Heart-related parameters monitoring apparatus

- Sylvia Warner

A non-invasive method, and an apparatus, for determining heart-related parameters in patients. The method and apparatus determine pulse pressure, time constant of the arterial system, systolic and diastolic pressure, peripheral resistance, cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure.

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Description

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a non-invasive method of measuring arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. The invention also relates to an apparatus for carrying out the method.

2. Description of Prior Art

Non-invasive methods and apparatus for measuring arterial blood pressure and cardiac output are known in the art. Once such method and apparatus is illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 4,030,485, Warner, issued June 21, 1977. A second such method and apparatus is taught in U.S. Pat. No. 4,418,700, Warner, issued Dec. 6, 1983. The present invention constitutes an improvement and refinement of the method and apparatus as taught in the latter patent.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

The invention relates to a non-invasive method, and an apparatus for determining heart-related parameters in patients. The method and apparatus determine pulse pressure, time constant of the arterial system, systolic and diastolic pressure, peripheral resistance, and cardiac output and means arterial blood pressure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

The invention will be better understood by an examination of the following description together with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the apparatus for carrying out the inventive method;

FIG. 2 is a typical sensor output of the system as illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 illustrates arterial blood pressure pulses;

FIGS. 4, 4a and 4b illustrate a blood volume pulse;

FIG. 5 illustrates a blood volume pulse and a blood pressure pulse to illustrate the ratio g; and

FIG. 6 is a simplified flowchart for a computer program for performing calculations in accordance with the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As seen in FIG. 1, an apparatus in accordance with the invention comprises a volume sensor such as a photo-electric plethysmograph S, an amplifier A.sub.1, an analog to digital converter A.sub.2, a microcomputer M and a display device D. The plethysmograph sensor S is attached to, for example, the earlobe of a subject. The sensor could also be attached to other suitable parts of the body such as the forehead, fingertips or toes.

As is known, the plethysmograph, detects changes in blood volume of the region to which it is attached. A typical sensor output signal is shown in FIG. 2. As seen in FIG. 2, the output signal has a pulsating component and a DC component.

The output of the sensor is applied to the plethysmograph amplifier A.sub.1 where it is amplified and filtered and the DC component is discarded. The output of A.sub.1 has a DC component, but this is not directly related to the sensor DC component.

The output of A.sub.1 is fed to the analog to digital (A/D) converter A.sub.2 which digitizes the signal. In a preferred embodiment, the sampling rate is 100 per second.

Microcomputer M accepts signals from A.sub.2 and processes them according to the instructions it contains. These instructions are schematically represented in the simplified flowchart of FIG. 6.

The computer quantities are then displayed on a CRT monitor D or other suitable display means.

THEORY

Arterial blood pressure pulses are shown in FIG. 3. The shape of these curves vary according to the site where they are measured. The highest pressure reached during a cycle i is called the arterial systolic blood pressure, P.sub.si. The lowest pressure reached during the same cycle is called the arterial diastolic blood pressure, P.sub.di. The pressure rise from P.sub.di to p.sub.si in the same cycle is the pulse pressure, p.sub.pi.

By definition

p.sub.si -p.sub.di =p.sub.pi (1)

To find P.sub.pi

A plethysmographic pulse is shown in FIG. 4. The minimum value at the beginning of the pulse is V.sub.imin. The maximum value of the pulse is V.sub.imax. As the pulse volume rises from V.sub.imin to V.sub.imax, the time rate of volume change reaches a maximum V.sub.imax at time t.sub.iVm. The pulse volume at time t.sub.iVm is V.sub.iVm.

let ##EQU1##

In addition to finding the values of V.sub.iVm corresponding to V.sub.imax, see U.S. Pat. No. 4,418,700, Warner, values of V.sub.iVm are also found corresponding to V.sub.imax.sup.-1, V.sub.imax.sup.-2, . . . V.sub.imax.sup.-k, where k is a function of V.sub.imax.

All of the values of V.sub.iVm corresponding to the time rates of volume change lying between and including V.sub.imax and v.sub.imax.sup.-k are averaged and used to compute .DELTA.V.sub.iVm.

The average value of V.sub.iV m is ##EQU2## where n0=number of values of V.sub.iV.sbsb.0 m corresponding to V.sub.imax ##EQU3## nk=number of values of V.sub.iV.sbsb.k m corresponding to V.sub.imax.sup.-k

k=(V.sub.imax/m) (integral values only)+1

m=constant . . . a preferred value of m=20

l=constant . . . a preferred value of l=1 ##EQU4## K.sub.pp =constant determined by a first calibration r.sub.1 =constant . . . preferably equal to 0

r.sub.2 =constant . . . preferably equal to 0

0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.1

R.sub.i1 can now be defined, as per equation (2) above, but using the average value of V.sub.iVm so that equation (2) can be rewritten ##EQU5##

From FIG. 4 ##EQU6## wherein

R'.sub.i =1-R.sub.i

or

R.sub.i =1-R'.sub.i

No other calibration should be required with different subjects. However, if desired, K.sub.pp can be determined for each subject.

