (30) via a liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe (6) and a gas-side refrigerant connection pipe (5). The outdoor unit (20) includes an outdoor housing (50), an outdoor heat exchanger (23) disposed inside the outdoor housing (50) and in which a refrigerant flows, a liquid-side shutoff valve (29) connected to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe (6), a gas-side shutoff valve (28) connected to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe (5), and an outdoor electric component unit (8) disposed inside the outdoor housing (50). The refrigerant is a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene. When the outdoor unit (20) is in its installed state, the lower end of the outdoor electric component unit (8) is positioned above the liquid-side shutoff valve (29) and the gas-side shutoff valve (28).

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Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present disclosure relates to a heat exchange unit.

BACKGROUND ART

R410A is a refrigerant frequently used in conventional heat cycle systems such as air-conditioning apparatuses. R410A is a two-component mixed refrigerant of difluoromethane (CH2F2; HFC-32 or R32) and pentafluoroethane (C2HF5; HFC-125 or R125), and is a near-azeotropic composition.

Unfortunately, R410A has a global warming potential (GWP) of 2088. Due to the growing concern over global warming in recent yrs, it is becoming increasingly common to use R32 having a lower GWP of 675.

Accordingly, for example, PTL 1 (International Publication No. 2015/141678) proposes various low GWP refrigerant mixtures that can potentially replace R410A.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Technical Problem

However, some of such low GWP refrigerants are flammable. Accordingly, it is preferable to employ a layout structure that, even if a flammable refrigerant leaks, reduces the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the vicinity of electric components.

The present disclosure has been made in view of the above, and accordingly it is an object of the present disclosure to provide a heat exchange unit with which, even if a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene is used, the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching electric components is reduced.

Solution to Problem

A heat exchange unit according to a first aspect is a heat exchange unit that constitutes a portion of a refrigeration cycle apparatus, and includes a housing, a heat exchanger, a pipe connection part, and an electric component unit. The heat exchange unit is one of a service-side unit and a heat source-side unit. The service-side unit and the heat source-side unit are connected to each other via a connection pipe. The heat exchanger is disposed inside the housing. A refrigerant flows in the heat exchanger. The pipe connection part is connected to the connection pipe. The electric component unit is disposed inside the housing. The refrigerant is a refrigerant mixture containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene, and is a flammable refrigerant. When the heat exchange unit is in its installed state, the lower end of the electric component unit is positioned above the pipe connection part.

As used herein, the term flammable refrigerant means a refrigerant with a flammability classification of “class 2L” or higher under the US ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2013 standard.

Although not particularly limited, a pipe connection part may be a connection part connected, either directly or indirectly via another element, to a refrigerant pipe extending from a heat exchanger.

The type of the electric component unit is not particularly limited. The electronic component unit may be an electric component box accommodating a plurality of electric components, or may be a substrate provided with a plurality of electric components.

When the heat exchange unit is in its installed state, the lower end of the electric component unit is positioned above the pipe connection part. Therefore, even if a flammable refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene leaks from the pipe connection part, the flammable refrigerant is unlikely to reach the electric component unit because 1,2-difluoroethylene is heavier than air.

A heat exchange unit according to a second aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to those of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a third aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a fourth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B,

BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a fifth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),

the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a sixth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a seventh aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to an eighth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP

that connect the following 4 points:
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a ninth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the second aspect, wherein,

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:

point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and

the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

A heat exchange unit according to a tenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a coefficient of performance (COP) and a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to those of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to an eleventh aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a coefficient of performance (COP) and a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to those of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twelfth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:

point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);
and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to those of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a thirteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to those of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a fourteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to that of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a fifteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to that of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a sixteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and

the line segment UO is a straight line.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to that of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a seventeenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and

the line segment TL is a straight line.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to that of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to an eighteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and

the line segment TP is a straight line.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (also referred to as cooling capacity or capacity in some cases) similar to that of R410A, and being classified with lower flammability (class 2L) according to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a nineteenth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (UFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI); the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twentieth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twenty first aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twenty second aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twenty third aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and

the line segment PS is a straight line.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

A heat exchange unit according to a twenty fourth aspect is the heat exchange unit according to the first aspect, wherein,

the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:

point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),

the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and

the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.

The heat exchange unit configured as described above makes it possible to use a refrigerant that combines performance characteristics such as a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) similar to that of R410A, while at the same time reducing the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the electric component unit in the event of its leak.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an instrument used for a flammability test.

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing points A to T and line segments that connect these points in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass %.

FIG. 3 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, and K′, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass %.

FIG. 4 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, and K′, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 92.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 7.1 mass %).

FIG. 5 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 88.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 11.1 mass %).

FIG. 6 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 85.5 mass % (the content of R32 is 14.5 mass %).

FIG. 7 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 81.8 mass % (the content of R32 is 18.2 mass %).

FIG. 8 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 78.1 mass % (the content of R32 is 21.9 mass %).

FIG. 9 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 73.3 mass % (the content of R32 is 26.7 mass %).

FIG. 10 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 70.7 mass % (the content of R32 is 29.3 mass %).

FIG. 11 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 63.3 mass % (the content of R32 is 36.7 mass %).

FIG. 12 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 55.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 44.1 mass %).

FIG. 13 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of UFO-1132(E), UFO-1123, and R1234yf is 52.2 mass % (the content of R32 is 47.8 mass %).

FIG. 14 is a view showing points A to C, E, G, and I to W; and line segments that connect points A to C, E, G, and I to W in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass %.

FIG. 15 is a view showing points A to U; and line segments that connect the points in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass %.

FIG. 16 illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit in accordance with a first embodiment.

FIG. 17 is a schematic control block diagram of a refrigeration cycle apparatus in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 18 is a schematic exterior perspective view of an outdoor unit in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 19 is a perspective view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the outdoor unit in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 20 is a schematic exterior front view of an indoor unit in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 21 is a schematic side view of the indoor unit in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 22 is a cross-sectional view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the indoor unit in accordance with the first embodiment.

FIG. 23 is a schematic exterior front view of an indoor unit in accordance with Modification B of the first embodiment.

FIG. 24 is a schematic front view illustrating the internal structure of an indoor unit in accordance with Modification B of the first embodiment.

FIG. 25 is a schematic side view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the indoor unit in accordance with Modification B of the first embodiment.

FIG. 26 illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit in accordance with a second embodiment.

FIG. 27 is a schematic control block diagram of a refrigeration cycle apparatus in accordance with the second embodiment.

FIG. 28 is a perspective view illustrating the schematic configuration of an outdoor unit (with its front panel removed) in accordance with the second embodiment.

FIG. 29 illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit in accordance with a third embodiment.

FIG. 30 is a schematic control block diagram of a refrigeration cycle apparatus in accordance with the third embodiment.

FIG. 31 is a schematic exterior perspective view of an outdoor unit in accordance with the third embodiment.

FIG. 32 is an exploded perspective view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the outdoor unit in accordance with the third embodiment.

FIG. 33 is a plan view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the outdoor unit in accordance with the third embodiment.

FIG. 34 is a front view illustrating the schematic internal structure of the outdoor unit in accordance with the third embodiment.

FIG. 35 illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit and a water circuit in accordance with a fourth embodiment.

FIG. 36 is a schematic control block diagram of a refrigeration cycle apparatus in accordance with the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 37 illustrates the schematic structure of a cold/hot water supply unit in accordance with the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 38 illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit and a water circuit in accordance with Modification A of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 39 illustrates the schematic configuration of a hot water storage apparatus in accordance with Modification A of the fourth embodiment.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS (1) Definition of Terms

In the present specification, the term “refrigerant” includes at least compounds that are specified in ISO 817 (International Organization for Standardization), and that are given a refrigerant number (ASHRAE number) representing the type of refrigerant with “R” at the beginning; and further includes refrigerants that have properties equivalent to those of such refrigerants, even though a refrigerant number is not yet given. Refrigerants are broadly divided into fluorocarbon compounds and non-fluorocarbon compounds in terms of the structure of the compounds. Fluorocarbon compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). Non-fluorocarbon compounds include propane (R290), propylene (R1270), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), carbon dioxide (R744), ammonia (R717), and the like.

In the present specification, the phrase “composition comprising a refrigerant” at least includes (1) a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants), (2) a composition that further comprises other components and that can be mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine, and (3) a working fluid for a refrigerating machine containing a refrigeration oil. In the present specification, of these three embodiments, the composition (2) is referred to as a “refrigerant composition” so as to distinguish it from a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants). Further, the working fluid for a refrigerating machine (3) is referred to as a “refrigeration oil-containing working fluid” so as to distinguish it from the “refrigerant composition.”

In the present specification, when the term “alternative” is used in a context in which the first refrigerant is replaced with the second refrigerant, the first type of “alternative” means that equipment designed for operation using the first refrigerant can be operated using the second refrigerant under optimum conditions, optionally with changes of only a few parts (at least one of the following: refrigeration oil, gasket, packing, expansion valve, dryer, and other parts) and equipment adjustment. In other words, this type of alternative means that the same equipment is operated with an alternative refrigerant. Embodiments of this type of “alternative” include “drop-in alternative,” “nearly drop-in alternative,” and “retrofit,” in the order in which the extent of changes and adjustment necessary for replacing the first refrigerant with the second refrigerant is smaller.

The term “alternative” also includes a second type of “alternative,” which means that equipment designed for operation using the second refrigerant is operated for the same use as the existing use with the first refrigerant by using the second refrigerant. This type of alternative means that the same use is achieved with an alternative refrigerant.

In the present specification, the term “refrigerating machine” refers to machines in general that draw heat from an object or space to make its temperature lower than the temperature of ambient air, and maintain a low temperature. In other words, refrigerating machines refer to conversion machines that gain energy from the outside to do work, and that perform energy conversion, in order to transfer heat from where the temperature is lower to where the temperature is higher.

In the present specification, a refrigerant having a “WCF lower flammability” means that the most flammable composition (worst case of formulation for flammability: WCF) has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Further, in the present specification, a refrigerant having “ASHRAE lower flammability” means that the burning velocity of WCF is 10 cm/s or less, that the most flammable fraction composition (worst case of fractionation for flammability: WCFF), which is specified by performing a leakage test during storage, shipping, or use based on ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2013 using WCF, has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less, and that flammability classification according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013 is determined to classified as be “Class 2L.”

In the present specification, a refrigerant having an “RCL of x % or more” means that the refrigerant has a refrigerant concentration limit (RCL), calculated in accordance with the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013, of x % or more. RCL refers to a concentration limit in the air in consideration of safety factors. RCL is an index for reducing the risk of acute toxicity, suffocation, and flammability in a closed space where humans are present. RCL is determined in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard. More specifically, RCL is the lowest concentration among the acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL), the oxygen deprivation limit (ODL), and the flammable concentration limit (FCL), which are respectively calculated in accordance with sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, and 7.1.3 of the ASHRAE Standard.

In the present specification, temperature glide refers to an absolute value of the difference between the initial temperature and the end temperature in the phase change process of a composition containing the refrigerant of the present disclosure in the heat exchanger of a refrigerant system.

(2) Refrigerant (2-1) Refrigerant Component

Any one of various refrigerants such as refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E, details of these refrigerant are to be mentioned later, can be used as the refrigerant.

(2-2) Use of Refrigerant

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure can be preferably used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine.

The composition according to the present disclosure is suitable for use as an alternative refrigerant for HFC refrigerant such as R410A, R407C and R404 etc, or HCFC refrigerant such as R22 etc.

(3) Refrigerant Composition

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant according to the present disclosure, and can be used for the same use as the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. Moreover, the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure can be further mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to thereby obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine.

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure further comprises at least one other component in addition to the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise at least one of the following other components, if necessary. As described above, when the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure is used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine, it is generally used as a mixture with at least a refrigeration oil. Therefore, it is preferable that the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure does not substantially comprise a refrigeration oil. Specifically, in the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure, the content of the refrigeration oil based on the entire refrigerant composition is preferably 0 to 1 mass %, and more preferably 0 to 0.1 mass %.

(3-1) Water

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may contain a small amount of water. The water content of the refrigerant composition is preferably 0.1 mass % or less based on the entire refrigerant. A small amount of water contained in the refrigerant composition stabilizes double bonds in the molecules of unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds that can be present in the refrigerant, and makes it less likely that the unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds will be oxidized, thus increasing the stability of the refrigerant composition.

(3-2) Tracer

A tracer is added to the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure at a detectable concentration such that when the refrigerant composition has been diluted, contaminated, or undergone other changes, the tracer can trace the changes.

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single tracer, or two or more tracers.

The tracer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used tracers. Preferably, a compound that cannot be an impurity inevitably mixed in the refrigerant of the present disclosure is selected as the tracer.

Examples of tracers include hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorocarbons, fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, fluoroethers, brominated compounds, iodinated compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrous oxide (N2O). The tracer is particularly preferably a hydrofluorocarbon, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon, a chlorofluorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, a hydrochlorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, or a fluoroether.

The following compounds are preferable as the tracer.

FC-14 (tetrafluoromethane, CF4)
HCC-40 (chloromethane, CH3Cl)
HFC-23 (trifluoromethane, CHF3)
HFC-41 (fluoromethane, CH3Cl)
HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane, CF3CHF2)
HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CF3CH2F)
HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, CHF2CHF2)
HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane, CF3CH3)
HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluoroethane, CHF2CH2F)
HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CHF2CH3)
HFC-152 (1,2-difluoroethane, CH2FCH2F)
HFC-161 (fluoroethane, CH3CH2F)
HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane, CF3CH2CHF2)
HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane, CF3CH2CF3)
HFC-236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane, CF3CHFCHF2)
HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane, CF3CHFCF3)
HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2)
HCFC-31 (chlorofluoromethane, CH2ClF)
CFC-1113 (chlorotrifluoroethylene, CF2═CClF)
HFE-125 (trifluoromethyl-difluoromethyl ether, CF3OCHF2)
HFE-134a (trifluoromethyl-fluoromethyl ether, CF3OCH2F)
HFE-143a (trifluoromethyl-methyl ether, CF3OCH3)
HFE-227ea (trifluoromethyl-tetrafluoroethyl ether, CF3OCHFCF3)
HFE-236fa (trifluoromethyl-trifluoroethyl ether, CF3OCH2CF3)

The tracer compound may be present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 10 parts per million (ppm) to about 1000 ppm. Preferably, the tracer compound is present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 30 ppm to about 500 ppm, and most preferably, the tracer compound is present at a total concentration of about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm.

(3-3) Ultraviolet Fluorescent Dye

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single ultraviolet fluorescent dye, or two or more ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.

The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.

Examples of ultraviolet fluorescent dyes include naphthalimide, coumarin, anthracene, phenanthrene, xanthene, thioxanthene, naphthoxanthene, fluorescein, and derivatives thereof. The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is particularly preferably either naphthalimide or coumarin, or both.

(3-4) Stabilizer

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single stabilizer, or two or more stabilizers.

The stabilizer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used stabilizers.

Examples of stabilizers include nitro compounds, ethers, and amines.

Examples of nitro compounds include aliphatic nitro compounds, such as nitromethane and nitroethane; and aromatic nitro compounds, such as nitro benzene and nitro styrene.

Examples of ethers include 1,4-dioxane.

Examples of amines include 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropylamine and diphenylamine.

Examples of stabilizers also include butylhydroxyxylene and benzotriazole.

The content of the stabilizer is not limited. Generally, the content of the stabilizer is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.

(3-5) Polymerization Inhibitor

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single polymerization inhibitor, or two or more polymerization inhibitors.

The polymerization inhibitor is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used polymerization inhibitors.

Examples of polymerization inhibitors include 4-methoxy-1-naphthol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone methyl ether, dimethyl-t-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, and benzotriazole.

The content of the polymerization inhibitor is not limited. Generally, the content of the polymerization inhibitor is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.

(4) Refrigeration Oil-Containing Working Fluid

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant or refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure and a refrigeration oil, for use as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine. Specifically, the refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure is obtained by mixing a refrigeration oil used in a compressor of a refrigerating machine with the refrigerant or the refrigerant composition. The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid generally comprises 10 to 50 mass % of refrigeration oil.

(4-1) Refrigeration Oil

The refrigeration oil is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used refrigeration oils. In this case, refrigeration oils that are superior in the action of increasing the miscibility with the mixture and the stability of the mixture, for example, are suitably selected as necessary.

The base oil of the refrigeration oil is preferably, for example, at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE), and polyvinyl ethers (PVE).

The refrigeration oil may further contain additives in addition to the base oil. The additive may be at least one member selected from the group consisting of antioxidants, extreme-pressure agents, acid scavengers, oxygen scavengers, copper deactivators, rust inhibitors, oil agents, and antifoaming agents.

A refrigeration oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 400 cSt at 40° C. is preferable from the standpoint of lubrication.

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure may further optionally contain at least one additive. Examples of additives include compatibilizing agents described below.

(4-2) Compatibilizing Agent

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure may comprise a single compatibilizing agent, or two or more compatibilizing agents.

The compatibilizing agent is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used compatibilizing agents.

Examples of compatibilizing agents include polyoxyalkylene glycol ethers, amides, nitriles, ketones, chlorocarbons, esters, lactones, aryl ethers, fluoroethers, and 1,1,1-trifluoroalkanes. The compatibilizing agent is particularly preferably a polyoxyalkylene glycol ether.

(5) Various Refrigerants

Hereinafter, the refrigerants A to E, which are the refrigerants used in the present embodiment, will be described in detail.

In addition, each description of the following refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E is each independent. The alphabet which shows a point or a line segment, the number of an Examples, and the number of a comparative examples are all independent of each other among the refrigerant A, the refrigerant B, the refrigerant C, the refrigerant D, and the refrigerant E. For example, the first embodiment of the refrigerant A and the first embodiment of the refrigerant B are different embodiment from each other.

(5-1) Refrigerant A

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising HFO-1132(E) and R1234yf, and optionally further comprising HFO-1123, and may further satisfy the following requirements. This refrigerant also has various properties desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e., it has a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

Requirements

Preferable refrigerant A is as follows:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line CO);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3,

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:

point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CG);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant A has a WCF lower flammability according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),

the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant exhibits a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition and the WCFF composition have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B,

BD, DC′, C′ C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more, furthermore, the refrigerant has a condensation temperature glide of 1° C. or less.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:

point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and

the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more furthermore, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO that connect the following 4 points:

point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point o (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO (excluding the points O and h);

the line segment dg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments hO and Od are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:

point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0) or
on the line segments lg, gh, and il (excluding the points h and i);

the line segment lg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments hi and il are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect the following 4 points:

point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, de, and ef (excluding the points O and f);

the line segment de is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0064z2−1.1565z+65.501, 0.0064z2+0.1565z+34.499, z), and

the line segments fO and Od are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments le, ef, fi, and il that connect the following 4 points:

point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0),
or on the line segments le, ef, and il (excluding the points f and i);

the line segment le is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments fi and il are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of

HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oa, ab, bc, and cO that connect the following 4 points:

point a (93.4, 0.0, 6.6),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8),
point c (77.6, 22.4, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Oa, ab, and be (excluding the points O and c);

the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0052y2−1.5588y+93.385, y, −0.0052y2+0.5588y+6.615),

the line segment be is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z2−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z2+0.1791z+22.407, z), and

the line segments cO and Oa are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments kb, bj, and jk that connect the following 3 points:

point k (72.5, 14.1, 13.4),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8), and
point j (72.5, 23.2, 4.3),
or on the line segments kb, bj, and jk;

the line segment kb is represented by coordinates (0.0052y2−1.5588y+93.385, y, and −0.0052y2+0.5588y+6.615),

the line segment bj is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z2−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z2+0.1791z+22.407, z), and

the line segment jk is a straight line.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

(Examples of Refrigerant A)

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant A. However, refrigerant A is not limited to the Examples.

The GWP of R1234yf and a composition consisting of a mixed refrigerant R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in Patent Literature 1). The refrigerating capacity of R410A and compositions each comprising a mixture of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

Further, the RCL of the mixture was calculated with the LFL of HFO-1132(E) being 4.7 vol. %, the LFL of HFO-1123 being 10 vol. %, and the LFL of R1234yf being 6.2 vol. %, in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 1 to 34 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 1 Comp. Comp. Example Comp. Comp. Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Example 2 Example Ex. 4 Item Unit Ex. 1 O A 1 A′ 3 B HFO-1132(E) mass % R410A 100.0 68.6 49.0 30.6 14.1 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 0.0 14.9 30.0 44.8 58.7 R1234yf mass % 0.0 31.4 36.1 39.4 41.1 41.3 GWP 2088 1 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 100 99.7 100.0 98.6 97.3 96.3 95.5 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 100 98.3 85.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 capacity ratio 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.1 0.00 1.98 3.36 4.46 5.15 5.35 glide Discharge % (relative to 100.0 99.3 87.1 88.9 90.6 92.1 93.2 pressure 410A) RCL g/m3 30.7 37.5 44.0 52.7 64.0 78.6

TABLE 2 Comp. Example Comp. Comp. Example Comp. Ex. 5 Example 5 Example Ex. 6 Ex. 7 7 Ex. 8 Item Unit C 4 C′ 6 D E E′ F HFO-1132(E) mass % 32.9 26.6 19.5 10.9 0.0 58.0 23.4 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 67.1 68.4 70.5 74.1 80.4 42.0 48.5 61.8 R1234yf mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 19.6 0.0 28.1 38.2 GWP 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 COP ratio % 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 95.0 95.0 95.0 (relative to 410A) Refrigerating % 107.4 105.2 102.9 100.5 97.9 105.0 92.5 86.9 capacity ratio (relative to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.16 0.52 0.94 1.42 1.90 0.42 3.16 4.80 glide Discharge % 119.5 117.4 115.3 113.0 115.9 112.7 101.0 95.8 pressure (relative to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.5 57.1 62.0 69.1 81.3 41.9 46.3 79.0

TABLE 3 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Ex. 9 8 9 10 11 12 Item Unit J P L N N′ K HFO-1132(E) mass % 47.1 55.8 63.1 68.6 65.0 61.3 HFO-1123 mass % 52.9 42.0 31.9 16.3 7.7 5.4 R1234yf mass % 0.0 2.2 5.0 15.1 27.3 33.3 GWP 1 1 1 1 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 93.8 95.0 96.1 97.9 99.1 99.5 410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 106.2 104.1 101.6 95.0 88.2 85.0 ratio 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 0.31 0.57 0.81 1.41 2.11 2.51 Discharge pressure % (relative to 115.8 111.9 107.8 99.0 91.2 87.7 410A) RCL g/m3 46.2 42.6 40.0 38.0 38.7 39.7

TABLE 4 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Item Unit L M Q R S S′ T HFO-1132(E) mass % 63.1 60.3 62.8 49.8 62.6 50.0 35.8 HFO-1123 mass % 31.9 6.2 29.6 42.3 28.3 35.8 44.9 R1234yf mass % 5.0 33.5 7.6 7.9 9.1 14.2 19.3 GWP 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.1 99.4 96.4 95.0 96.6 95.8 95.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 101.6 85.0 100.2 101.7 99.4 98.1 96.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 0.81 2.58 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.55 2.07 Discharge pressure % (relative 107.8 87.9 106.0 109.6 105.0 105.0 105.0 to 410A) RCL g/m3 40.0 40.0 40.0 44.8 40.0 44.4 50.8

TABLE 5 Comp. Ex. Example Example 10 20 21 Item Unit G H I HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 72.0 72.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 14.0 0.0 R1234yf mass % 0.0 14.0 28.0 GWP 1 1 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.6 98.2 99.9 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.1 95.1 86.6 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.46 1.27 1.71 glide Discharge % (relative 108.4 98.7 88.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 37.4 37.0 36.6

TABLE 6 Comp. Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 11 Ex. 12 22 23 24 25 26 Ex. 13 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R1234yf mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 91.4 92.0 92.8 93.7 94.7 95.8 96.9 98.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.7 105.5 105.0 104.3 103.3 102.0 100.6 99.1 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.40 0.46 0.55 0.66 0.75 0.80 0.79 0.67 glide Discharge % (relative 120.1 118.7 116.7 114.3 111.6 108.7 105.6 102.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 71.0 61.9 54.9 49.3 44.8 41.0 37.8 35.1

TABLE 7 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 14 27 28 29 30 31 32 Ex. 15 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 91.9 92.5 93.3 94.3 95.3 96.4 97.5 98.6 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.2 102.9 102.4 101.5 100.5 99.2 97.8 96.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.87 0.94 1.03 1.12 1.18 1.18 1.09 0.88 glide Discharge % (relative 116.7 115.2 113.2 110.8 108.1 105.2 102.1 99.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 70.5 61.6 54.6 49.1 44.6 40.8 37.7 35.0

TABLE 8 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 16 33 34 35 36 37 38 Ex. 17 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 92.4 93.1 93.9 94.8 95.9 97.0 98.1 99.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100.5 100.2 99.6 98.7 97.7 96.4 94.9 93.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.41 1.49 1.56 1.62 1.63 1.55 1.37 1.05 glide Discharge % (relative 113.1 111.6 109.6 107.2 104.5 101.6 98.6 95.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 70.0 61.2 54.4 48.9 44.4 40.7 37.5 34.8

TABLE 9 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 93.0 93.7 94.5 95.5 96.5 97.6 98.7 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 97.7 97.4 96.8 95.9 94.7 93.4 91.9 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.03 2.09 2.13 2.14 2.07 1.91 1.61 glide Discharge % (relative 109.4 107.9 105.9 103.5 100.8 98.0 95.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 69.6 60.9 54.1 48.7 44.2 40.5 37.4

TABLE 10 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 93.6 94.3 95.2 96.1 97.2 98.2 99.3 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.8 94.5 93.8 92.9 91.8 90.4 88.8 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.71 2.74 2.73 2.66 2.50 2.22 1.78 glide Discharge % (relative 105.5 104.0 102.1 99.7 97.1 94.3 91.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 69.1 60.5 53.8 48.4 44.0 40.4 37.3

TABLE 11 Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 53 54 55 56 57 58 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 HFO-1123 mass % 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 94.3 95.0 95.9 96.8 97.8 98.9 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 91.9 91.5 90.8 89.9 88.7 87.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 3.46 3.43 3.35 3.18 2.90 2.47 Discharg epressure % (relative 101.6 100.1 98.2 95.9 93.3 90.6 to 410A) RCL g/m3 68.7 60.2 53.5 48.2 43.9 40.2

TABLE 12 Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit 59 60 61 62 63 Ex. 18 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 HFO-1123 mass % 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 95.0 95.8 96.6 97.5 98.5 99.6 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.9 88.5 87.8 86.8 85.6 84.1 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 4.24 4.15 3.96 3.67 3.24 2.64 Discharge pressure % (relative 97.6 96.1 94.2 92.0 89.5 86.8 to 410A) RCL g/m3 68.2 59.8 53.2 48.0 43.7 40.1

TABLE 13 Example Example Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Unit 64 65 Ex. 19 Ex. 20 Ex. 21 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 95.9 96.6 97.4 98.3 99.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.8 85.4 84.7 83.6 82.4 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 5.05 4.85 4.55 4.10 3.50 glide Discharge % (relative 93.5 92.1 90.3 88.1 85.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 67.8 59.5 53.0 47.8 43.5

TABLE 14 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 HFO-1132(E) mass % 54.0 56.0 58.0 62.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 HFO-1123 mass % 41.0 39.0 37.0 33.0 41.0 39.0 37.0 35.0 R1234yf mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 95.1 95.3 95.6 96.0 95.1 95.4 95.6 95.8 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 102.8 102.6 102.3 101.8 101.9 101.7 101.5 101.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.95 glide Discharge % (relative 110.5 109.9 109.3 108.1 109.7 109.1 108.5 107.9 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 43.2 42.4 41.7 40.3 43.9 43.1 42.4 41.6

TABLE 15 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 HFO-1132(E) mass % 60.0 62.0 61.0 58.0 60.0 62.0 52.0 54.0 HFO-1123 mass % 33.0 31.0 29.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 34.0 32.0 R1234yf mass % 7.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 14.0 14.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 96.0 96.2 96.5 96.4 96.6 96.8 96.0 96.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100.9 100.7 99.1 98.4 98.1 97.8 98.0 97.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.95 0.95 1.18 1.34 1.33 1.32 1.53 1.53 glide Discharge % (relative 107.3 106.7 104.9 104.4 103.8 103.2 104.7 104.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 40.9 40.3 40.5 41.5 40.8 40.1 43.6 42.9

TABLE 16 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 HFO-1132(E) mass % 56.0 58.0 60.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 HFO-1123 mass % 30.0 28.0 26.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 R1234yf mass % 14.0 14.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 96.4 96.6 96.9 95.8 96.0 96.2 96.4 96.7 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 97.5 97.2 96.9 97.3 97.1 96.8 96.6 96.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.51 1.50 1.48 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.69 1.67 glide Discharge % (relative 103.5 102.9 102.3 104.3 103.8 103.2 102.7 102.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.1 41.4 40.7 45.2 44.4 43.6 42.8 42.1

TABLE 17 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 HFO-1132(E) mass % 58.0 60.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 HFO-1123 mass % 26.0 24.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 R1234yf mass % 16.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 GWP 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.9 97.1 95.4 95.6 95.8 96.0 96.3 96.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 96.1 95.8 96.8 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.9 95.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.65 1.63 1.93 1.92 1.92 1.91 1.89 1.88 glide Discharge % (relative 101.5 100.9 104.5 103.9 103.4 102.9 102.3 101.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.4 40.7 47.8 46.9 46.0 45.1 44.3 43.5

TABLE 18 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 HFO-1132(E) mass % 54.0 56.0 58.0 60.0 36.0 38.0 42.0 44.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 44.0 42.0 38.0 36.0 R1234yf mass % 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.7 96.9 97.1 97.3 95.1 95.3 95.7 95.9 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 95.4 95.2 94.9 94.6 96.3 96.1 95.7 95.4 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.86 1.83 1.80 1.77 2.14 2.14 2.13 2.12 glide Discharge % (relative 101.2 100.6 100.0 99.5 104.5 104.0 103.0 102.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.7 42.0 41.3 40.6 50.7 49.7 47.7 46.8

TABLE 19 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 HFO-1132(E) mass % 46.0 48.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 34.0 36.0 HFO-1123 mass % 34.0 32.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 44.0 42.0 R1234yf mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 22.0 22.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.1 96.3 96.7 96.9 97.2 97.4 95.1 95.3 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 95.2 95.0 94.5 94.2 94.0 93.7 95.3 95.1 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.11 2.09 2.05 2.02 1.99 1.95 2.37 2.36 glide Discharge % (relative 101.9 101.4 100.3 99.7 99.2 98.6 103.4 103.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.9 45.0 43.4 42.7 41.9 41.2 51.7 50.6

TABLE 20 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 38.0  40.0  42.0  44.0  46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  HFO-1123 mass % 40.0  38.0  36.0  34.0  32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  R1234yf mass % 22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 95.5  95.7  95.9  96.1  96.4  96.6  96.8  97.0  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.9  94.7  94.5  94.3  94.0  93.8  93.6  93.3  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.36  2.35  2.33  2.32  2.30  2.27  2.25  2.21 glide Discharge % (relative 102.5  102.0  101.5  101.0  100.4  99.9  99.4  98.8  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 49.6  48.6  47.6  46.7  45.8  45.0  44.1  43.4 

TABLE 21 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 54.0  56.0  58.0  60.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  HFO-1123 mass % 24.0  22.0  20.0  18.0  44.0  42.0  40.0  38.0  R1234yf mass % 22.0  22.0  22.0  22.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.2  97.4  97.6  97.9  95.2  95.4  95.6  95.8  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 93.0  92.8  92.5  92.2  94.3  94.1  93.9  93.7  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.18  2.14  2.09  2.04  2.61  2.60  2.59  2.58 glide Discharge % (relative 98.2  97.7  97.1  96.5  102.4  101.9  101.5  101.0  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.6  41.9  41.2  40.5  52.7  51.6  50.5  49.5 

TABLE 22 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0  42.0  44.0  46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  HFO-1123 mass % 36.0  34.0  32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  24.0  22.0  R1234yf mass % 24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  24.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 96.0  96.2  96.4  96.6  96.8  97.0  97.2  97.5  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 93.5  93.3  93.1  92.8  92.6  92.4  92.1  91.8  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.56  2.54  2.51  2.49  2.45  2.42  2.38  2.33 glide Discharge % (relative 100.5  100.0  99.5  98.9  98.4  97.9  97.3  96.8  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.5  47.5  46.6  45.7  44.9  44.1  43.3  42.5 

TABLE 23 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0  58.0  60.0  30.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  HFO-1123 mass % 20.0  18.0  16.0  44.0  42.0  40.0  38.0  36.0  R1234yf mass % 24.0  24.0  24.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.7  97.9  98.1  95.3  95.5  95.7  95.9  96.1  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 91.6  91.3  91.0  93.2  93.1  92.9  92.7  92.5  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.28  2.22  2.16  2.86  2.85  2.83  2.81  2.79 glide Discharge % (relative 96.2  95.6  95.1  101.3  100.8  100.4  99.9  99.4  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.8  41.1  40.4  53.7  52.6  51.5  50.4  49.4 

TABLE 24 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0  42.0  44.0  46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  HFO-1123 mass % 34.0  32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  24.0  22.0  20.0  R1234yf mass % 26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  26.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 96.3  96.5  96.7  96.9  97.1  97.3  97.5  97.7  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 92.3  92.1  91.9  91.6  91.4  91.2  90.9  90.6  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.77  2.74  2.71  2.67  2.63  2.59  2.53  2.48 glide Discharge % (relative 99.0  98.5  97.9  97.4  96.9  96.4  95.8  95.3  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.4  47.4  46.5  45.7  44.8  44.0  43.2  42.5 

TABLE 25 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0  58.0  60.0  30.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  HFO-1123 mass % 18.0  16.0  14.0  42.0  40.0  38.0  36.0  34.0  R1234yf mass % 26.0  26.0  26.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.9  98.2  98.4  95.6  95.8  96.0  96.2  96.3  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 90.3  90.1  89.8  92.1  91.9  91.7  91.5  91.3  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.42  2.35  2.27  3.10  3.09  3.06  3.04  3.01 glide Discharge % (relative 94.7  94.1  93.6  99.7  99.3  98.8  98.4  97.9  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.7  41.0  40.3  53.6  52.5  51.4  50.3  49.3 

TABLE 26 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0  42.0  44.0  46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  HFO-1123 mass % 32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  24.0  22.0  20.0  18.0  R1234yf mass % 28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  28.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 96.5  96.7  96.9  97.2  97.4  97.6  97.8  98.0  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 91.1  90.9  90.7  90.4  90.2  89.9  89.7  89.4  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.98  2.94  2.90  2.85  2.80  2.75  2.68  2.62 glide Discharge % (relative 97.4  96.9  96.4  95.9  95.4  94.9  94.3  93.8  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.3  47.4  46.4  45.6  44.7  43.9  43.1  42.4 

TABLE 27 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0  58.0  60.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  42.0  HFO-1123 mass % 16.0  14.0  12.0  38.0  36.0  34.0  32.0  28.0  R1234yf mass % 28.0  28.0  28.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 98.2  98.4  98.6  96.1  96.2  96.4  96.6  97.0  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.1  88.8  88.5  90.7  90.5  90.3  90.1  89.7  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  2.54  2.46  2.38  3.32  3.30  3.26  3.22  3.14 glide Discharge % (relative 93.2  92.6  92.1  97.7  97.3  96.8  96.4  95.4  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.7  41.0  40.3  52.4  51.3  50.2  49.2  47.3 

TABLE 28 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 44.0  46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  56.0  58.0  HFO-1123 mass % 26.0  24.0  22.0  20.0  18.0  16.0  14.0  12.0  R1234yf mass % 30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  30.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.2  97.4  97.6  97.8  98.0  98.3  98.5  98.7  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.4  89.2  89.0  88.7  88.4  88.2  87.9  87.6  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.08  3.03  2.97  2.90  2.83  2.75  2.66  2.57 glide Discharge % (relative 94.9  94.4  93.9  93.3  92.8  92.3  91.7  91.1  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 46.4  45.5  44.7  43.9  43.1  42.3  41.6  40.9 

TABLE 29 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 30.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  40.0  42.0  44.0  HFO-1123 mass % 38.0  36.0  34.0  32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  24.0  R1234yf mass % 32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 96.2  96.3  96.5  96.7  96.9  97.1  97.3  97.5  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.6  89.5  89.3  89.1  88.9  88.7  88.4  88.2  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.60  3.56  3.52  3.48  3.43  3.38  3.33  3.26 glide Discharge % (relative 96.6  96.2  95.7  95.3  94.8  94.3  93.9  93.4  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.4  52.3  51.2  50.1  49.1  48.1  47.2  46.3 

TABLE 30 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  56.0  58.0  60.0  HFO-1123 mass % 22.0  20.0  18.0  16.0  14.0  12.0  10.0  8.0 R1234yf mass % 32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  32.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.7  97.9  98.1  98.3  98.5  98.7  98.9  99.2  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.0  87.7  87.5  87.2  86.9  86.6  86.3  86.0  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.20  3.12  3.04  2.96  2.87  2.77  2.66  2.55 glide Discharge % (relative 92.8  92.3  91.8  91.3  90.7  90.2  89.6  89.1  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.4  44.6  43.8  43.0  42.3  41.5  40.8  40.2 

TABLE 31 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 30.0  32.0  34.0  36.0  38.0  40.0  42.0  44.0  HFO-1123 mass % 36.0  34.0  32.0  30.0  28.0  26.0  24.0  22.0  R1234yf mass % 34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 96.5  96.6  96.8  97.0  97.2  97.4  97.6  97.8  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.4  88.2  88.0  87.8  87.6  87.4  87.2  87.0  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.84  3.80  3.75  3.70  3.64  3.58  3.51  3.43 glide Discharge % (relative 95.0  94.6  94.2  93.7  93.3  92.8  92.3  91.8  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.3  52.2  51.1  50.0  49.0  48.0  47.1  46.2 

TABLE 32 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 46.0  48.0  50.0  52.0  54.0  30.0  32.0  34.0  HFO-1123 mass % 20.0  18.0  16.0  14.0  12.0  34.0  32.0  30.0  R1234yf mass % 34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  34.0  36.0  36.0  36.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 98.0  98.2  98.4  98.6  98.8  96.8  96.9  97.1  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.7  86.5  86.2  85.9  85.6  87.2  87.0  86.8  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.36  3.27  3.18  3.08  2.97  4.08  4.03  3.97 glide Discharge % (relative 91.3  90.8  90.3  89.7  89.2  93.4  93.0  92.6  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.3  44.5  43.7  42.9  42.2  53.2  52.1  51.0 

TABLE 33 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 36.0  38.0  40.0  42.0  44.0  46.0  30.0  32.0  HFO-1123 mass % 28.0  26.0  24.0  22.0  20.0  18.0  32.0  30.0  R1234yf mass % 36.0  36.0  36.0  36.0  36.0  36.0  38.0  38.0  GWP 2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   COP ratio % (relative 97.3  97.5  97.7  97.9  98.1  98.3  97.1  97.2  to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.6  86.4  86.2  85.9  85.7  85.5  85.9  85.7  capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C.  3.91  3.84  3.76  3.68  3.60  3.50  4.32  4.25 glide Discharge % (relative 92.1  91.7  91.2  90.7  90.3  89.8  91.9  91.4  pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 49.9  48.9  47.9  47.0  46.1  45.3  53.1  52.0 

TABLE 34 Example Example Item Unit 226 227 HFO-1132(E) mass % 34.0 36.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 26.0 R1234yf mass % 38.0 38.0 GWP 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.4 97.6 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.6 85.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 4.18 4.11 Discharge % (relative 91.0 90.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 50.9 49.8

These results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The point on the line segment AA′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A, Example 1, and point A′ by the least square method.