To find mean blood pressure

The mean blood pressure P.sub.mi during a cycle i is given by ##EQU7## b.sub.3 =exponent . . . the preferred value of b.sub.3 is equal to 0.5 K.sub.4 =constant determined at calibration for each subject. It is only necessary to find this constant once for each subject. The measurements carried out at different times on the same subject do not require separate calibration

P.sub.0 =constant . . . preferred 25 mmHg ##EQU8## where g.sub.i =(.DELTA.V.sub.iAV /.DELTA.V.sub.i)

.DELTA.V.sub.iAV =average value of .DELTA.V.sub.i over the time interval T.sub.i

P.sub.di =P.sub.si -P.sub.pi (8)

The variable g.sub.i can take on a constant value g.sub.0 whose preferred value is 0.333.

Alternatively, mean blood pressure can be determined using the following expression: ##EQU9## (for definition of r.sub.i see Equation 10 below); where

G(t)=a function of t, in a particular case,

G(t)=(.phi..sub.c /.phi..sub.i)

.phi..sub.c =.[.(.].(1/.DELTA.t.sub.c).[.).]..sup.Y

.phi..sub.i =.[.(.].(1/.DELTA.t.sub.i).[.).]..sup.Y

.DELTA.t.sub.c =(.DELTA.t'.sub.i.phi.c

.DELTA.t.sub.i =.DELTA.t'.sub.i.phi.

where

.[.T.sub.c =T at calibration.]. .Iadd..DELTA.t.sub.c =.DELTA.t at calibration .DELTA.t'.sub.i.phi. (see FIG. 4B) .Iaddend.

.[.t.sub.c =t at calibration .DELTA.t'.sub.i.phi..sbsb.c (see FIG. 4B).].

.[..phi..sub.c =(T.sub.c /t.sub.c)=(T/t) at calibration.]. .Iadd..phi..sub.c =(1/.DELTA.t).sup.y at calibration.Iaddend.

y=constant

The remainder of the terms in equation 5' are the same as similar terms in equation 5.

Determination of ratio R (FIG. 4b)

From FIG. 4b, the ratio R is

R.sub.i =(.DELTA.V.sub.it /.DELTA.V.sub.i)

where

.DELTA.V.sub.it =change in volume at predetermined time ti

.DELTA.V.sub.i =total volume change during cycle i

t.sub.i =time such that .DELTA.t.sub.i =K.sub.T .DELTA.t'.sub.i.phi.

K.sub.T =constant

Estimation of pulse pressure, PP ##EQU10## where PP.sub.i =pulse pressure=p.sub.s -P.sub.d

P.sub.s =systolic blood pressure

P.sub.d =diastolic blood pressure

k=constant

K'.sub.T =constant .perspectiveto. K.sub.T

In FIG. 4B

.DELTA. V'.sub.i =.DELTA.V.sub.i -.DELTA.V.sub.it ##EQU11## wherein from the above equation: ##EQU12## multiply numerator and denominator by e.sup.kPP i ##EQU13##

Determination of r

From FIG. 4

r.sub.i = (V.sub.imax /.DELTA.V.sub.i)G(t)

where

V.sub.imax =maximum time rate of volume increase in cycle i

.DELTA.V.sub.i =total volume increase during cycle i

From FIG. 4b

.[.r.sub.i = (V.sub.it .DELTA.V.sub.i)G(t).].

.Iadd.r.sub.i =(V.sub.it /V.sub.i)G(t) .Iaddend.

V.sub.it =time rate of increase of volume V.sub.i(t) at time t.sub.i

.[..DELTA.V.sub.i =total volume increase of volume during.]. .Iadd..DELTA.V.sub.i =total increase of volume during time interval .DELTA.t.sub.i.phi..Iaddend.