The point on the line segment A′B was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A′, Example 3, and point B by the least square method.

The point on the line segment DC′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point D, Example 6, and point C′ by the least square method.

The point on the line segment C′C was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point C′, Example 4, and point C by the least square method.

Likewise, the results indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BF, FT, TE, EO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2),
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
point E (58.0, 42.0, 0.0) and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line EO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2), and
the line segment TE is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.0067x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments BF, FO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The point on the line segment FT was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points T, E′, and F, by the least square method.

The point on the line segment TE was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points E, R, and T, by the least square method.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which the sum of these components is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segment LM connecting point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0) and point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123 and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment QR connecting point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6) and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9) or on the left side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a temperature glide of 1° C. or less.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment ST connecting point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1) and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3) or on the right side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or less relative to that of 410A.

In these compositions, R1234yf contributes to reducing flammability, and suppressing deterioration of polymerization etc. Therefore, the composition preferably contains R1234yf.

Further, the burning velocity of these mixed refrigerants whose mixed formulations were adjusted to WCF concentrations was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Compositions having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 901 refers to a sample cell, 902 refers to a high-speed camera, 903 refers to a xenon lamp, 904 refers to a collimating lens, 905 refers to a collimating lens, and 906 refers to a ring filter. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

Each WCFF concentration was obtained by using the WCF concentration as the initial concentration and performing a leak simulation using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0.

Tables 35 and 36 show the results.

TABLE 35 Item Unit G H I WCF HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 72.0 72.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 9.6 0.0 R1234yf mass % 0.0 18.4 28.0 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10

TABLE 36 Item Unit J P L N N′ K WCF HFO- mass % 47.1  55.8  63.1  68.6  65.0  61.3  1132 (E) HFO- mass % 52.9  42.0  31.9  16.3  7.7 5.4 1123 R1234yf mass % 0.0 2.2 5.0 15.1  27.3  33.3  Leak condition Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ that results Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping, in WCFF −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. 92% 90% 90% 66% 12% 0% release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid gas gas gas gas phase phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side side WCFF HFO- mass % 72.0  72.0  72.0  72.0  72.0  72.0  1132 (E) HFO- mass % 28.0  17.8  17.4  13.6  12.3  9.8  1123 R1234yf mass % 0.0 10.2  10.6  14.4  15.7  18.2  Burning cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 9   9   8 or less velocity (WCF) Burning cm/s 10   10   10   10   10   10   velocity (WCFF)

The results in Table 35 clearly indicate that when a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf contains HFO-1132(E) in a proportion of 72.0 mass % or less based on their sum, the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability.

The results in Tables 36 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, and a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segments JP, PN, and NK connecting the following 6 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0)
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1)
point N′ (65.0, 7.7, 27.3) and
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability, and a WCFF lower flammability.
In the diagram, the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
and the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91).

The point on the line segment PN was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points P, L, and N, by the least square method.

The point on the line segment NK was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points N, N′, and K, by the least square method.

(5-2) Refrigerant B

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is

a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % or 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant, or

a mixed refrigerant comprising HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., (1) a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A, (2) a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, (3) a sufficiently low GWP, and (4) a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising 72.0 mass % or less of HFO-1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising 47.1% or less of HFO-1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability and WCFF lower flammability, and is determined to be “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard, and which is further easier to handle.

When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 62.0 mass % or more of HFO-1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO-1132(E) and/or HFO-1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 45.1 mass % or more of HFO-1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO-1132(E) and/or HFO-1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved.

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.75 mass % or more, and more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

(Examples of Refrigerant B)

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant B. However, the refrigerant B is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 37 and 38.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in Patent Literature 1). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

Tables 1 and 2 show GWP, COP, and refrigerating capacity, which were calculated based on these results. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.

The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.


COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption

For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

TABLE 37 Comparative Comparative Example Example Comparative Comparative 1 2 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit R410A HFO-1132E 3 1 2 3 4 5 4 HFO-1132E mass % 100 80 72 70 68 65 62 60 (WCF) HFO-1123 mass % 0 20 28 30 32 35 38 40 (WCF) GWP 2088 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 100 99.7 97.5 96.6 96.3 96.1 95.8 95.4 95.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 98.3 101.9 103.1 103.4 103.8 104.1 104.5 104.8 capacity ratio to R410A) Discharge Mpa 2.73 2.71 2.89 2.96 2.98 3.00 3.02 3.04 3.06 pressure Burning cm/sec Non- 20 13 10 9 9 8 8 or less 8 or less velocity flammable (WCF)

TABLE 38 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example 10 Item Unit 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 HFO-1123 HFO-1132E mass % 50 48 47.1 46.1 45.1 43 40 25 0 (WCF) HFO-1123 mass % 50 52 52.9 53.9 54.9 57 60 75 100 (WCF) GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 94.1 93.9 93.8 93.7 93.6 93.4 93.1 91.9 90.6 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.9 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.6 106.9 107.9 108.0 capacity ratio to R410A) Discharge Mpa 3.14 3.16 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.20 3.21 3.31 3.39 pressure Leakage test conditions Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ (WCFF) Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% release, release, release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid phase phase phase phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side side side side HFO-1132E mass % 74 73 72 71 70 67 63 38 (WCFF) HFO-1123 mass % 26 27 28 29 30 33 37 62 (WCFF) Burning cm/sec 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 5 velocity (WCF) Burning cm/sec 11 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.5 8.5 8 or less 8 or less velocity (WCFF) ASHRAE flammability 2 2 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L classification

The compositions each comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A. Moreover, compositions each comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCFF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A.

(5-3) Refrigerant C

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), and satisfies the following requirements. The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e. it has a coefficient of performance and a refrigerating capacity that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

Requirements

Preferable refrigerant C is as follows:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0≤a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:

point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and further ensures a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A. Additionally, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability and a WCFF lower flammability, and is classified as “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard.

When the refrigerant C according to the present disclosure further contains R32 in addition to HFO-1132 (E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, the refrigerant may be a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.02a2−2.46a+93.4, 0, −0.02a2+2.46a+6.6),
point b′ (−0.008a2−1.38a+56, 0.018a2−0.53a+26.3, −0.01a2+1.91a+17.7),
point c (−0.016a2+1.02a+77.6, 0.016a2−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0)
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c);

if 10.0<a≤16.5, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.0244a2−2.5695a+94.056, 0, −0.0244a2+2.5695a+5.944),
point b′ (0.1161a2−1.9959a+59.749, 0.014a2−0.3399a+24.8, −0.1301a2+2.3358a+15.451),
point c (−0.0161a2+1.02a+77.6, 0.0161a2−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c); or

if 16.5<a≤21.8, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.0161a2−2.3535a+92.742, 0, −0.0161a2+2.3535a+7.258),
point b′ (−0.0435a2−0.0435a+50.406, 0.0304a2+1.8991a−0.0661, 0.0739a2−1.8556a+49.6601),
point c (−0.0161a2+0.9959a+77.851, 0.0161a2−0.9959a+22.149, 0), and
point o (100.0−a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c). Note that when point b in the ternary composition diagram is defined as a point where a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A and a COP ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A are both achieved, point b′ is the intersection of straight line ab and an approximate line formed by connecting the points where the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 95%. When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure meets the above requirements, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

(Examples of Refrigerant C)

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant C. However, the refrigerant C is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 39 to 96.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in Patent Literature 1). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

For each of these mixed refrigerants, the COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to those of R410 were obtained. Calculation was conducted under the following conditions.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.

Condensation temperature: 45° C.

Superheating temperature: 5 K

Subcooling temperature: 5 K

Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 39 to 96 show the resulting values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.

The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.


COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption

TABLE 39 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Ex. 4 Ex. 5 Ex. 6 Ex. 7 Ex. 8 Ex. 1 Item Unit Ex. 1 A B C D′ G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % R410A 68.6 0.0 32.9 0.0 72.0 72.0 47.1 61.7 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 58.7 67.1 75.4 28.0 0.0 52.9 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 31.4 41.3 0.0 24.6 0.0 28.0 0.0 32.4 R32 Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GWP 2088 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 COP ratio % (relative 100 100.0 95.5 92.5 93.1 96.6 99.9 93.8 99.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 85.0 85.0 107.4 95.0 103.1 86.6 106.2 85.5 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 40 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 9 Ex. 10 Ex. 11 Ex. 12 Ex. 13 Ex. 14 Ex. 15 Ex. 2 Item Unit A B C D′ G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 55.3 0.0 18.4 0.0 60.9 60.9 40.5 47.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 47.8 74.5 83.4 32.0 0.0 52.4 7.2 R1234yf Mass % 37.6 45.1 0.0 9.5 0.0 32.0 0.0 38.7 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 49 49 49 50 49 50 COP ratio % (relative 99.8 96.9 92.5 92.5 95.9 99.6 94.0 99.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.0 85.0 110.5 106.0 106.5 87.7 108.9 85.5 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 41 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 16 Ex. 17 Ex. 18 Ex. 19 Ex. 20 Ex. 21 Ex. 3 Item Unit A B C = D′ G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 48.4 0.0 0.0 55.8 55.8 37.0 41.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 42.3 88.9 33.1 0.0 51.9 6.5 R1234yf Mass % 40.5 46.6 0.0 0.0 33.1 0.0 41.4 R32 Mass % 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 GWP 77 77 76 76 77 76 77 COP ratio % (relative 99.8 97.6 92.5 95.8 99.5 94.2 99.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.0 85.0 112.0 108.0 88.6 110.2 85.4 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 42 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 22 Ex. 23 Ex. 24 Ex. 25 Ex. 26 Ex. 4 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 42.8 0.0 52.1 52.1 34.3 36.5 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 37.8 33.4 0.0 51.2 5.6 1123 R1234yf Mass % 42.7 47.7 0.0 33.4 0.0 43.4 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 99 100 99 100 COP % 99.9 98.1 95.8 99.5 94.4 99.5 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 109.1 89.6 111.1 85.3 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 43 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 27 Ex. 28 Ex. 29 Ex. 30 Ex. 31 Ex. 5 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 37.0 0.0 48.6 48.6 32.0 32.5 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 33.1 33.2 0.0 49.8 4.0 1123 R1234yf Mass % 44.8 48.7 0.0 33.2 0.0 45.3 R32 Mass % 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 GWP 125 125 124 125 124 125 COP % 100.0 98.6 95.9 99.4 94.7 99.8 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 110.1 90.8 111.9 85.2 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 44 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 32 Ex. 33 Ex. 34 Ex. 35 Ex. 36 Ex. 6 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 31.5 0.0 45.4 45.4 30.3 28.8 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 28.5 32.7 0.0 47.8 2.4 1123 R1234yf Mass % 46.6 49.6 0.0 32.7 0.0 46.9 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 149 150 149 150 COP % 100.2 99.1 96.0 99.4 95.1 100.0 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 111.0 92.1 112.6 85.1 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 45 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 37 Ex. 38 Ex. 39 Ex. 40 Ex. 41 Ex. 42 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 24.8 0.0 41.8 41.8 29.1 24.8 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 22.9 31.5 0.0 44.2 0.0 1123 R1234yf Mass % 48.5 50.4 0.0 31.5 0.0 48.5 R32 Mass % 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 GWP 182 182 181 182 181 182 COP % 100.4 99.8 96.3 99.4 95.6 100.4 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 111.9 93.8 113.2 85.0 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 46 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 43 Ex. 44 Ex. 45 Ex. 46 Ex. 47 Ex. 48 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 21.3 0.0 40.0 40.0 28.8 24.3 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 19.9 30.7 0.0 41.9 0.0 1123 R1234yf Mass % 49.4 50.8 0.0 30.7 0.0 46.4 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 198 199 198 200 COP % 100.6 100.1 96.6 99.5 96.1 100.4 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 112.4 94.8 113.6 86.7 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 47 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 49 Ex. 50 Ex. 51 Ex. 52 Ex. 53 Ex. 54 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 12.1 0.0 35.7 35.7 29.3 22.5 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 11.7 27.6 0.0 34.0 0.0 1123 R1234yf Mass % 51.2 51.6 0.0 27.6 0.0 40.8 R32 Mass % 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 GWP 250 250 248 249 248 250 COP % 101.2 101.0 96.4 99.6 97.0 100.4 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 113.2 97.6 113.9 90.9 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 48 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 55 Ex. 56 Ex. 57 Ex. 58 Ex. 59 Ex. 60 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO- Mass % 3.8 0.0 32.0 32.0 29.4 21.1 1132 (E) HFO- Mass % 0.0 3.9 23.9 0.0 26.5 0.0 1123 R1234yf Mass % 52.1 52.0 0.0 23.9 0.0 34.8 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 300 300 298 299 298 299 COP % 101.8 101.8 97.9 99.8 97.8 100.5 ratio (relative to R410A) Refrig- % 85.0 85.0 113.7 100.4 113.9 94.9 erating (relative capacity to ratio R410A)

TABLE 49 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 61 Ex. 62 Ex. 63 Ex. 64 Ex. 65 Item Unit A = B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 0.0 30.4 30.4 28.9 20.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 21.8 0.0 23.3 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 52.2 0.0 21.8 0.0 31.8 R32 Mass % 47.8 47.8 47.8 47.8 47.8 GWP 325 323 324 323 324 COP ratio % 102.1 98.2 100.0 98.2 100.6 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 85.0 113.8 101.8 113.9 96.8 capacity ratio (relative to R410A)

TABLE 50 Comp. Item Unit Ex. 66 Ex. 7 Ex. 8 Ex. 9 Ex. 10 Ex. 11 Ex. 12 Ex. 13 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 82.9 77.9 72.9 67.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative 92.4 92.6 92.8 93.1 93.4 93.7 94.1 94.5 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 108.4 108.3 108.2 107.9 107.6 107.2 106.8 106.3 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 51 Comp. Item Unit Ex. 14 Ex. 15 Ex. 16 Ex. 17 Ex. 67 Ex. 18 Ex. 19 Ex. 20 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 72.9 67.9 62.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative 95.0 95.4 95.9 96.4 96.9 93.0 93.3 93.6 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.8 105.2 104.5 103.9 103.1 105.7 105.5 105.2 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 52 Item Unit Ex. 21 Ex. 22 Ex. 23 Ex. 24 Ex. 25 Ex. 26 Ex. 27 Ex. 28 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 93.9 94.2 94.6 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.4 96.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 104.9 104.5 104.1 103.6 103.0 102.4 101.7 101.0 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 53 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 68 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 17.9 67.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 97.4 93.5 93.8 94.1 94.4 94.8 95.2 95.6 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 100.3 102.9 102.7 102.5 102.1 101.7 101.2 100.7 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 54 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 36 37 38 39 69 40 41 42 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 96.0 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.0 94.0 94.3 94.6 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 100.1 99.5 98.9 98.1 97.4 100.1 99.9 99.6 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 55 Item Unit Ex. 43 Ex. 44 Ex. 45 Ex. 46 Ex. 47 Ex. 48 Ex. 49 Ex. 50 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 95.0 95.3 95.7 96.2 96.6 97.1 97.6 98.1 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 99.2 98.8 98.3 97.8 97.2 96.6 95.9 95.2 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 56 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 70 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 98.6 94.6 94.9 95.2 95.5 95.9 96.3 96.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 94.4 97.1 96.9 96.7 96.3 95.9 95.4 94.8 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 57 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 58 59 60 61 71 62 63 64 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 97.2 97.7 98.2 98.7 99.2 95.2 95.5 95.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 94.2 93.6 92.9 92.2 91.4 94.2 93.9 93.7 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 58 Item Unit Ex. 65 Ex. 66 Ex. 67 Ex. 68 Ex. 69 Ex. 70 Ex. 71 Ex. 72 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 7.9 2.9 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 96.2 96.6 97.0 97.4 97.9 98.3 98.8 99.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 93.3 92.9 92.4 91.8 91.2 90.5 89.8 89.1 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 59 Item Unit Ex. 73 Ex. 74 Ex. 75 Ex. 76 Ex. 77 Ex. 78 Ex. 79 Ex. 80 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.2 96.5 96.9 97.2 97.7 98.1 98.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 91.1 90.9 90.6 90.2 89.8 89.3 88.7 88.1 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 60 Item Unit Ex. 81 Ex. 82 Ex. 83 Ex. 84 Ex. 85 Ex. 86 Ex. 87 Ex. 88 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.9 2.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 99.0 99.4 96.6 96.9 97.2 97.6 98.0 98.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 87.4 86.7 88.0 87.8 87.5 87.1 86.6 86.1 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 61 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Unit Ex. 72 Ex. 73 Ex. 74 Ex. 75 Ex. 76 Ex. 77 Ex. 78 Ex. 79 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 12.9 7.9 2.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 98.8 99.2 99.6 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.3 98.7 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 85.5 84.9 84.2 84.9 84.6 84.3 83.9 83.5 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 62 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 80 81 82 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 12.9 7.9 2.9 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.1 99.5 99.9 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 82.9 82.3 81.7

TABLE 63 Item Unit Ex. 89 Ex. 90 Ex. 91 Ex. 92 Ex. 93 Ex. 94 Ex. 95 Ex. 96 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 70.5 65.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 93.7 93.9 94.1 94.4 94.7 95.0 95.4 95.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 110.2 110.0 109.7 109.3 108.9 108.4 107.9 107.3 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 64 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 97 83 98 99 100 101 102 103 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 30.5 25.5 65.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 40.5 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 96.2 96.6 94.2 94.4 94.6 94.9 95.2 95.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 106.6 106.0 107.5 107.3 107.0 106.6 106.1 105.6 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 65 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 104 105 106 84 107 108 109 110 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.3 96.7 97.1 94.6 94.8 95.1 95.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 105.1 104.5 103.8 103.1 104.7 104.5 104.1 103.7 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 66 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 111 112 113 114 115 85 116 117 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 55.5 50.5 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.7 96.0 96.4 96.8 97.2 97.6 95.1 95.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 103.3 102.8 102.2 101.6 101.0 100.3 101.8 101.6 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 67 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 86 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.6 95.9 96.2 96.5 96.9 97.3 97.7 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 101.2 100.8 100.4 99.9 99.3 98.7 98.0 97.3 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 68 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 50.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 95.6 95.9 96.1 96.4 96.7 97.1 97.5 97.9 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 98.9 98.6 98.3 97.9 97.4 96.9 96.3 95.7

TABLE 69 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 133 87 134 135 136 137 138 139 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.5 5.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 98.3 98.7 96.2 96.4 96.7 97.0 97.3 97.7 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 95.0 94.3 95.8 95.6 95.2 94.8 94.4 93.8

TABLE 70 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.5 10.5 5.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.1 98.5 98.9 96.8 97.0 97.3 97.6 97.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 93.3 92.6 92.0 92.8 92.5 92.2 91.8 91.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 71 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.5 10.5 5.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.3 98.7 99.1 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.3 98.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 90.8 90.2 89.6 89.6 89.4 89.0 88.6 88.2 ratio R410A)

TABLE 72 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 156 157 158 159 160 88 89 90 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.5 5.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 5.5 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.9 99.3 98.1 98.4 98.7 98.9 99.3 99.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 87.6 87.1 86.5 86.2 85.9 85.5 85.0 84.5 ratio R410A)

TABLE 73 Comp. Ex. 9 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 1 92 93 94 95 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 5.5 R1234yf Mass % 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 98.9 99.1 99.4 99.7 100.0 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 83.3 83.0 82.7 82.2 81.8

TABLE 74 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 63.1 58.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 94.8 95.0 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.9 96.2 96.6 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 111.5 111.2 110.9 110.5 110.0 109.5 108.9 108.3

TABLE 75 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 96 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 58.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 96.9 95.3 95.4 95.6 95.8 96.1 96.4 96.7 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 107.7 108.7 108.5 108.1 107.7 107.2 106.7 106.1

TABLE 76 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 176 97 177 178 179 180 181 182 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 97.0 97.4 95.7 95.9 96.1 96.3 96.6 96.9 Refrigerating % (relative to capacity ratio R410A) 105.5 104.9 105.9 105.6 105.3 104.8 104.4 103.8

TABLE 77 Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 183 184 98 185 186 187 188 189 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 97.2 97.5 97.9 96.1 96.3 96.5 96.8 97.1 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 103.3 102.6 102.0 103.0 102.7 102.3 101.9 101.4

TABLE 78 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 190 191 192 99 193 194 195 196 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.3 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 100.9 100.3 99.7 99.1 100.0 99.7 99.4 98.9 ratio R410A)

TABLE 79 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 197 198 199 200 100 201 202 203 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 97.6 97.9 98.2 98.5 98.9 97.1 97.3 97.6 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 98.5 97.9 97.4 96.8 96.1 97.0 96.7 96.3

TABLE 80 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 33.1 28.1 23.1 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 97.8 98.1 98.4 98.7 99.1 97.7 97.9 98.1 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 95.9 95.4 94.9 94.4 93.8 93.9 93.6 93.3

TABLE 81 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 28.1 23.1 18.1 13.1 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 98.4 98.7 99.0 99.3 98.3 98.5 98.7 99.0 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 92.9 92.4 91.9 91.3 90.8 90.5 90.2 89.7

TABLE 82 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 101 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 8.1 3.1 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 18.1 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.3 99.6 98.9 99.1 99.3 99.6 99.9 99.6 Refrigerating capacity % (relative to ratio R410A) 89.3 88.8 87.6 87.3 87.0 86.6 86.2 84.4

TABLE 83 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 102 103 104 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 13.1 8.1 3.1 R1234yf Mass % 50.0 50.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.8 100.0 100.2 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 84.1 83.8 83.4

TABLE 84 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 105 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 55.7 50.7 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.0 96.2 96.3 96.6 96.8 97.1 97.3 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 112.2 111.9 111.6 111.2 110.7 110.2 109.6 109.0 ratio R410A)

TABLE 85 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 106 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 50.7 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 96.3 96.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.5 97.8 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 109.4 109.2 108.8 108.4 107.9 107.4 106.8 106.2 ratio R410A)

TABLE 86 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 107 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 96.7 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.4 97.7 97.9 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 106.6 106.3 106.0 105.5 105.1 104.5 104.0 103.4 ratio R410A)

TABLE 87 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 108 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 97.1 97.3 97.5 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.4 98.7 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 103.7 103.4 103.0 102.6 102.2 101.6 101.1 100.5 ratio R410A)

TABLE 88 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 30.7 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 97.6 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.4 98.6 98.9 98.1 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 100.7 100.4 100.1 99.7 99.2 98.7 98.2 97.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 89 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative to 98.2 98.4 98.6 98.9 99.1 98.6 98.7 98.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 97.4 97.1 96.7 96.2 95.7 94.7 94.4 94.0 ratio R410A)

TABLE 90 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.7 5.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 15.7 10.7 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative to 99.2 99.4 99.1 99.3 99.5 99.7 99.7 99.8 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 93.6 93.2 91.5 91.3 90.9 90.6 88.4 88.1 ratio R410A)

TABLE 91 Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 279 280 109 110 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 10.0 15.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 5.7 10.7 5.7 5.7 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 50.0 50.0 55.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.0 100.3 100.4 100.9 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 87.8 85.2 85.0 82.0

TABLE 92 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 281 282 283 284 285 111 286 287 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.9 35.9 30.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 35.9 30.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 298 298 298 298 298 298 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 97.8 97.9 97.9 98.1 98.2 98.4 98.2 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 112.5 112.3 111.9 111.6 111.2 110.7 109.8 109.5 ratio R410A)

TABLE 93 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 288 289 290 112 291 292 293 294 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.9 20.9 15.9 10.9 30.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 98.3 98.5 98.6 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.7 98.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 109.2 108.8 108.4 108.0 107.0 106.7 106.4 106.0 ratio R410A)

TABLE 94 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 295 113 296 297 298 299 300 301 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.9 5.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 10.9 5.9 20.9 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 99.0 99.2 99.0 99.0 99.2 99.3 99.4 99.4 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 105.6 105.2 104.1 103.9 103.6 103.2 102.8 101.2 ratio R410A)

TABLE 95 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.9 10.9 5.9 15.9 10.9 5.9 10.9 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 99.5 99.6 99.7 99.8 99.9 100.0 100.3 100.4 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 101.0 100.7 100.3 98.3 98.0 97.8 95.3 95.1 ratio R410A)

TABLE 96 Item Unit Ex. 400 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 GWP 299 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.7 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 92.3

The above results indicate that the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass %, a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) is on the left side, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4) and point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on,

or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516) and point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801);

if 18.2a<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on,

or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695) and point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on,

or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207) and point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on,

or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9) and point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05).

Actual points having a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more form a curved line that connects point A and point B in FIG. 3, and that extends toward the 1234yf side. Accordingly, when coordinates are on, or on the left side of, the straight line AB, the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more.

Similarly, it was also found that in the ternary composition diagram, if 0<a≤11.1, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on, or on the left side of, a straight line D′C that connects point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6) and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0); or if 11.1<a≤46.7, when coordinates are in the entire region, the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 92.5% or more.

In FIG. 3, the COP ratio of 92.5% or more forms a curved line CD. In FIG. 3, an approximate line formed by connecting three points: point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0) and points (26.6, 68.4, 5) (19.5, 70.5, 10) where the COP ratio is 92.5% when the concentration of R1234yf is 5 mass % and 10 mass was obtained, and a straight line that connects point C and point D′ (0, 75.4, 24.6), which is the intersection of the approximate line and a point where the concentration of HFO-1132(E) is 0.0 mass % was defined as a line segment D′C. In FIG. 4, point D′(0, 83.4, 9.5) was similarly obtained from an approximate curve formed by connecting point C (18.4, 74.5, 0) and points (13.9, 76.5, 2.5) (8.7, 79.2, 5) where the COP ratio is 92.5%, and a straight line that connects point C and point D′ was defined as the straight line D′C.

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

The results are shown in Tables 97 to 104.

TABLE 97 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item 6 13 19 24 29 34 WCF HFO-1132(E) Mass 72.0 60.9 55.8 52.1 48.6 45.4 % HFO-1123 Mass 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.4 33.2 32.7 % R1234yf Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 % R32 Mass 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 % Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 98 Item Comp. Ex. 39 Comp. Ex. 45 Comp. Ex. 51 Comp. Ex. 57 Comp. Ex. 62 WCF HFO-1132(E) Mass % 41.8 40 35.7 32 30.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.9 21.8 R1234yf Mass % 0 0 0 0 0 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 99 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item 7 14 20 25 30 35 WCF HFO-1132(E) Mass 72.0 60.9 55.8 52.1 48.6 45.4 % HFO-1123 Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 % R1234yf Mass 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.4 33.2 32.7 % R32 Mass 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 % Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 100 Item Comp. Ex. 40 Comp. Ex. 46 Comp. Ex. 52 Comp. Ex. 58 Comp. Ex. 63 WCF HFO-1132(E) Mass % 41.8 40 35.7 32 30.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf Mass % 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.9 21.8 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 101 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 8 Ex. 15 Ex. 21 Ex. 26 Ex. 31 Ex. 36 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 47.1 40.5 37.0 34.3 32.0 30.3 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 52.9 52.4 51.9 51.2 49.8 47.8 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 Leak condition that results Storage/ Strorage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid phase phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side side WCFF HFO-1132 Mass % 72.0 62.4 56.2 50.6 45.1 40.0 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 28.0 31.6 33.0 33.4 32.5 30.5 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.4 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 50.9 10.8 16.0 22.4 29.5 Burning velocity cm/s 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or (WCF) less less less less less less Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 102 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 41 Ex. 47 Ex. 53 Ex. 59 Ex. 64 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 29.1 28.8 29.3 29.4 28.9 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 44.2 41.9 34.0 26.5 23.3 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Leak condition that results Storage/ Strorage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 90% 86% release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid liquid gas gas phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 34.6 32.2 27.7 28.3 27.5 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 26.5 23.9 17.5 18.2 16.7 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 38.9 43.9 54.8 53.5 55.8 Burning velocity cm/s 8 or 8 or 8.3 9.3 9.6 (WCF) less less Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 103 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 9 Ex. 16 Ex. 22 Ex. 27 Ex. 32 Ex. 37 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 61.7 47.0 41.0 36.5 32.5 28.8 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 5.9 7.2 6.5 5.6 4.0 2.4 R1234yf Mass % 32.4 38.7 41.4 43.4 45.3 46.9 R32 Mass % 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 Leak condition that results Storage/ Strorage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% 0% 0% 92% 0% 0% release, release, release, release, release, release, gas gas gas liquid gas gas phase phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side side WCFF HFO-1132 Mass % 72.0 56.2 50.4 46.0 42.4 39.1 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 10.5 12.6 11.4 10.1 7.4 4.4 R1234yf Mass % 17.5 20.4 21.8 22.9 24.3 25.7 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.8 16.3 21.0 25.9 30.8 Burning velocity cm/s 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or (WCF) less less less less less less Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 104 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 42 Ex. 48 Ex. 54 Ex. 60 Ex. 65 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 24.8 24.3 22.5 21.1 20.4 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 48.5 46.4 40.8 34.8 31.8 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Leak condition that results Storage/ Strorage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% release, release, release, release, release, gas gas gas gas gas phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side WCFF HFO-1132 Mass % 35.3 34.3 31.3 29.1 28.1 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 27.4 26.2 23.1 19.8 18.2 R32 Mass % 37.3 39.6 45.6 51.1 53.7 Burning velocity cm/s 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or 8 or (WCF) less less less less less Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

The results in Tables 97 to 100 indicate that the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0) and point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0) and point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0) and point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects
point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0) and point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0) and point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098).

Three points corresponding to point G (Table 105) and point I (Table 106) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.

TABLE 105 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 72.0 60.9 55.8 55.8 52.1 48.6 48.6 45.4 41.8 41.8 40.0 35.7 35.7 32.0 30.4 HFO-1123 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.1 33.4 33.2 33.2 32.7 31.5 31.5 30.7 27.6 27.6 23.9 21.8 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a a a a HFO-1132(E) 0.026a2 0.02a2 0.0135a2 0.0111a2 − 0.0061a2 Approximate 1.7478a + 1.6013a + 1.4068a + 1.3152a + 0.9918a + expression 72.0 71.105 69.727 68.986 63.902 HFO-1123 −0.026a2 + −0.02a2 + −0.0135a2 + −0.0111a2 + −0.0061a2 Approximate 0.7478a + 0.6013a + 0.4068a + 0.3152a + 0.0082a + expression 28.0 28.895 30.273 31.014 36.098 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 Approximate expression

TABLE 106 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 72.0 60.9 55.8 55.8 52.1 48.6 48.6 45.4 41.8 41.8 40.0 35.7 35.7 32.0 30.4 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.1 33.4 33.2 33.2 32.7 31.5 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.6 23.5 21.8 R32 a a a x x HFO-1132(E) 0.026a2 0.02a2 0.0135a2 0.0111a2 0.0061a2 Approximate 1.7478a + 1.6013a + 1.4068a + 1.3152a + 0.9918a + expression 72.0 71.105 69.727 68.986 63.902 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.026a2 + −0.02a2 + −0.0135a2 + −0.0111a2 + −0.0061a2 Approximate 0.7478a + 0.6013a + 0.4068a + 0.3152a + 0.0082a + expression 28.0 28.895 30.273 31.014 36.098

The results in Tables 101 to 104 indicate that the refrigerant is determined to have a WCFF lower flammability, and the flammability classification according to the ASHRAE Standard is “2L (flammability)” in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0−a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0) and point K′(0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4); if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates are on a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0) and point K′(0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0) and point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0) and point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0) and point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557).

Actual points having a WCFF lower flammability form a curved line that connects point J and point K′ (on the straight line AB) in FIG. 3 and extends toward the HFO-1132(E) side. Accordingly, when coordinates are on or below the straight line JK′, WCFF lower flammability is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point J (Table 107) and point K′ (Table 108) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.

TABLE 107 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 47.8 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 47.1 40.5 37 37.0 34.3 32.0 32.0 30.3 29.1 29.1 28.8 29.3 29.3 29.4 28.9 HFO-1123 52.9 52.4 51.9 51.9 51.2 49.8 49.8 47.8 44.2 44.2 41.9 34.0 34.0 26.5 23.3 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a a a a HFO-1132(E) 0.0049a2 0.0243a2 0.0246a2 0.0183a2 −0.0134a2 + Approximate 0.9645a + 1.4161a + 1.4476a + 1.1399a + 1.0956a + expression 47.1 49.725 50.184 46.493 7.13 HFO-1123 −0.0049a2 −0.0243a2 + −0.0246a2 + −0.0183a2 + 0.0134a2 Approximate 0.0355a + 0.4161a + 0.4476a + 0.1399a + 2.0956a + expression 52.9 50.275 49.816 53.507 92.87 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 Approximate expression

TABLE 108 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 61.7 47.0 41.0 41.0 36.5 32.5 32.5 28.8 24.8 24.8 24.3 22.5 22.5 21.1 20.4 HFO-1123 5.9 7.2 6.5 6.5 5.6 4.0 4.0 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 32.4 38.7 41.4 41.4 43.4 45.3 45.3 46.9 48.5 48.5 46.4 40.8 40.8 34.8 31.8 R32 x x x x x HFO-1132(E) 0.0514a2 0.0341a2 0.0196a2 −0.0051a2 + −1.892a + Approximate 2.4353a + 2.1977a + 1.7863a + 0.0929a + 29.443 expression 61.7 61.187 58.515 25.95 HFO-1123 −0.0323a2 + −0.0236a2 + −0.0079a2 0 0 Approximate 0.4122a + 0.34a + 0.1136a + expression 5.9 5.636 8.702 R1234yf −0.0191a2 + −0.0105a2 + −0.0117a2 + 0.0051a2 0.892a + Approximate 1.0231a + 0.8577a + 0.8999a + 1.0929a + 70.557 expression 32.4 33.177 32.783 74.05

FIGS. 3 to 13 show compositions whose R32 content a (mass %) is 0 mass %, 7.1 mass %, 11.1 mass %, 14.5 mass %, 18.2 mass %, 21.9 mass %, 26.7 mass %, 29.3 mass %, 36.7 mass %, 44.1 mass %, and 47.8 mass %, respectively.

Points A, B, C, and D′ were obtained in the following manner according to approximate calculation.

Point A is a point where the content of HFO-1123 is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved. Three points corresponding to point A were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 109).

TABLE 109 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 68.6 55.3 48.4 48.4 42.8 37 37 31.5 24.8 24.8 21.3 12.1 12.1 3.8 0 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 31.4 37.6 40.5 40.5 42.7 44.8 44.8 46.6 48.5 48.5 49.4 51.2 51.2 52.1 52.2 R32 a a a a a HFO-1132(E) 0.0134a2 0.0112a2 0.0107a2 0.0103a2 0.0085a2 Approximate 1.9681a + 1.9337a + 1.9142a + 1.9225a + 1.8102a + expression 68.6 68.484 68.305 68.793 67.1 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0134a2 + −0.0112a2 + −0.0107a2 + −0.0103a2 + −0.0085a2 + Approximate 0.9681a + 0.9337a + 0.9142a + 0.9225a + 0.8102a + expression 31.4 31.516 31.695 31.207 32.9

Point B is a point where the content of HFO-1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point B were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 110).

TABLE 110 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132(E) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 HFO-1123 58.7 47.8 42.3 42.3 37.8 33.1 33.1 28.5 22.9 22.9 19.9 11.7 11.8 3.9 0 R1234yf 41.3 45.1 46.6 46.6 47.7 48.7 48.7 49.6 50.4 50.4 50.8 51.6 51.5 52.0 52.2 R32 a a a a a HFO-1132(E) 0 0 0 0 0 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0.0144a2 0.0075a2 0.009a2 0.0046a2 0.0012a2 Approximate 1.6377a + 1.5156a + 1.6045a + 1.41a + 1.1659a + expression 58.7 58.199 59.318 57.286 52.95 R1234yf −0.0144a2 + −0.0075a2 + −0.009a2 + −0.0046a2 + −0.0012a2 + Approximate 0.6377a + 0.5156a + 0.6045a + 0.41a + 0.1659a + expression 41.3 41.801 40.682 42.714 47.05

Point D′ is a point where the content of HFO-1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point D′ were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 111).

TABLE 111 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 R32 0 7.1 11.1 HFO-1132(E) 0 0 0 HFO-1123 75.4 83.4 88.9 R1234yf 24.6 9.5 0 R32 a HFO-1132(E) 0 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0.0224a2 + 0.968a + 75.4 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0224a2 − 1.968a + 24.6 Approximate expression

Point C is a point where the content of R1234yf is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point C were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 112).

TABLE 112 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 R32 0 7.1 11.1 HFO-1132(E) 32.9 18.4 0 HF0-1123 67.1 74.5 88.9 R1234yf 0 0 0 R32 a HFO-1132(E) −0.2304a2 − 0.4062a + 32.9 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0.2304a2 − 0.5938a + 67.1 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 Approximate expression

(5-4) Refrigerant D

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant; i.e., a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, a sufficiently low GWP, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and

the line segment UO is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and

the line segment TL is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and

the line segment TP is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:

point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point c (36.5, 18.2, 45.3),
point f (47.6, 18.3, 34.1), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ac is represented by coordinates (0.0181y2−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y2+1.2288y+28.904);

the line segment fd is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y2+0.7y+28); and

the line segments cf and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:

point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point b (42.6, 14.5, 42.9),
point e (51.4, 14.6, 34.0), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0181y2−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y2+1.2288y+28.904);

the line segment ed is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y2+0.7y+28); and

the line segments be and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 100 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:

point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point i (55.1, 18.3, 26.6), and
point j (77.5. 18.4, 4.1),
or on these line segments;

the line segment gi is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y2+1.4583y+6.604); and

the line segments ij and jg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:

point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point h (61.8, 14.6, 23.6), and
point k (77.5, 14.6, 7.9),
or on these line segments;

the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y2+1.4583y+6.604); and

the line segments hk and kg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

(Examples of Refrigerant D)

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant D. However, the refrigerant D is not limited to the Examples.

The composition of each mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using the NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC. Tables 113 to 115 show the results.

TABLE 113 Compar- ative Ex- Ex- Ex- Example Ex- ample Ex- ample Ex- ample 13 ample 12 ample 14 ample 16 Item Unit I 11 J 13 K 15 L WCF HFO- Mass 72 57.2 48.5 41.2 35.6 32 28.9 1132 % (E) R32 Mass 0 10 18.3 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.7 % R1234 Mass 28 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.6 23.8 19.4 yf % Burning Velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCF)

TABLE 114 Compar- ative Ex- Example Example ample 14 Example 19 Example 21 Example Item Unit M 18 W 20 N 22 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 52.6 39.2 32.4 29.3 27.7 24.6 (E) R32 Mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 14.5 18.2 27.6 R1234yf Mass % 47.4 55.8 57.6 56.2 54.1 47.8 Leak condition that results in Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, WCFF Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% release, 0% release, 0% release, 0% release, 0% release, 0% release, on the gas on the gas on the gas on the gas on the gas on the gas phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 72.0 57.8 48.7 43.6 40.6 34.9 (E) R32 Mass % 0.0 9.5 17.9 24.2 28.7 38.1 R1234yf Mass % 28.0 32.7 33.4 32.2 30.7 27.0 Burning Velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning Velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 115 Example 23 Example Example 25 Item Unit O 24 P WCF HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 22.6 21.2 20.5 HFO-1123 Mass % 36.8 44.2 51.7 R1234yf Mass % 40.6 34.6 27.8 Leak condition that results in WCFF Storage, Storage, Storage, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% release, on 0% release, on 0% release, on the gas phase the gas phase the gas phase side side side WCFF HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 31.4 29.2 27.1 HFO-1123 Mass % 45.7 51.1 56.4 R1234yf Mass % 23.0 19.7 16.5 Burning Velocity (WCF) cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less Burning Velocity (WCFF) cm/s 10 10 10

The results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in FIG. 14 in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are on the line segment that connects point I, point J, point K, and point L, or below these line segments, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in FIG. 14 are on the line segments that connect point M, point M′, point W, point J, point N, and point P, or below these line segments, the refrigerant has an ASHRAE lower flammability.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in amounts (mass %) shown in Tables 116 to 144 based on the sum of UFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf. The coefficient of performance (COP) ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410 of the mixed refrigerants shown in Tables 116 to 144 were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.

Condensation temperature: 45° C.

Degree of superheating: 5 K

Degree of subcooling: 5 K

Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 116 to 144 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 116 Compar- Compar- Compar- Compar- Compar- Compar- Compar- ative Ex- ative Ex- ative Ex- ative Ex- ative Ex- ative Ex- ative Ex- ample 2 ample 3 ample 4 ample 5 ample 6 ample 7 Item Unit ample 1 A B A′ B′ A″ B″ HFO-1132(E) Mass % R410A 81.6 0.0 63.1 0.0 48.2 0.0 R32 Mass % 18.4 18.1 36.9 36.7 51.8 51.5 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 81.9 0.0 63.3 0.0 48.5 GWP 2088 125 125 250 250 350 350 COP Ratio % (relative 100 98.7 103.6 98.7 102.3 99.2 102.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 105.3 62.5 109.9 77.5 112.1 87.3 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 117 Compar- Compar- ative Ex- Compar- ative Ex- Ex- Ex- ample 8 ative Ex- ample 10 Ex- ample 2 Ex- ample 4 Item Unit C ample 9 C′ ample 1 R ample 3 T HFO-1132(E) Mass % 85.5 66.1 52.1 37.8 25.5 16.6 8.6 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.2 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.6 R1234yf Mass % 14.5 23.9 29.7 34.6 37.7 39.2 39.8 GWP 1 69 125 188 250 300 350 COP Ratio % (relative 99.8 99.3 99.3 99.6 100.2 100.8 101.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 118 Compar- Ex- Ex- Compar- Ex- ative Ex- Ex- ample Ex- ample ative Ex- Ex- ample ample 11 ample 6 ample 8 ample 12 ample 10 Item Unit E 5 N 7 U G 9 V HFO-1132(E) Mass % 58.3 40.5 27.7 14.9 3.9 39.6 22.8 11.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.2 27.6 36.7 0.0 10.0 18.1 R1234yf Mass % 41.7 49.5 54.1 57.5 59.4 60.4 67.2 70.9 GWP 2 70 125 189 250 3 70 125 COP Ratio % (relative 100.3 100.3 100.7 101.2 101.9 101.4 101.8 102.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 119 Comparative Example 13 Example 12 Example 14 Example16 Example 17 Item Unit I Example 11 J Example 13 K Example 15 L Q HFO-1132(E) Mass % 72.0 57.2 48.5 41.2 35.6 32.0 28.9 44.6 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.3 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.7 23.0 R1234yf Mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.6 23.8 19.4 32.4 GWP 2 69 125 188 250 300 350 157 COP Ratio % (relative to 99.9 99.5 99.4 99.5 99.6 99.8 100.1 99.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 86.6 88.4 90.9 94.2 97.7 100.5 103.3 92.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 120 Comparative Example 14 Example 19 Example 21 Item Unit M Example 18 W Example 20 N Example 22 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 52.6 39.2 32.4 29.3 27.7 24.5 R32 Mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 14.5 18.2 27.6 R1234yf Mass % 47.4 55.8 57.6 56.2 54.1 47.9 GWP 2 36 70 100 125 188 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.5 100.9 100.9 100.8 100.7 100.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 77.1 74.8 75.6 77.8 80.0 85.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 121 Example 23 Example Example 25 Example 26 Item Unit O 24 P S HFO- Mass % 22.6 21.2 20.5 21.9 1132(E) R32 Mass % 36.8 44.2 51.7 39.7 R1234yf Mass % 40.6 34.6 27.8 38.4 GWP 250 300 350 270 COP Ratio % 100.4 100.5 100.6 100.4 (related to R410A) Refrigerating % 91.0 95.0 99.1 92.5 Capacity (related Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 122 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 15 Example 16 Example 17 Example 18 Example 27 Example 28 Example 19 Example 20 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R1234yf Mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 GWP 37 37 37 36 36 36 35 35 COP Ratio % (relative to 103.4 102.6 101.6 100.8 100.2 99.8 99.6 99.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 56.4 63.3 69.5 75.2 80.5 85.4 90.1 94.4 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 123 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 21 Example 22 Example 29 Example 23 Example 30 Example 24 Example 25 Example 26 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R1234yf Mass % 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 GWP 71 71 70 70 70 69 69 69 COP Ratio % (relative to 103.1 102.1 101.1 100.4 99.8 99.5 99.2 99.1 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 61.8 68.3 74.3 79.7 84.9 89.7 94.2 98.4 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 124 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 27 Example 31 Example 28 Example 32 Example 33 Example 29 Example 30 Example 31 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 GWP 104 104 104 103 103 103 103 102 COP Ratio % (relative to 102.7 101.6 100.7 100.0 99.5 99.2 99.0 98.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 66.6 72.9 78.6 84.0 89.0 93.7 98.1 102.2 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 125 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 32 Example 33 Example 34 Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 R1234yf Mass % 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 65.0 GWP 138 138 137 137 137 136 136 171 COP Ratio % (relative to 102.3 101.2 100.4 99.7 99.3 99.0 98.8 101.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 71.0 77.1 82.7 88.0 92.9 97.5 101.7 75.0 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 126 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 34 Example 40 Example 41 Example 42 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 35 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 R1234yf Mass % 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 60.0 50.0 GWP 171 171 171 170 170 170 205 205 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.9 100.1 99.6 99.2 98.9 98.7 101.6 100.7 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 81.0 86.6 91.7 96.5 101.0 105.2 78.9 84.8 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 127 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 50 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 GWP 204 204 204 204 239 238 238 238 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.0 99.5 99.1 98.8 101.4 100.6 99.9 99.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 90.2 95.3 100.0 104.4 82.5 88.3 93.7 98.6 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 128 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 51 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 39 Example 55 Example 56 Example 57 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 5.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 45.0 GWP 237 237 272 272 272 271 271 306 COP Ratio % (relative to 99.0 98.8 101.3 100.6 99.9 99.4 99.0 101.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 103.2 107.5 86.0 91.7 96.9 101.8 106.3 89.3 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 129 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 40 Example 41 Example 58 Example 59 Example 60 Example 42 Example 61 Example 62 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 GWP 305 305 305 304 339 339 339 338 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.6 100.0 99.5 99.1 101.3 100.6 100.0 99.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 94.9 100.0 104.7 109.2 92.4 97.8 102.9 107.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 130 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 63 Example 64 Example 65 Example 66 Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 56.0 59.0 62.0 65.0 R32 Mass % 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 41.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 GWP 373 372 372 372 22 22 22 22 COP Ratio % (relative to 101.4 100.7 100.1 99.6 100.1 100.0 99.9 99.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 95.3 100.6 105.6 110.2 81.7 83.2 84.6 86.0 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 131 Item Unit Example 47 Example 48 Example 49 Example 50 Example 51 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 49.0 52.0 55.0 58.0 61.0 43.0 46.0 49.0 R32 Mass % 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 42.0 39.0 36.0 33.0 48.0 45.0 42.0 GWP 43 43 43 43 42 63 63 63 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.2 100.0 99.9 99.8 99.7 100.3 100.1 R410A) 99.9 Refrigerating % (relative to 80.9 82.4 83.9 85.4 86.8 80.4 82.0 83.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 132 Item Unit Example 55 Example 56 Example 57 Example 58 Example 59 Example 60 Example 61 Example 62 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 52.0 55.0 58.0 38.0 41.0 44.0 47.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 9.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 R1234yf Mass % 39.0 36.0 33.0 50.0 47.0 44.0 41.0 38.0 GWP 63 63 63 83 83 83 83 83 % (relative to 99.8 99.7 99.6 100.3 100.1 100.0 99.8 99.7 COP Ratio R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 85.0 86.5 87.9 80.4 82.0 83.5 85.1 86.6 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 133 Item Unit Example 63 Example 64 Example 65 Example 66 Example 67 Example 68 Example 69 Example 70 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 53.0 33.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 45.0 48.0 51.0 R32 Mass % 12.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 52.0 49.0 46.0 43.0 40.0 37.0 34.0 GWP 83 104 104 103 103 103 103 103 COP Ratio % (relative to 99.6 100.5 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.7 99.6 99.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 88.0 80.3 81.9 83.5 85.0 86.5 88.0 89.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 134 Item Unit Example 71 Example 72 Example 73 Example 74 Example 75 Example 76 Example 77 Example 78 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 29.0 32.0 35.0 38.0 41.0 44.0 47.0 36.0 R32 Mass % 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 3.0 R1234yf Mass % 53.0 50.0 47.0 44.0 41.0 38.0 35.0 61.0 GWP 124 124 124 124 124 123 123 23 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.6 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.8 99.6 99.5 101.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 80.6 82.2 83.8 85.4 86.9 88.4 89.9 71.0 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 135 Item Unit Example 79 Example 80 Example 81 Example 82 Example 83 Example 84 Example 85 Example 86 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 39.0 42.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 26.0 29.0 32.0 R32 Mass % 3.0 3.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 R1234yf Mass % 58.0 55.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 65.0 62.0 59.0 GWP 23 23 43 43 43 64 64 63 COP Ratio % (relative to 101.1 100.9 101.5 101.3 101.0 101.6 101.3 101.1 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 72.7 74.4 70.5 72.2 73.9 71.0 72.8 74.5 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 136 Item Unit Example 87 Example 88 Example 89 Example 90 Example 91 Example 92 Example 93 Example 94 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 67.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 69.0 66.0 63.0 60.0 GWP 84 84 84 84 104 104 104 104 COP Ratio % (relative to 101.8 101.5 101.2 101.0 102.1 101.8 101.4 101.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 70.8 72.6 74.3 76.0 70.4 72.3 74.0 75.8 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 137 Item Unit Example 95 Example 96 Example 97 Example 98 Example 99 Example 100 Example 101 Example 102 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 28.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 15.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 21.0 R1234yf Mass % 57.0 70.0 67.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 55.0 54.0 GWP 104 124 124 124 124 124 124 144 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.9 102.2 101.9 101.6 101.3 101.0 100.7 100.7 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 77.5 70.5 72.4 74.2 76.0 77.7 79.4 80.7 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 138 Item Unit Example 103 Example 104 Example 105 Example 106 Example 107 Example 108 Example 109 Example 110 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 24.0 17.0 20.0 23.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 R32 Mass % 24.0 24.0 27.0 27.0 27.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R1234yf Mass % 55.0 52.0 56.0 53.0 50.0 57.0 54.0 51.0 GWP 164 164 185 185 184 205 205 205 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.9 100.6 101.1 100.8 100.6 101.3 101.0 100.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 80.8 82.5 80.8 82.5 84.2 80.7 82.5 84.2 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 139 Item Unit Example 111 Example 112 Example 113 Example 114 Example 115 Example 116 Example 117 Example 118 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 22.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 8.0 12.0 R32 Mass % 30.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 36.0 36.0 R1234yf Mass % 48.0 58.0 55.0 52.0 49.0 46.0 56.0 52.0 GWP 205 225 225 225 225 225 245 245 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.5 101.6 101.3 101.0 100.8 100.5 101.6 101.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 85.9 80.5 82.3 84.1 85.8 87.5 82.0 84.4 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 140 Item Unit Example 119 Example 120 Example 121 Example 122 Example 123 Example 124 Example 125 Example 126 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 18.0 21.0 42.0 39.0 34.0 37.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 36.0 36.0 36.0 25.0 28.0 31.0 31.0 34.0 R1234yf Mass % 49.0 46.0 43.0 33.0 33.0 35.0 32.0 36.0 GWP 245 245 245 170 191 211 211 231 COP Ratio % (relative to 101.0 100.7 100.5 99.5 99.5 99.8 99.6 99.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 86.2 87.9 89.6 92.7 93.4 93.0 94.5 93.0 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 141 Item Unit Example 127 Example 128 Example 129 Example 130 Example 131 Example 132 Example 133 Example 134 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 33.0 36.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 23.0 26.0 R32 Mass % 34.0 34.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 40.0 40.0 R1234yf Mass % 33.0 30.0 39.0 36.0 33.0 30.0 37.0 34.0 GWP 231 231 252 251 251 251 272 272 COP Ratio % (relative to 99.8 99.6 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.8 100.4 100.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 94.5 96.0 91.9 93.4 95.0 96.5 93.3 94.9 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 142 Item Unit Example 135 Example 136 Example 137 Example 138 Example 139 Example 140 Example 141 Example 142 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 29.0 32.0 19.0 22.0 25.0 28.0 31.0 18.0 R32 Mass % 40.0 40.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 46.0 R1234yf Mass % 31.0 28.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 29.0 26.0 36.0 GWP 272 271 292 292 292 292 292 312 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.0 99.8 100.6 100.4 100.2 100.1 99.9 100.7 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 96.4 97.9 93.1 94.7 96.2 97.8 99.3 94.4 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 143 Item Unit Example 143 Example 144 Example 145 Example 146 Example 147 Example 148 Example 149 Example 150 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 23.0 26.0 29.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 R32 Mass % 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 R1234yf Mass % 33.0 31.0 28.0 25.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 29.0 GWP 312 312 312 312 332 332 332 332 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.5 100.4 100.2 100.0 101.1 100.9 100.7 100.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 96.0 97.0 98.6 100.1 93.5 95.1 96.7 98.3 Capacity Ratio R410A)

TABLE 144 Item Unit Example 151 Example 152 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 28.0 R32 Mass % 49.0 49.0 R1234yf Mass % 26.0 23.0 GWP 332 332 COP Ratio % (related 100.3 100.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (related 99.8 101.3 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI),

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0),

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7), and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines, the refrigerant D has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM),

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4),

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02),

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4), and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments,

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488),

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365), and

the line segment UO is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments,

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235),

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874),

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512),

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324), and

the line segment TL is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The results further indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments,

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9),

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874), and

the line segment TP is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

(5-5) Refrigerant E

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32).

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A and a sufficiently low GWP.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);

the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z),

the line segments NR and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and

the line segment PS is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4

points:
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),

the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and

the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 250 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
point e′ (41.8, 39.8, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments c′d′, d′e′, and e′a′ (excluding the points c′ and a′);

the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z2−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z2+1.1915z+43.3, z),

the line segment d′e′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0535z2+0.3229z+53.957, 0.0535z2+0.6771z+46.043, z), and

the line segments Oc′, e′a′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5),
point e (72.2, 9.4, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments cd, de, and ea′ (excluding the points c and a′);

the line segment cde is represented by coordinates (−0.017z2+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z2+0.9852z+22.316, z), and

the line segments Oc, ea′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments c′d′ and d′a (excluding the points c′ and a);

the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z2−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z2+1.1915z+43.3, z), and

the line segments Oc′, d′a, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments cd and da (excluding the points c and a);

the line segment cd is represented by coordinates (−0.017z2+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z2+0.9852z+22.316, z), and

the line segments Oc, da, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and even more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

(Examples of Refrigerant E)

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant E. However, the refrigerant E is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 145 and 146.

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions for equipment, storage, shipping, leak, and recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

For each mixed refrigerant, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. When the burning velocities of the WCF composition and the WCFF composition are 10 cm/s or less, the flammability of such a refrigerant is classified as Class 2L (lower flammability) in the ASHRAE flammability classification.

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

Tables 145 and 146 show the results.

TABLE 145 Item Unit I J K L WCF HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 57.7 48.4 35.5 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 27.5 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 37.0 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10

TABLE 146 Item Unit M N T P U Q WCF HFO- mass 47.1 38.5 34.8 31.8 28.7 28.6 1132(E) % HFO-1123 mass 52.9 52.1 51.0 49.8 41.2 34.4 % R32 mass 0.0 9.5 14.2 18.4 30.1 37.0 % Leak condition that results in Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, WCFF Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, release, release, release, release, release, release, on the liquid on the liquid on the liquid on the on the on the liquid phase side phase side phase side liquid liquid phase side phase side phase side WCFF HFO- mass 72.0 58.9 51.5 44.6 31.4 27.1 1132(E) % HFO-1123 mass 28.0 32.4 33.1 32.6 23.2 18.3 % R32 mass 0.0 8.7 15.4 22.8 45.4 54.6 % Burning velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

The results in Table 1 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments IK and KL that connect the following 3 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), and
point L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.00, z), and
the line segment KL is represented by coordinates (0.0098z2−1.238z+67.852, −0.0098z2+0.238z+32.148, z),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has WCF lower flammability.

For the points on the line segment IK, an approximate curve (x=0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00) was obtained from three points, i.e., I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), and K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4) by using the least-square method to determine coordinates (x=0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, y=100−z−x=−0.00922z2+0.2114z+32.443, z).

Likewise, for the points on the line segment KL, an approximate curve was determined from three points, i.e., K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), Example 10 (41.1, 31.2, 27.7), and L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0) by using the least-square method to determine coordinates.

The results in Table 146 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments MP and PQ that connect the following 3 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), and
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has ASHRAE lower flammability.

In the above, the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and the line segment PQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z).

For the points on the line segment MP, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points M, N, and P, by using the least-square method to determine coordinates. For the points on the line segment PQ, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points P, U, and Q, by using the least-square method to determine coordinates.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in Patent Literature 1). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

The COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity (which may be referred to as “cooling capacity” or “capacity”) ratio relative to those of R410 of the mixed refrigerants were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 147 to 166 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 147 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Item Unit Example 1 A B A′ B′ A″ B″ HFO-1132(E) mass % R410A 90.5 0.0 81.6 0.0 63.0 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 90.5 0.0 81.6 0.0 63.0 R32 mass % 9.5 9.5 18.4 18.4 37.0 37.0 GWP 2088 65 65 125 125 250 250 COP ratio % 100 99.1 92.0 98.7 93.4 98.7 96.1 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 100 102.2 111.6 105.3 113.7 110.0 115.4 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 148 Comparative Comparative Comparative Example 8 Example 9 Comparative Example 1 Example 11 Item Unit O C Example 10 U Example 2 D HFO-1132(E) mass % 100.0 50.0 41.1 28.7 15.2 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 31.6 34.6 41.2 52.7 67.0 R32 mass % 0.0 18.4 24.3 30.1 32.1 33.0 GWP 1 125 165 204 217 228 COP ratio % (relative 99.7 96.0 96.0 96.0 96.0 96.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 98.3 109.9 111.7 113.5 114.8 115.4 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 149 Comparative Comparative Example 12 Comparative Example 3 Example 4 Example 14 Item Unit E Example 13 T S F HFO-1132(E) mass % 53.4 43.4 34.8 25.4 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 46.6 47.1 51.0 56.2 74.1 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 14.2 18.4 25.9 GWP 1 65 97 125 176 COP ratio % (relative to 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 105.6 109.2 110.8 112.3 114.8 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 150 Comparative Comparative Example 15 Example 6 Example 16 Item Unit G Example 5 R Example 7 H HFO-1132(E) mass % 38.5 31.5 23.1 16.9 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 61.5 63.5 67.4 71.1 84.2 R32 mass % 0.0 5.0 9.5 12.0 15.8 GWP 1 35 65 82 107 COP ratio % (relative to 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 107.0 109.1 110.9 111.9 113.2 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 151 Comparative Example Example Comparative Comparative Example 17 8 9 Example Example Item Unit I J K 18 19 HFO- mass % 72.0 57.7 48.4 41.1 35.5 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.5 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 27.7 37.0 GWP 1 65 125 188 250 COP ratio % (relative 96.6 95.8 95.9 96.4 97.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.1 107.4 110.1 112.1 113.2 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 152 Comparative Example Example Example Example 20 10 11 12 Item Unit M N P Q HFO- mass % 47.1 38.5 31.8 28.6 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 52.9 52.1 49.8 34.4 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 37.0 GWP 1 65 125 250 COP ratio % 93.9 94.1 94.7 96.9 (related to R410A) Refrigerating % 106.2 109.7 112.0 114.1 capacity (related ratio to R410A)

TABLE 153 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 22 23 24 14 15 16 25 26 HFO- mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R32 mas s% 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 GWP 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 COP ratio % 91.7 92.2 92.9 93.7 94.6 95.6 96.7 97.7 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 110.1 109.8 109.2 108.4 107.4 106.1 104.7 103.1 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 154 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 27 28 29 17 18 19 30 31 HFO- mass % 90.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 5.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 R32 mass % 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 GWP 35 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 COP ratio % 98.8 92.4 92.9 93.5 94.3 95.1 96.1 97.0 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 101.4 111.7 111.3 110.6 109.6 108.5 107.2 105.7 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 155 Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 32 20 21 22 23 24 33 34 HFO- mass % 80.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 10.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R32 mass % 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 GWP 68 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 COP ratio % 98.0 93.1 93.6 94.2 94.9 95.6 96.5 97.4 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 104.1 112.9 112.4 111.6 110.6 109.4 108.1 106.6 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 156 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 HFO- mass % 80.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 5.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R32 mass % 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 102 136 136 136 136 136 136 136 COP ratio % 98.3 93.9 94.3 94.8 95.4 96.2 97.0 97.8 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 105.0 113.8 113.2 112.4 111.4 110.2 108.8 107.3 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 157 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 HFO- mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 60.0 R32 mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 GWP 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 203 COP ratio % (relative 94.6 94.9 95.4 96.0 96.7 97.4 98.2 95.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % 114.4 113.8 113.0 111.9 110.7 109.4 107.9 114.8 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 158 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 51 52 53 54 55 25 26 56 HFO- mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 R32 mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 203 203 203 203 203 237 237 237 COP ratio 95.6 96.0 96.6 97.2 97.9 96.0 96.3 96.6 % (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 114.2 113.4 112.4 111.2 109.8 115.1 114.5 113.6 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 159 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 HFO- mass % 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 25.0 15.0 5.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R32 mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 GWP 237 237 237 271 271 271 271 271 COP ratio % 97.1 97.7 98.3 96.6 96.9 97.2 97.7 98.2 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 112.6 111.5 110.2 115.1 114.6 113.8 112.8 111.7 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 160 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 HFO- mass % 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 41.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 60.0 58.0 56.0 54.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 R32 mass % 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 GWP 14 14 14 14 28 28 28 28 COP ratio % 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.7 93.2 93.3 93.5 93.7 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 107.7 107.5 107.3 107.2 108.6 108.4 108.2 108.0 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 161 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 HFO- mass % 43.0 31.0 33.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 41.0 27.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 53.0 63.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 53.0 65.0 R32 mass % 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 GWP 28 41 41 41 41 41 41 55 COP ratio % 93.9 93.1 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.7 93.9 93.0 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 107.8 109.5 109.3 109.1 109.0 108.8 108.6 110.3 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 162 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 HFO- mass % 29.0 31.0 33.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 32.0 32.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 63.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 53.0 51.0 50.0 R32 mass % 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 17.0 18.0 GWP 55 55 55 55 55 55 116 122 COP ratio % 93.2 93.3 93.5 93.6 93.8 94.0 94.5 94.7 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 110.1 110.0 109.8 109.6 109.5 109.3 111.8 111.9 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 163 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 HFO- mass % 30.0 27.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 11.0 13.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 52.0 42.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 54.0 52.0 R32 mass % 18.0 31.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 122 210 223 223 223 223 237 237 COP ratio % 94.5 96.0 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 96.0 96.0 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 112.1 113.7 114.3 114.2 114.0 113.8 115.0 114.9 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 164 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 HFO- mass % 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 11.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 48.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 52.0 R32 mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 37.0 GWP 237 237 237 237 237 237 237 250 COP ratio % (relative 96.1 96.2 96.2 96.3 96.4 96.4 96.5 96.2 to R410A) 114.8 114.7 114.5 114.4 114.2 114.1 113.9 115.1 Refrigerating % capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 165 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 HFO- mass % 13.0 15.0 17.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 48.0 46.0 50.0 48.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 R32 mass % 37.0 37.0 37.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GWP 250 250 250 237 237 237 237 237 COP ratio % 96.3 96.4 96.4 96.1 96.2 96.2 96.3 96.4 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 115.0 114.9 114.7 114.8 114.7 114.5 114.4 114.2 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

TABLE 166 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 HFO- mass % 25.0 27.0 11.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 40.0 38.0 52.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 R32 mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 GWP 237 237 250 250 250 250 250 250 COP ratio % 96.4 96.5 96.2 96.5 96.5 96.6 96.7 96.8 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 114.1 113.9 115.1 114.6 114.5 114.3 114.1 114.0 capacity (relative ratio to R410A)

The above results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A″ (63.0, 0.0, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 250 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 125 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
point B (0.0, 90.5, 9.5), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 65 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point C (50.0, 31.6, 18.4),
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), and
point D (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment CU is represented by coordinates (−0.0538z2+0.7888z+53.701, 0.0538z2−1.7888z+46.299, z), and the line segment UD is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z).

The points on the line segment CU are determined from three points, i.e., point C, Comparative Example 10, and point U, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment UD are determined from three points, i.e., point U, Example 2, and point D, by using the least-square method.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point E (55.2, 44.8, 0.0),
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), and
point F (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment ET is represented by coordinates (−0.0547z2-0.5327z+53.4, 0.0547z2−0.4673z+46.6, z), and the line segment TF is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z).

The points on the line segment ET are determined from three points, i.e., point E, Example 2, and point T, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment TF are determined from three points, i.e., points T, S, and F, by using the least-square method.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point G (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
point R (21.0, 69.5, 9.5), and
point H (0.0, 85.9, 14.1),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment GR is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and the line segment RH is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z).

The points on the line segment GR are determined from three points, i.e., point G, Example 5, and point R, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment RH are determined from three points, i.e., point R, Example 7, and point H, by using the least-square method.

In contrast, as shown in, for example, Comparative Examples 8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 18, when R32 is not contained, the concentrations of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123, which have a double bond, become relatively high; this undesirably leads to deterioration, such as decomposition, or polymerization in the refrigerant compound.

(6) First Embodiment

Now, with reference to FIG. 16 that illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit, and FIG. 17 that is a schematic control block diagram, the following describes an air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to a first embodiment, which is a refrigeration cycle apparatus including an indoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit and an outdoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit.

The air-conditioning apparatus 1 is an apparatus that performs a vapor compression refrigeration cycle to condition air in a space that is to be air-conditioned.

The air-conditioning apparatus 1 includes the following components as its main components: an outdoor unit 20; an indoor unit 30; a liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and a gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5 that connect the outdoor unit 20 and the indoor unit 30; a remote controller (not illustrated) serving as an input device and an output device; and a controller 7 that controls operation of the air-conditioning apparatus 1.

In the air-conditioning apparatus 1, a refrigeration cycle is performed in which refrigerant charged in a refrigerant circuit 10 is compressed, cooled or condensed, decompressed, and then heated or evaporated before being compressed again. In the first embodiment, the refrigerant circuit 10 is filled with a refrigerant used for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant is a refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene. Any one of the refrigerants A to E mentioned above can be used as the refrigerant. Further, the refrigerant circuit 10 is filled with refrigerating machine oil together with the refrigerant.

(6-1) Outdoor Unit 20

As illustrated in FIG. 18, the exterior of the outdoor unit 20 is defined by an outdoor housing 50 having a substantially cuboid box shape. As illustrated in FIG. 19, the internal space of the outdoor unit 20 is divided by a partition plate 50a into left and right portions to define a fan chamber and a machine chamber.

The outdoor unit 20 is connected to the indoor unit 30 via the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, and constitutes a portion of the refrigerant circuit 10. The outdoor unit 20 includes, as its main components, a compressor 21, a four-way switching valve 22, an outdoor heat exchanger 23, an outdoor expansion valve 24, an outdoor fan 25, a liquid-side shutoff valve 29, a gas-side shutoff valve 28, the outdoor housing 50, and an outdoor electric component unit 8.

The compressor 21 is a device that compresses low-pressure refrigerant into a high pressure in the refrigeration cycle. The compressor 21 used in the present case is a hermetic compressor with a rotary, scroll, or other type of positive displacement compression element (not illustrated) rotatably driven by a compressor motor. The compressor motor is used to change compressor capacity, and allows control of operating frequency by means of an inverter. The compressor 21 is provided with an attached accumulator (not illustrated) disposed on its suction side.

The four-way switching valve 22 is capable of switching its connection states between a cooling-operation connection state, in which the four-way switching valve 22 connects the discharge side of the compressor 21 with the outdoor heat exchanger 23 while connecting the suction side of the compressor 21 with the gas-side shutoff valve 28, and a heating-operation connection state, in which the four-way switching valve 22 connects the discharge side of the compressor 21 with the gas-side shutoff valve 28 while connecting the suction side of the compressor 21 with the outdoor heat exchanger 23.

The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is a heat exchanger that functions as a condenser for high-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle during cooling operation, and functions as an evaporator for low-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle during heating operation. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is a cross-flow fin-and-tube heat exchanger including a plurality of heat transfer fins 23a disposed in the thickness direction in an overlapping manner, and a plurality of heat transfer tubes 23b penetrating and secured to the heat transfer fins 23a.

The outdoor fan 25 generates an air flow for sucking outdoor air into the outdoor unit 20 for heat exchange with refrigerant in the outdoor heat exchanger 23, and then discharging the resulting air to the outside. The outdoor fan 25 is rotationally driven by an outdoor-fan motor. In the first embodiment, only one outdoor fan 25 is provided.

The outdoor expansion valve 24, whose opening degree can be controlled, is located between the liquid-side end portion of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29.

The liquid-side shutoff valve 29 is a manual valve disposed at a location in the outdoor unit 20 where the outdoor unit 20 connects with the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6. The liquid-side shutoff valve 29 is flare-connected to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6. The liquid-side shutoff valve 29, and the liquid-side outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 23 are connected by an outdoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 29a. The outdoor expansion valve 24 is disposed at a point along the outdoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 29a.

The gas-side shutoff valve 28 is a manual valve disposed at a location in the outdoor unit 20 where the outdoor unit 20 connects with the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The gas-side shutoff valve 28 is flare-connected to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The gas-side shutoff valve 28, and one of the connection ports of the four-way switching valve 22 are connected by an outdoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 28a.

As illustrated in FIG. 18, the outdoor housing 50 is a box-shaped body having an air outlet 52 and in which the components of the outdoor unit 20 are accommodated. The outdoor housing 50 has a substantially cuboid shape. The outdoor housing 50 is capable of taking in outdoor air from the back side and one lateral side (the left side in FIG. 18), and capable of blowing out air that has passed through the outdoor heat exchanger 23 forward through the air outlet 52 provided on a front face 51 of the outdoor housing 50. The lower end portion of the outdoor housing 50 is covered with a bottom plate 53. As illustrated in FIG. 19, the outdoor heat exchanger 23 is disposed upright on top of the bottom plate 53 so as to extend along the back side and one lateral side. The upper surface of the bottom plate 53 can serve as a drain pan.

The outdoor electric component unit 8 includes an outdoor-unit control unit 27 that controls operation of each component constituting the outdoor unit 20. The outdoor electric component unit 8 is disposed above the compressor 21 in a space located inside the outdoor housing 50 of the outdoor unit 20 and defining the machine chamber partitioned off by the partition plate 50a. The outdoor electric component unit 8 is secured to the partition plate 50a. The lower end portion of the outdoor electric component unit 8 is positioned above the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the gas-side shutoff valve 28 with respect to the vertical direction. The outdoor electric component unit 8 is preferably positioned 10 cm or more above and away from the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the gas-side shutoff valve 28. The outdoor-unit control unit 27 of the outdoor electric component unit 8 has a microcomputer including a CPU, a memory, and other components. The outdoor-unit control unit 27 is connected to an indoor-unit control unit 34 of indoor unit 30 via a communication line to transmit and receive a control signal or other information. The outdoor-unit control unit 27 is electrically connected to various sensors (not illustrated) to receive a signal from each sensor.

(6-2) Indoor Unit 30

The indoor unit 30 is installed on, for example, the wall surface of an indoor space that is to be air-conditioned. The indoor unit 30 is connected to the outdoor unit 20 via the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, and constitutes a portion of the refrigerant circuit 10.

The indoor unit 30 includes components such as an indoor heat exchanger 31, an indoor fan 32, an indoor liquid-side connection part 11, an indoor gas-side connection part 13, an indoor housing 54, and an indoor electric component unit 9.

The liquid side of the indoor heat exchanger 31 is connected with the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6, and the gas-side end is connected with the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The indoor heat exchanger 31 is a heat exchanger that functions as an evaporator for low-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle during cooling operation, and functions as a condenser for high-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle during heating operation. The indoor heat exchanger 31 includes a plurality of heat transfer fins 31a disposed in the thickness direction in an overlapping manner, and a plurality of heat transfer tubes 31b penetrating and secured to the heat transfer fins 31a.

The indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is a connection part that is provided in an end portion of an indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 extending from the liquid side of the indoor heat exchanger 31, and is flare-connected to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6.

The indoor gas-side connection part 13 is a connection part that is provided in an end portion of an indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 extending from the gas side of the indoor heat exchanger 31, and is flare-connected to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5.

The indoor fan 32 generates an air flow for sucking indoor air into the indoor housing 54 of the indoor unit 30 for heat exchange with refrigerant in the indoor heat exchanger 31, and then discharging the resulting air to the outside. The indoor fan 32 is rotationally driven by an indoor-fan motor (not illustrated).

As illustrated in FIGS. 20, 21, and 22, the indoor housing 54 is a housing with a substantially cuboid shape that accommodates the indoor heat exchanger 31, the indoor fan 32, and the indoor-unit control unit 34. The indoor housing 54 has, for example, a top face 55 defining the upper end portion of the indoor housing 54, a front panel 56 defining the front portion of the indoor housing 54, a bottom face 57 defining the bottom portion of the indoor housing 54, an air outlet 58a, a louver 58, left and right side faces 59, and a back face facing the indoor wall surface. The top face 55 has a plurality of top air inlets 55a defined in the vertical direction. The front panel 56 is a panel that extends downward from the vicinity of the front end portion of the top face 55. The front panel 56 has, in its upper portion, a front air inlet 56a defined by a laterally elongated opening. Indoor air is admitted through the top air inlets 55a and the front air inlet 56a into an air passage defined by a space inside the indoor housing 54 where the indoor heat exchanger 31 and the indoor fan 32 are accommodated. The bottom face 57 extends substantially horizontally below the indoor heat exchanger 31, the indoor fan 32, and other components. The air outlet 58a is provided at a lower front location of the indoor housing 54, below the front panel 56 and at the front side of the bottom face 57, such that the air outlet 58a is directed toward the lower front. A laterally oriented opening is provided at a lower position on the right side face 59, near the back side. The indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connection part 13 are located in the vicinity of the opening.

The indoor electric component unit 9 includes the indoor-unit control unit 34 that controls operation of each component constituting the indoor unit 30. The indoor electric component unit 9 is secured at an upper position inside the indoor housing 54 of the indoor unit 30 near a lateral end portion located rightward of the indoor heat exchanger 31. The lower end portion of the indoor electric component unit 9 is positioned above the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connecting part 13 with respect to the vertical direction. The indoor electric component unit 9 is preferably positioned 10 cm or more above and away from the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connecting part 13. The indoor-unit control unit 34 of the indoor electric component unit 9 has a microcomputer including a CPU, a memory, and other components. The indoor-unit control unit 34 is connected to the outdoor-unit control unit 27 via a communication line to transmit and receive a control signal or other information. The indoor-unit control unit 34 is electrically connected to various sensors (not illustrated) disposed inside the indoor unit 30, and receives a signal from each sensor.

(6-3) Details of Controller 7

For the air-conditioning apparatus 1, the outdoor-unit control unit 27 and the indoor-unit control unit 34 that are connected via a communication line constitute the controller 7 that controls operation of the air-conditioning apparatus 1.

The controller 7 includes, as its main components, a central processing unit (CPU), and a ROM, a RAM, or other memories. Various processes and controls are implemented by the controller 7 through the integral functioning of various components included in the outdoor-unit control unit 27 and/or the indoor-unit control unit 34.

(6-4) Operating Modes

Operating modes will be described below.

A cooling operation mode and a heating operation mode are provided as operation modes.

The controller 7 determines, based on an instruction accepted from a remote controller or other devices, whether the operating mode to be executed is the cooling operation mode or heating operation mode, and executes the operating mode.

(6-4-1) Cooling Operation Mode

In cooling operation mode, the air-conditioning apparatus 1 sets the four-way switching valve 22 to a cooling-operation connection state in which the four-way switching valve 22 connects the discharge side of the compressor 21 with the outdoor heat exchanger 23 while connecting the suction side of the compressor 21 with the gas-side shutoff valve 28, such that refrigerant charged in the refrigerant circuit 10 is circulated mainly through the compressor 21, the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the outdoor expansion valve 24, and the indoor heat exchanger 31 in this order.

More specifically, when the cooling operation mode is started, refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit 10 is sucked into and compressed by the compressor 21, and then discharged from the compressor 21.

The capacity of the compressor 21 is controlled in accordance with the cooling load required by the indoor unit 30. Gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 21 passes through the four-way switching valve 22 into the gas-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23.

Upon entering the gas-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant exchanges heat in the outdoor heat exchanger 23 with the outdoor-side air supplied by the outdoor fan 25 and thus condenses into liquid refrigerant, which then leaves the liquid-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23.

After leaving the liquid-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant is decompressed when passing through the outdoor expansion valve 24. The outdoor expansion valve 24 is controlled such that the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 23 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition.

The refrigerant decompressed in the outdoor expansion valve 24 then passes through the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 into the indoor unit 30.

Upon entering the indoor unit 30, the refrigerant flows into the indoor heat exchanger 31. In the indoor heat exchanger 31, the refrigerant exchanges heat with the indoor air supplied by the indoor fan 32 and thus evaporates into gas refrigerant, which then leaves the gas-side end of the indoor heat exchanger 31. After leaving the gas-side end of the indoor heat exchanger 31, the gas refrigerant flows toward the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5.

After flowing through the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, the refrigerant passes through the gas-side shutoff valve 28 and the four-way switching valve 22 before being sucked into the compressor 21 again.

(6-4-2) Heating Operation Mode

In heating operation mode, the air-conditioning apparatus 1 sets the four-way switching valve 22 to a heating-operation connection state in which the four-way switching valve 22 connects the discharge side of the compressor 21 with the gas-side shutoff valve 28 while connecting the suction side of the compressor 21 with the outdoor heat exchanger 23, such that refrigerant charged in the refrigerant circuit 10 is circulated mainly through the compressor 21, the indoor heat exchanger 31, the outdoor expansion valve 24, and the outdoor heat exchanger 23 in this order.

More specifically, when the heating operation mode is started, refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit 10 is sucked into and compressed by the compressor 21, and then discharged from the compressor 21.

The capacity of the compressor 21 is controlled in accordance with the heating load required by the indoor unit 30. Gas refrigerant discharged from the compressor 21 flows through the four-way switching valve 22 and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, and then enters the indoor unit 30.

Upon entering the indoor unit 30, the refrigerant flows into the gas-side end of the indoor heat exchanger 31. In the indoor heat exchanger 31, the refrigerant exchanges heat with the indoor air supplied by the indoor fan 32 and thus condenses into gas-liquid two-phase refrigerant or liquid refrigerant, which then leaves the liquid-side end of the indoor heat exchanger 31. After leaving the liquid-side end of the indoor heat exchanger 31, the refrigerant flows toward the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6.

After flowing through the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6, the refrigerant is decompressed in the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the outdoor expansion valve 24 until its pressure reaches a low pressure in the refrigeration cycle. The outdoor expansion valve 24 is controlled such that the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the indoor heat exchanger 31 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. The refrigerant decompressed in the outdoor expansion valve 24 flows into the liquid-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23.

Upon entering the liquid-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant exchanges heat in the outdoor heat exchanger 23 with the outdoor air supplied by the outdoor fan 25 and thus evaporates into gas refrigerant, which then leaves the gas-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23.

After leaving the gas-side end of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the refrigerant passes through the four-way switching valve 22 before being sucked into the compressor 21 again.

(6-5) Characteristic Features of First Embodiment

The air-conditioning apparatus 1 mentioned above uses a refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene, thus making it possible to keep the GWP sufficiently low.

The refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene is a flammable refrigerant. In this regard, the outdoor electric component unit 8 included in the outdoor unit 20 according to the first embodiment is positioned above the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the gas-side shutoff valve 28, which respectively connect the outdoor unit 20 to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 is connected and from where the gas-side shutoff valve 28 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the outdoor electric component unit 8 is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the outdoor unit 20.

Further, the indoor electric component unit 9 included in the indoor unit 30 according to the first embodiment is positioned above the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connection part 13, which respectively connect the indoor unit 30 to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is connected and from where the indoor gas-side connection part 13 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the indoor electric component unit 9 is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the indoor unit 30.

(6-6) Modification A of First Embodiment

Although the foregoing description of the first embodiment is directed to an example in which the air-conditioning apparatus is provided with only one indoor unit, the air-conditioning apparatus may be provided with a plurality of indoor units connected in parallel with each other.

(6-7) Modification B of First Embodiment

The foregoing description is directed to an example in which the indoor unit used as the indoor unit 30 according to the first embodiment is of a type installed on, for example, the wall surface of an indoor space that is to be air-conditioned.

However, the indoor unit may not necessarily be of a type installed on the wall surface. For example, as illustrated in FIGS. 23, 24, and 25, the indoor unit used may be an indoor unit 30a of a floor-standing type placed on the indoor floor of an air-conditioned space.

The indoor unit 30a includes, as its main components, an indoor housing 110, the indoor heat exchanger 31, the indoor fan 32, the indoor electric component unit 9, the indoor liquid-side connection part 11, and the indoor gas-side connection part 13. The indoor heat exchanger 31 and the indoor fan 32 are accommodated in the indoor housing 110. The indoor heat exchanger 31 is disposed in an upper space inside the indoor housing 110, and the indoor fan 32 is disposed in a lower space inside the indoor housing 110.

The indoor housing 110 has a cuboid shape bounded by a front panel 111, a right side panel 112, a left side panel 113, a top panel 114, a bottom panel 115, and a back panel 116. The front panel 111 has a right-side air outlet 117a located at the upper right as viewed facing the front panel 111, a left-side air outlet 117b located at the upper left as viewed facing the front panel 111, and a lower air outlet 117c located in a lower, laterally central portion of the front panel 111. A vertical flap 151a is disposed at the right-side air outlet 117a. The vertical flap 151a is used to, during non-operation of the indoor unit 30a, cover the right-side air outlet 117a to constitute a portion of the indoor housing 110, and used to, during operation of the indoor unit 30a, adjust the lateral direction of the air flow (see the two-dot chain lines) blown out from the right-side air outlet 117a. Likewise, a vertical flap 151b is disposed at the left-side air outlet 117b. The vertical flap 151b is used to, during non-operation of the indoor unit 30a, cover the left-side air outlet 117b to constitute a portion of the indoor housing 110, and used to, during operation of the indoor unit 30a, adjust the lateral direction of the air flow blown out from the left-side air outlet 117b.

The right side panel 112 of the indoor housing 110 has a right-side air inlet 118a located in a lower portion toward the front. The left side panel 113 of the indoor housing 110 has a left-side air inlet 118b at a lower forward location.

The indoor fan 32 is, for example, a sirocco fan provided with a large number of blades and whose axis extends in the front-back direction. The indoor fan 32 is disposed in an internal space S1 partitioned off by a partition plate 119. An internal space S2 is defined forward of the internal space S1, between the partition plate 119 and the front panel 111. An internal space S3 is defined above the internal spaces S1 and S2, with the indoor heat exchanger 31 serving as the boundary.

The indoor heat exchanger 31 is positioned above the indoor fan 32, at the location of the boundary between the internal space S1 and the internal space S3. The indoor heat exchanger 31 is disposed in an inclined orientation such that its portion closer to the upper end is located closer to the back panel 116. The indoor heat exchanger 31 is supported at the lower end by a drain pan 141. The drain pan 141 is disposed on top of the partition plate 119. The partition plate 119 and the drain pan 141 serve as the boundary between the internal space S2 and the internal space S3. In other words, the internal space S1 is bounded by the right side panel 112, the left side panel 113, the bottom panel 115, the back panel 116, the partition plate 119, the drain pan 141, and the indoor heat exchanger 31. The internal space S2 is bounded by the front panel 111, the right side panel 112, the left side panel 113, the bottom panel 115, the partition plate 119, and the drain pan 141. The internal space S3 is bounded by the right side panel 112, the left side panel 113, the top panel 114, the indoor heat exchanger 31, the drain pan 141, and the partition plate 119.

The indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is a connection part that is provided in an end portion of the indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 extending from the liquid side of the indoor heat exchanger 31, and is flare-connected to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6. The indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is located at a height position similar to the upper end of the indoor fan 32.

The indoor gas-side connection part 13 is a connection part that is provided in an end portion of the indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 extending from the gas side of the indoor heat exchanger 31, and is flare-connected to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The indoor gas-side connection part 13 is located at a height position similar to the upper end of the indoor fan 32.

The indoor electric component unit 9 is disposed inside the indoor housing 110, below the indoor heat exchanger 31, above the indoor fan 32, and forward of the partition plate 119. The indoor electric component unit 9 is secured to the partition plate 119. The lower end portion of the indoor electric component unit 9 is positioned above the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connecting part 13 with respect to the vertical direction.

A duct 120, which extends vertically along the front panel 111, is provided in the internal space S2. An upper portion of the duct 120 extends to reach a position between the right-side air outlet 117a and the left-side air outlet 117b with respect to the vertical direction. The lower end of the duct 120 extends to reach an upper portion of the lower air outlet 117c.

The vertical flap 151a is disposed at the right-side air outlet 117a, and the vertical flap 151b is disposed at the left-side air outlet 117b. Changing the angle of the vertical flaps 151a and 151b with respect to the front panel 111 adjusts the angle at which to guide the conditioned air to be blown out.

Each of the right-side air outlet 117a and the left-side air outlet 117b is provided with a large number of horizontal flaps 153. Each horizontal flap 153 is capable of rotating about its axis to thereby change the direction of blown-out air.

For the above-mentioned indoor electric component unit 9 as well, even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is connected and from where the indoor gas-side connection part 13 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the indoor electric component unit 9 is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the indoor unit 30a.

(7) Second Embodiment

Now, with reference to FIG. 26 that illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit, and FIG. 27 that is a schematic control block diagram, the following describes an air-conditioning apparatus 1a according to a second embodiment, which is a refrigeration cycle apparatus including an indoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit and an outdoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit.

The following description will mainly focus on differences of the air-conditioning apparatus 1a according to the second embodiment from the air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment.

For the air-conditioning apparatus 1a as well, the refrigerant circuit 10 is filled with, as refrigerant used for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle, any one of the refrigerants A to E described above that is a refrigerant mixture containing 1,2-difluoroethylene. The refrigerant circuit 10 is also filled with refrigerating machine oil together with the refrigerant.

(7-1) Outdoor Unit 20a

An outdoor unit 20a of the air-conditioning apparatus 1a according to the second embodiment includes, as the outdoor fan 25, a first outdoor fan 25a and a second outdoor fan 25b. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 of the outdoor unit 20a of the air-conditioning apparatus 1a is provided with a large heat exchange area to adapt to the flow of air received from the first outdoor fan 25a and the second outdoor fan 25b.

In the outdoor unit 20a of the air-conditioning apparatus 1a, instead of the outdoor expansion valve 24 of the outdoor unit 20 according to the first embodiment, a first outdoor expansion valve 44, an intermediate-pressure receiver 41, and a second outdoor expansion valve 45 are disposed in this order between the liquid-side of the outdoor heat exchanger 23 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29. The respective opening degrees of the first outdoor expansion valve 44 and the second outdoor expansion valve 45 can be controlled. The intermediate-pressure receiver 41 is a container capable of storing refrigerant. An end portion of a pipe extending from the first outdoor expansion valve 44, and an end portion of a pipe extending from the second outdoor expansion valve 45 are both located in the internal space of the intermediate-pressure receiver 41.

As illustrated in FIG. 28, the outdoor unit 20a according to the second embodiment has a structure (so-called trunk-type structure) in which the internal space of an outdoor housing 60 having a substantially cuboid box shape is divided by a vertically extending partition plate 66 into left and right portions to define a fan chamber and a machine chamber.

Components such as the outdoor heat exchanger 23 and the outdoor fan 25 (the first outdoor fan 25a and the second outdoor fan 25b) are disposed in the fan chamber within the outdoor housing 60. Components such as the compressor 21, the four-way switching valve 22, the first outdoor expansion valve 44, the second outdoor expansion valve 45, the intermediate-pressure receiver 41, the gas-side shutoff valve 28, the liquid-side shutoff valve 29, and the outdoor electric component unit 8 including the outdoor-unit control unit 27 are disposed in the machine chamber within the outdoor housing 60.

The outdoor housing 60 includes, as its main components, a bottom plate 63, a top plate 64, a left front plate 61, a left-side plate (not illustrated), a right front plate (not illustrated), a right-side plate 65, and the partition plate 66. The bottom plate 63 defines the bottom portion of the outdoor housing 60. The top plate 64 defines the top portion of the outdoor unit 20a. The left front plate 61 mainly defines the left front portion of the outdoor housing 60. The left front plate 61 has a first air outlet 62a and a second air outlet 62b that are defined in the front-back direction and arranged vertically one above the other. Air that passes through the first air outlet 62a is mainly the air that has been sucked into the outdoor housing 60 from the back and left sides of the outdoor housing 60 by means of the first outdoor fan 25a and has passed through an upper portion of the outdoor heat exchanger 23. Air that passes through the second air outlet 62b is mainly the air that has been sucked into the outdoor housing 60 from the back and left sides of the outdoor housing 60 by means of the second outdoor fan 25b and has passed through a lower portion of the outdoor heat exchanger 23. A fan grill is disposed at each of the first air outlet 62a and the second air outlet 62b. The left-side plate mainly defines the left side portion of the outdoor housing 60, and can also serve as an inlet through which air is sucked into the outdoor housing 60. The right front plate mainly defines the right front portion of the outdoor housing 60 and the forward portion of the right side face of the outdoor housing 60. The right-side plate 65 mainly defines the rearward portion of the right side face of the outdoor housing 60, and the rightward portion of the back face of the outdoor housing 60. The partition plate 66 is a vertically extending plate-shaped member disposed on top of the bottom plate 63. The partition plate 66 divides the internal space of the outdoor housing 60 into the fan chamber and the machine chamber.

The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is a cross-flow fin-and-tube heat exchanger including a plurality of heat transfer fins disposed in the thickness direction in an overlapping manner, and a plurality of heat transfer tubes penetrating and secured to the heat transfer fins. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is disposed inside the fan chamber in an L-shape in plan view so as to extend along the left side face and back face of the outdoor housing 60.

The compressor 21 is placed on top of the bottom plate 63 inside the machine room of the outdoor housing 60, and secured in place with a bolt.

The gas-side shutoff valve 28 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 are disposed inside the machine chamber of the outdoor housing 60, at a height near the upper end of the compressor 21, in the vicinity of the right front corner.

The outdoor electric component unit 8 is disposed in a space inside the machine chamber of the outdoor housing 60 above the compressor 21. The lower end portion of the outdoor electric component unit 8 is positioned above both the gas-side shutoff valve 28 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29.

With the air-conditioning apparatus 1a described above, in cooling operation mode, the first outdoor expansion valve 44 is controlled such that, for example, the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 23 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. Further, in cooling operation mode, the second outdoor expansion valve 45 is controlled such that, for example, the refrigerant sucked in by the compressor 21 has a degree of superheating that satisfies a predetermined condition.

In heating operation mode, the second outdoor expansion valve 45 is controlled such that, for example, the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the indoor heat exchanger 31 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. Further, in heating operation mode, the first outdoor expansion valve 44 is controlled such that, for example, the refrigerant sucked in by the compressor 21 has a degree of superheating that satisfies a predetermined condition.

(7-2) Indoor Unit 30

The indoor unit 30 according to the second embodiment is similar to the indoor unit 30 described above with reference to the first embodiment, and thus will not be described in further detail.

(7-3) Characteristic Features of Second Embodiment

As with the air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment, the air-conditioning apparatus 1a according to the second embodiment uses a refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene, thus making it possible to keep the GWP sufficiently low.

The refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene is a flammable refrigerant. In this regard, the outdoor electric component unit 8 included in the outdoor unit 20a according to the second embodiment is positioned above the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the gas-side shutoff valve 28, which respectively connect the outdoor unit 20a to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 is connected and from where the gas-side shutoff valve 28 is connected, the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the outdoor electric component unit 8 is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the outdoor unit 20a.

(7-4) Modification A of Second Embodiment

Although the foregoing description of the second embodiment is directed to an example in which the air-conditioning apparatus is provided with only one indoor unit, the air-conditioning apparatus may be provided with a plurality of indoor units connected in parallel with each other.

(8) Third Embodiment

Now, with reference to FIG. 29 that illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit, and FIG. 30 that is a schematic control block diagram, the following describes an air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to a third embodiment, which is a refrigeration cycle apparatus including an indoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit and an outdoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit.

The following description will mainly focus on differences of the air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment from the air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment.

For the air-conditioning apparatus 1b as well, the refrigerant circuit 10 is filled with, as refrigerant used for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle, any one of the refrigerants A to E described above that is a refrigerant mixture containing 1,2-difluoroethylene. The refrigerant circuit 10 is also filled with refrigerating machine oil together with the refrigerant.

(8-1) Outdoor Unit 20b

An outdoor unit 20b of the air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment includes, in addition to the components of the outdoor unit 20 according to the first embodiment, a low-pressure receiver 26, a subcooling heat exchanger 47, and a subcooling circuit 46.

The low-pressure receiver 26 is a container capable of storing refrigerant and disposed between one of the connection ports of the four-way switching valve 22 and the suction side of the compressor 21. In the third embodiment, the low-pressure receiver 26 is provided separately from an attached accumulator provided to the compressor 21.

The subcooling heat exchanger 47 is disposed between the outdoor expansion valve 24 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29.

The subcooling circuit 46 is a circuit that branches off from a main circuit between the outdoor expansion valve 24 and the subcooling heat exchanger 47, and extends so as to join a portion of the path from one of the connection ports of the four-way switching valve 22 to the low-pressure receiver 26. A subcooling expansion valve 48 is disposed at a point along the subcooling circuit 46 to decompress refrigerant passing through the subcooling expansion valve 48. The refrigerant flowing in the subcooling circuit 46 and decompressed by the subcooling expansion valve 48 exchanges heat in the subcooling heat exchanger 47 with the refrigerant flowing in the main circuit. As a result, the refrigerant flowing in the main circuit is further cooled, and the refrigerant flowing in the subcooling circuit 46 evaporates.

A detailed structure of the outdoor unit 20b of the air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment will be described below with reference to FIG. 31 that is an exterior perspective view, FIG. 32 that is an exploded perspective view, FIG. 33 that is a schematic plan layout view, and FIG. 34 that is a schematic front layout view.

The outdoor unit 20b of the air-conditioning apparatus 1b has a so-called top-blowing structure in which air is taken into an outdoor housing 80 from the bottom and air is blown to the outside of the outdoor housing 80 from the top.

The outdoor housing 80 includes, as its main components, a bottom plate 83 placed over a pair of laterally extending installation legs 82 so as to span therebetween, a support 84 that extends vertically from each corner of the bottom plate 83, a front panel 81, and a fan module 85. The bottom plate 83 defines the bottom face of the outdoor housing 80, and is divided into a first bottom plate 83a at the left side and a second bottom plate 83b at the right side. The front panel 81 is placed below the fan module 85 so as to span between the supports 84 located at the front side, and defines the front face of the outdoor housing 80. The following components are disposed in a space inside the outdoor housing 80 below the fan module 85 and above the bottom plate 83: the compressor 21, the outdoor heat exchanger 23, the low-pressure receiver 26, the four-way switching valve 22, the outdoor expansion valve 24, the subcooling heat exchanger 47, the subcooling expansion valve 48, the subcooling circuit 46, the gas-side shutoff valve 28, the liquid-side shutoff valve 29, and the outdoor electric component unit 8 including the outdoor-unit control unit 27. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 has a substantially U-shape in plan view that faces the back face and both left and right side faces of a portion of the outdoor housing 80 below the fan module 85. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 substantially defines the back face and both left and right faces of the outdoor housing 80. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 is disposed on and along the left-side, back-side, and right-side edges of the bottom plate 83. The outdoor heat exchanger 23 according to the third embodiment is a cross-flow fin-and-tube heat exchanger including a plurality of heat transfer fins 23a disposed in the thickness direction in an overlapping manner, and a plurality of heat transfer tubes 23b penetrating and secured to the heat transfer fins 23a.

The fan module 85 is disposed over the outdoor heat exchanger 23, and includes the outdoor fan 25, a bellmouth (not illustrated), and other components. The outdoor fan 25 is disposed in such an orientation that its axis extends vertically.

The gas-side shutoff valve 28 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 are disposed in a space inside the outdoor housing 80 below the fan module 85, at a height near the upper end of the compressor 21, in the vicinity of the left forward location. The gas-side shutoff valve 28 according to the third embodiment is connected by brazing to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The liquid-side shutoff valve 29 according to the third embodiment is connected by brazing to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6.

The outdoor electric component unit 8 is disposed in a space inside the outdoor housing 80 below the fan module 85, above the compressor 21 and near the front side. The outdoor electric component unit 8 is secured to a rightward portion of the front panel 81. The lower end portion of the outdoor electric component unit 8 is positioned above both the gas-side shutoff valve 28 and the liquid-side shutoff valve 29.

As a result of the above-mentioned structure, the outdoor fan 25 produces a flow of air such that air flows into the outdoor housing 80 through the outdoor heat exchanger 23 from the surroundings of the outdoor heat exchanger 23, and is blown out upward through an air outlet 86, which is provided at the upper end face of the outdoor housing 80 in a vertically penetrating manner.

(8-2) First Indoor Unit 30 and Second Indoor Unit 35

The air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment includes, instead of the indoor unit 30 according to the first embodiment, a first indoor unit 30 and a second indoor unit 35 disposed in parallel with each other.

As with the indoor unit 30 according to the first embodiment, the first indoor unit 30 includes a first indoor heat exchanger 31, a first indoor fan 32, a first indoor liquid-side connection part 11, a first indoor gas-side connection part 13, and a first indoor electric component unit including a first indoor-unit control unit 34. The first indoor unit 30 additionally includes a first indoor expansion valve 33. The first indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is provided in an end portion of the first liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 that extends so as to connect the liquid side of the first indoor heat exchanger 31 with the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6. The first indoor gas-side connection part 13 is provided in an end portion of the first indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 that extends so as to connect the gas side of the first indoor heat exchanger 31 with the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The first indoor expansion valve 33 is disposed at a point along the first indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12. The opening degree of the first indoor expansion valve 33 can be controlled. In this case, as with the first embodiment, the first indoor electric component unit is positioned above the first indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the first indoor gas-side connection part 13.

Likewise, as with the first indoor unit 30, the second indoor unit 35 includes a second indoor heat exchanger 36, a second indoor fan 37, a second indoor liquid-side connection part 15, a second indoor gas-side connection part 17, and a second indoor electric component unit including a second indoor-unit control unit 39. The second indoor unit 35 additionally includes a second indoor expansion valve 38. The second indoor liquid-side connection part 15 is provided in an end portion of a second indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 16 that extends so as to connect the liquid side of the second indoor heat exchanger 36 with the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6. The second indoor gas-side connection part 17 is provided in an end portion of a second indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 18 that extends so as to connect the gas side of the second indoor heat exchanger 36 with the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. The second indoor expansion valve 38 is disposed at a point along the second indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 16. The opening degree of the second indoor expansion valve 38 can be controlled. In this case as well, the second indoor electric component unit is positioned above the second indoor liquid-side connection part 15 and the second indoor gas-side connection part 17.

The controller 7 according to the third embodiment includes the outdoor-unit control unit 27, the first indoor-unit control unit 34, and the second indoor-unit control unit 39 that are connected in a manner that allows communication with each other.

With the air-conditioning apparatus 1b described above, in cooling operation mode, the outdoor expansion valve 24 is controlled such that the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the outdoor heat exchanger 23 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. Further, in cooling operation mode, the subcooling expansion valve 48 is controlled such that the refrigerant sucked in by the compressor 21 has a degree of superheating that satisfies a predetermined condition. In cooling operation mode, the first indoor expansion valve 33 and the second indoor expansion valve 38 are controlled to be fully open.

In heating operation mode, the first indoor expansion valve 33 is controlled such that the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the first indoor heat exchanger 31 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. Likewise, the second indoor expansion valve 38 is controlled such that the refrigerant passing through the liquid-side outlet of the second indoor heat exchanger 36 has a degree of subcooling that satisfies a predetermined condition. Further, in heating operation mode, the outdoor expansion valve 24 is controlled such that the refrigerant sucked in by the compressor 21 has a degree of superheating that satisfies a predetermined condition. In heating operation mode, the subcooling expansion valve 48 is controlled such that the refrigerant sucked in by the compressor 21 has a degree of superheating that satisfies a predetermined condition.

(8-3) Characteristic Features of Third Embodiment

As with the air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment, the air-conditioning apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment uses a refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene, thus making it possible to keep the GWP sufficiently low.

The refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene is a flammable refrigerant. In this regard, the outdoor electric component unit 8 included in the outdoor unit 20b according to the third embodiment is positioned above the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 and the gas-side shutoff valve 28, which respectively connect the outdoor unit 20b to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the liquid-side shutoff valve 29 is connected and from where the gas-side shutoff valve 28 is connected, the likelihood of the refrigerant reaching the outdoor electric component unit 8 is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the outdoor unit 20b.

For the first indoor electric component unit included in the first indoor unit 30 according to the third embodiment as well, the first indoor electric component unit is positioned above the first indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the first indoor gas-side connection part 13. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the first indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is connected and from where the first indoor gas-side connection part 13 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the first indoor electric component unit is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the first indoor unit 30. Likewise, the second indoor electric component unit included in the second indoor unit 35 according to the third embodiment is also disposed above the second indoor liquid-side connection part 15 and the second indoor gas-side connection part 17. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the second indoor liquid-side connection part 15 is connected and from where the second indoor gas-side connection part 17 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the second indoor electric component unit is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the second indoor unit 35.

(9) Fourth Embodiment

Now, with reference to FIG. 35 that illustrates the schematic configuration of a refrigerant circuit, and FIG. 36 that is a schematic control block diagram, the following describes a cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c according to a fourth embodiment, which is a refrigeration cycle apparatus including a cold/hot water supply unit serving as a heat exchange unit and an outdoor unit serving as a heat exchange unit.

The following mainly describes the cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c according to the fourth embodiment, while focusing on differences from the air-conditioning apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment.

The cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c is an apparatus that obtains cold water or hot water, and supplies the cold water or hot water to floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253 installed under the indoor floor to thereby cool or heat the indoor floor.

For the cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c as well, the refrigerant circuit 10 is filled with, as refrigerant used for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle, any one of the refrigerants A to E described above that is a refrigerant mixture containing 1,2-difluoroethylene. The refrigerant circuit 10 is also filled with refrigerating machine oil together with the refrigerant.

(9-1) Outdoor Unit 20

The outdoor unit 20 of the cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c is similar to the outdoor unit 20 described above with reference to the first embodiment, and thus will not be described in further detail.

(9-2) Cold/Hot Water Supply Unit 30b

The cold/hot water supply unit 30b is used to cool or heat the floor surface of an indoor space that is to be cooled or heated. The cold/hot water supply unit 30b is connected to the outdoor unit 20 via the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, and constitutes a portion of the refrigerant circuit 10.

The cold/hot water supply unit 30b includes components such as a water heat exchanger 231, a pump 232, a tank 233, the indoor liquid-side connection part 11, the indoor gas-side connection part 13, a return header 236, an outgoing header 235, an indoor housing 237, and a cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a.

The water heat exchanger 231 causes heat to be exchanged between refrigerant flowing inside the water heat exchanger 231, and water flowing in a water circuit 210. The liquid-refrigerant side of the water heat exchanger 231 is flare-connected to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 via the indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 and the indoor liquid-side connection part 11, and the gas-refrigerant side is flare-connected to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5 via the indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 and the indoor gas-side connection part 13. During cooling operation, the water heat exchanger 231 functions as an evaporator for low-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle to cool water flowing in the water circuit 210, and during heating operation, the water heat exchanger 231 functions as a condenser for high-pressure refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle to heat water flowing in the water circuit 210.

The pump 232 produces a water flow that causes water in the water circuit 210 to circulate through the return header 236, a water flow path of the water heat exchanger 231, the tank 233, the outgoing header 235, and the floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253. The pump 232 is rotationally driven by a motor (not illustrated).

The tank 233 stores cold water or hot water whose temperature has been adjusted in the water heat exchanger 231.

The outgoing header 235 divides the cold or hot water delivered from the pump 232 into separate streams that flow to respective water circulation pipes 251a, 252a, and 253a of the floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253. The outgoing header 235 has a plurality of outgoing connection parts 235a each connected to an end portion of the corresponding one of the water circulation pipes 251a, 252a, and 253a.

The return header 236 combines the streams of water that have passed through the respective water circulation pipes 251a, 252a, and 253a of the floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253, and supplies the combined stream of water to the water heat exchanger 231 again. The return header 236 has a plurality of return connection parts 236a each connected to the other end of the corresponding one of the water circulation pipes 251a, 252a, and 253a.

The cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a includes a cold/hot-water-supply-unit control unit 234 that controls operation of each component constituting the cold/hot water supply unit 30b. Specifically, the cold/hot-water-supply-unit control unit 234 controls the flow rate of the pump based on the temperature adjustment load in each of the floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253.

As illustrated in FIG. 37, the indoor housing 237 is a box-shaped body in which components such as the water heat exchanger 231 and the cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a are accommodated. Specifically, the cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a is disposed in an upper space inside the indoor housing 237. The outgoing connection parts 235a of the outgoing header 235, and the return connection parts 236a of the return header 236 are located below the indoor housing 237. Further, the indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 and the indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 extend out from below the indoor housing 237. The indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is located at the lower end of the indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12, and the indoor gas-side connection part 13 is located at the lower end of the indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14.

(9-3) Characteristic Features of Fourth Embodiment

The cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c mentioned above uses a refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene, thus making it possible to keep the GWP sufficiently low.

The refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene is a flammable refrigerant. In this regard, the cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a included in the cold/hot water supply unit 30b according to the fourth embodiment is positioned above the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 and the indoor gas-side connection part 13, which respectively connect the cold/hot water supply unit 30b to the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and to the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5. This configuration ensures that even if a flammable refrigerant leaks from where the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 is connected and from where the indoor gas-side connection part 13 is connected, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the cold/hot-water electric component unit 9a is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the cold/hot water supply unit 30b.

(9-4) Modification A of Fourth Embodiment

The fourth embodiment has been described above by way of example of the cold/hot water supply apparatus 1c in which cold or hot water obtained through heat exchange with refrigerant in the water heat exchanger 231 is supplied to the floor heating panels 251, 252, and 253 to thereby cool or heat the indoor floor.

Alternatively, as illustrated in FIGS. 38 and 39, hot water may be supplied by using the water heat exchanger 231 in a hot water storage apparatus 1d, which includes a hot water storage unit 30c and the outdoor unit 20 that are connected via the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6 and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5.

Specifically, a hot water storage housing 327 of the hot water storage unit 30c accommodates components such as a water heat exchanger 331, a pump 332, a hot water storage tank 333, a mixing valve 338, a water inlet 336, a water outlet 335, and a hot-water-storage electric component unit 9b. The outdoor unit 20 is similar to, for example, the outdoor unit 20 according to the fourth embodiment.

As with the water heat exchanger 231 according to the fourth embodiment mentioned above, the water heat exchanger 331 causes heat to be exchanged between refrigerant circulating through the outdoor unit 20, the liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe 6, and the gas-side refrigerant connection pipe 5, and water circulating through a water circuit 310 accommodated inside the hot water storage unit 30c.

The water circuit 310 includes the hot water storage tank 333, a water outgoing pipe extending from the lower end of the hot water storage tank 333 to the inlet of the water flow path of the water heat exchanger 331 and provided with the pump 332, and a water return pipe that connects the outlet of the water flow path of the water heat exchanger 331 with the upper end of the hot water storage tank 333.

City water that has passed through a water inlet pipe via the water inlet 336 is supplied to the hot water storage tank 333 from the lower end of the hot water storage tank 333. Hot water obtained in the water heat exchanger 331 and stored in the hot water storage tank 333 is delivered from the upper end of the hot water storage tank 333 toward the water outlet 335 through a water outlet pipe. The water inlet pipe and the water outlet pipe are connected by a bypass pipe. The mixing valve 338 is disposed at the coupling location between the water outlet pipe and the bypass pipe to allow mixing of city water and hot water.

The indoor liquid-side connection part 11, which is provided at the distal end of the indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe 12 located on the liquid-refrigerant side of the water heat exchanger 331, is positioned below the hot water storage housing 327. Likewise, the indoor gas-side connection part 13, which is provided at the distal end of the indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe 14 located on the gas-refrigerant side of the water heat exchanger 331, is positioned below the hot water storage housing 327.

The hot water storage unit 30c is provided with the hot-water-storage electric component unit 9b including a hot-water-storage-unit control unit 334 that controls the driving of the pump 332. The hot-water-storage electric component unit 9b is installed in an upper space inside the hot water storage housing 327, and located above the indoor gas-side connection part 13 and the indoor liquid-side connection part 11.

For the above-mentioned hot water storage unit 30c as well, the hot-water-storage electric component unit 9b is positioned above the indoor gas-side connection part 13 and the indoor liquid-side connection part 11. This configuration ensures that even if refrigerant leaks from the indoor liquid-side connection part 11 or the indoor gas-side connection part 13, the likelihood of the leaked refrigerant reaching the hot-water-storage electric component unit 9b is reduced, thus making it possible to increase the safety of the hot water storage unit 30c.

Although embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, it will be appreciated that various modifications can be made to their forms and details without departing from the scope of the present disclosure as defined in the claims.

REFERENCE SIGNS LIST

  • 1, 1a, 1b air-conditioning apparatus (refrigeration cycle apparatus)
  • 1c cold/hot water supply apparatus (refrigeration cycle apparatus)
  • 1d hot water storage apparatus (refrigeration cycle apparatus)
  • 5 gas-side refrigerant connection pipe (connection pipe)
  • 6 liquid-side refrigerant connection pipe (connection pipe)
  • 8 outdoor electric component unit (electric component unit)
  • 9 indoor electric component unit (electric component unit)
  • 9a cold/hot-water electric component unit (electric component unit)
  • 9b hot-water-storage electric component unit (electric component unit)
  • 10 refrigerant circuit
  • 11 indoor liquid-side connection part, first indoor liquid-side connection part (pipe connection part)
  • 12 indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe, first indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe
  • 13 indoor gas-side connection part, first indoor gas-side connection part (pipe connection part)
  • 14 indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe, first indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe
  • 15 second indoor liquid-side connection part (pipe connection part)
  • 16 second indoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe
  • 17 second indoor gas-side connection part (pipe connection part)
  • 18 second indoor gas-side refrigerant pipe
  • 20, 20a, 20b outdoor unit (heat exchange unit, heat source-side unit)
  • 21 compressor
  • 23 outdoor heat exchanger (heat exchanger)
  • 24 outdoor expansion valve
  • 28 gas-side shutoff valve (pipe connection part)
  • 28a outdoor gas-side refrigerant pipe
  • 29 liquid-side shutoff valve (pipe connection part)
  • 29a outdoor liquid-side refrigerant pipe
  • 30, 30a indoor unit, first indoor unit (heat exchange unit, service-side unit)
  • 30b cold/hot water supply unit (heat exchange unit, service-side unit)
  • 30c hot water storage unit (heat exchange unit, service-side unit)
  • 31 indoor heat exchanger, first indoor heat exchanger (heat exchanger)
  • 35 second indoor unit (heat exchange unit, service-side unit)
  • 36 second indoor heat exchanger (heat exchanger)
  • 44 first outdoor expansion valve
  • 45 second outdoor expansion valve
  • 50 outdoor housing (housing)
  • 54 indoor housing (housing)
  • 60 outdoor housing (housing)
  • 80 outdoor housing (housing)
  • 110 indoor housing (housing)
  • 231 water heat exchanger (heat exchanger)
  • 237 indoor housing (housing)
  • 327 hot water storage housing (housing)
  • 331 water heat exchanger (heat exchanger)

CITATION LIST Patent Literature

PTL 1: International Publication No. 2015/141678

Claims

1. A heat exchange unit that constitutes a portion of a refrigeration cycle apparatus, the heat exchange unit being one of a service-side unit and a heat source-side unit that are connected to each other via a connection pipe, the heat exchange unit comprising:

a housing;
a heat exchanger disposed inside the housing and in which a refrigerant flows;
a pipe connection part connected to the connection pipe; and
an electric component unit disposed inside the housing,
wherein the refrigerant is a flammable refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene, and
wherein when the heat exchange unit is in its installed state, a lower end of the electric component unit is positioned above the pipe connection part.

2. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

3. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

4. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

5. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1), point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

6. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

7. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

8. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9), or on the above line segments;

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

9. The heat exchange unit according to claim 2, point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments,

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

10. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

11. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

12. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0), point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0), point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C); point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0), point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895), point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0), point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273), point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0), point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0), point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

13. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0), point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C); point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0), point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0), point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0), point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0), point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0−a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100−a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

14. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.

15. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4), point M′(39.2, 5.0, 55.8), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.

16. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line.

17. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4), point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7), point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)),
difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line.

18. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8), point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line.

19. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.

20. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

21. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.

22. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

23. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line.

24. The heat exchange unit according to claim 1, wherein point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0), point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.
Patent History
Publication number: 20200386459
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 17, 2018
Publication Date: Dec 10, 2020
Applicant: DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. (Osaka)
Inventors: Mitsushi ITANO (Osaka), Daisuke KARUBE (Osaka), Yuuki YOTSUMOTO (Osaka), Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI (Osaka), Tatsuya TAKAKUWA (Osaka), Yuzo KOMATSU (Osaka), Shun OHKUBO (Osaka), Tetsushi TSUDA (Osaka), Yumi TODA (Osaka), Takeo ABE (Osaka)
Application Number: 16/954,718
Classifications
International Classification: F25B 49/02 (20060101); F24F 1/14 (20060101); F24F 1/24 (20060101); F24F 1/32 (20060101); F24F 1/34 (20060101); F24F 1/38 (20060101); F25B 9/00 (20060101); C09K 5/04 (20060101);