Estimation of Mean Blood Pressure

(1) P.sub.mi '=K.sub.1 r.sub.ic.sup.a

K.sub.1 =calibration constant

P.sub.mi '=(P.sub. s +P.sub.d)/2-P.sub.o

P.sub.si =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i

P.sub.mi =(P.sub. s +P.sub.d)/2

P.sub.di =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i

a=constant

P.sub.o =constant

.[.(2) e.sup.kp mi=K.sub.2 R.sub.ic.sup.b.]. (2) .Iadd.e.sup.kp mi=K.sub.2 r.sub.ic.sup.b .Iaddend.

where

K.sub.2 =constant (calibration)

b=constant ##EQU14## where P.sub.mo =constant at calibration

.phi..sub.1i +.phi..sub.2i =PP.sub.i =pulse pressure during cycle i

k=constant

j=constant

solve equation by making LHS=RHS by varying .phi..sub.1i and .phi..sub.2i (.phi..sub.2i =PP.sub.i -.phi..sub.1i)

then

P.sub.si =P.sub.mo +.phi..sub.2i +P.sub.0

P.sub.di =P.sub.mo -.phi..sub.1i +P.sub.o

P.sub.mi =(P.sub. si +P.sub.di)/2

P.sub.0 =constant

r.sub.i =ratio of exponentials

K.sub.3 =coefficient (variable or constant)

Correction for r.sub.i

r.sub.i (corrected)=r.sub.ic =r.sub.i e.sup.m(.phi..sbsp.o.sup.-.phi..sbsp.i)

m=constant

.phi..sub.0 =PP.sub.i at calibration

.phi..sub.i =current value of PP.sub.i.

Equation (9) above is only one form which this particular equation can take. By simple mathematical manipulations, the invention may take two other forms as per (10) and (11) below. What follows is the manipulations as well as the two other forms of the equation:

As above noted

.phi..sub.2i +.phi..sub.1i =PP.sub.i =P.sub.si -P.sub.di

.phi..sub.2i +.phi..sub.1i =(P.sub. si -P.sub.o)-(P.sub. di -P.sub.o)

Let

P'.sub.si =P.sub.si -P.sub.o

p'.sub.di =P.sub.di -P.sub.0

.phi..sub.2i +.phi..sub.1i =P'.sub.si -P'.sub.di

add and subtract P.sub.mo on RHS above

.phi..sub.2i +.phi..sub.1i =P'.sub.si -P.sub.mo +P.sub.mo -P'.sub.di (A)

.phi..sub.2i and .phi..sub.1i can take on any values in satisfying the above equation (A)

Put .phi..sub.2i =P'.sub.si -P.sub.mo

and .phi..sub.1i =P.sub.mo -P'.sub.di in equation (9)

then ##EQU15## simplifying the denominator ##EQU16##

To solve equation 11:

(1) Set P'.sub.di =P'.sub.si -PP.sub.i and solve for P'.sub.si

.Iadd.P'.sub.mi =(P.sub.si +P.sub.di)/2-P.sub.o .Iaddend.

(2) Set P'.sub.si =P'.sub.di -PP.sub.i and solve for P'.sub.di

Although particular embodiments have been illustrated, this was for the purpose of describing, but not limiting, the invention. Various modifications, which will come readily to the mind of one skilled in the art, are within the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

.Iadd.P.sub.mi =(P.sub.si +P.sub.di)/2 .Iaddend.

Claims

1. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum aplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second different, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression; ##EQU17## wherein P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
K.sub.pp =constant determined by a first calibration
r.sub.1 =constant
r.sub.2 =constant
R.sub.il =(.DELTA.V.sub.iVm /.DELTA.V.sub.i)
where.DELTA.V.sub.iVm =volume change at time t.sub.iVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, V.sub.imax
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.t.sub.iVm =time interval from start of cycle i to time of maximum rate of volume change V.sub.imax.

2. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby.Iadd.detect.Iaddend.said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum.[.aplitude,.]..Iadd.amplitude,.Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating.[.calculates.]..Iadd.calculates.Iaddend.the magnitude of the mean arterial blood pressure, P.sub.mi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU18## where K.sub.4 =constant determined for each subject
b.sub.3 =constant
P.sub.mmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
.[..DELTA..sub.i.]..Iadd..DELTA.V.sub.i.Iaddend.=maximum volume change during cycle i ##EQU19##

3. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum.[.aplitude,.]..Iadd.amplitude,.Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the systolic pressure (P.sub.si) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
g.sub.0 =constant.

4. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum.[.aplitude,.]..Iadd.amplitude,.Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the systolic pressure (P.sub.si) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
wherein:
g.sub.i =(.DELTA.V.sub.iAV /.DELTA.V.sub.i)
P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =represented by said first difference
.DELTA.V.sub.iAV =represented by the difference between said minimum amplitude and an amplitude equal to the average value of a pulse in a cycle i.

5. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being.[.cycle.]..Iadd.cyclic.Iaddend.in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum.[.aplitude,.]..Iadd.amplitude,.Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure, P.sub.mi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU20## where K.sub.4 =constant determined for each subject
b.sub.3 =constant
P.sub.mmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i ##EQU21## P.sub.o =constant where
G(t)=a function of t.

6. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU22## wherein P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
K.sub.pp =constant determined by a first calibration
r.sub.1 =constant
r.sub.2 =constant
R.sub.il =(.DELTA.V.sub.iVm /.DELTA.V.sub.i)
where
.[..DELTA.V.sub.iVm =volume change at time t.sub.iVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, V.sub.imax.].
.Iadd..DELTA.V.sub.iVm =volume change at time t.sub.iVm during cycle i corresponding to maximum rate of volume change, V.sub.imax.Iaddend.
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.t.sub.iVm =time interval from start of cycle i to time of maximum rate of volume change V.sub.imax.

7. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the mean.[.artial.]..Iadd.arterial.Iaddend.pressure P.sub.mi in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU23## where K.sub.4 =constant determined for each subject
b.sub.3 =constant
P.sub.mmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.imax =maximum time rate of change of.DELTA.V.sub.i =V.sub.imax ##EQU24##

8. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the systolic pressure (P.sub.si parameter in accordance with the following expression:
wherein
g.sub.0 =constant.

9. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representive of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the systolic pressure (P.sub.si) parameter in accordance with the following expression:
wherein:
g.sub.i =(.DELTA.V.sub.iAV /.DELTA.V.sub.i)
P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =represented by said first difference
.DELTA.V.sub.iAV =represented by the difference between said minimum amplitude and an amplitude equal to the average value of a pulse in a cycle i.

10. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the arterial blood pressure, P.sub.mi parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU25## where
K.sub.4 =constant determined for each subject
b.sub.3 =constant
P.sub.mmi =pseudo mean arterial blood pressure during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.imax =maximum time rate of change of V.sub.i =V.sub.imax
P.sub.o =constant
G(t)=a function of t and T.

11. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum.[.aplitude,.]..Iadd.amplitude,.Iaddend.said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU26## wherein P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
K.sub.pp =constant determined by a first calibration
r.sub.1 =constant
r.sub.2 =constant
R.sub.i1 =.DELTA.V.sub.iVm /.DELTA.V.sub.i
where
.DELTA.V.sub.iVm =volume change at preselected time t.sub.iVm during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.t.sub.iVm =time interval from start of cycle i to preselected time of t.sub.iVm.

12. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of.[.charge.]..Iadd.change.Iaddend.of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU27## wherein P.sub.pi =pulse pressure during cycle i
K.sub.pp =constant determined by a first calibration
r.sub.1 =constant
r.sub.2 =constant
R.sub.i1 =(.DELTA.V.sub.iVm /V.sub.i)
where
.DELTA.V.sub.iVm =volume change at preselected time t.sub.iVm during cycle i
.DELTA.V.sub.i =maximum volume change during cycle i
.DELTA.t.sub.iVm =time interval from start of cylcle i to predetermined time of t.sub.iVm.

13. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second different, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein the means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the mean pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression:
(1) P'.sub.mi =K.sub.1 r.sub.ic.sup.a
where
K.sub.1 =calibration constant
.[.P'.sub.mi =(P.sub.s +P.sub.d)/2-P.sub.o.].
P.sub.si =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i
.[.P.sub.mi =(P.sub.s +P.sub.d)/2.].
P.sub.di =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i
a=constant
P.sub.o =constant.

14. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal.[.representation.]..Iadd.representative.Iaddend.of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following expression:
.[.(1) P.sub.mi =K.sub.1 r.sub.ic.sup.a.].
.Iadd.(1) P'.sub.mi =K.sub.l r.sub.ic a.Iaddend.
where
K.sub.1 =calibration constant
.[.P'.sub.mi =(P.sub.s +P.sub.d)/2-P.sub.o.].
.Iadd.P'.sub.mi =(P.sub.si +P.sub.di)/2-P.sub.o.Iaddend.
P.sub.si =systolic blood pressure, in cycle i
.[.P.sub.mi =(P.sub.s +P.sub.d)/2.].
.Iadd.P.sub.mi =(P.sub.si +P.sub.di)/2.Iaddend.
P.sub.di =diastolic blood pressure, in cycle i
a=constant
P.sub.o =constant.

15. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising;
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second.[.different,.]..Iadd.difference,.Iaddend.said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein the means for calculating calculates implicitly the magnitude of the mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU28## where P.sub.mo =constant at calibration
.phi..sub.1i +.phi..sub.2i =PP.sub.i =pulse pressure during cycle i
k=constant
j=constant
P.sub.si =P.sub.mo +.phi..sub.2i +P.sub.o
P.sub.di =P.sub.mo -.phi..sub.1i +P.sub.o
P.sub.mi =(P.sub. si +P.sub.di)/2
P.sub.o =constant
r.sub.i =ratio of exponentials
K.sub.3 =coefficient (variable or constant).

16. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and the said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
wherein the means for calculating calculates implicitly the magnitude of mean pulse pressure in accordance with the following.[.expressure.]..Iadd.expression.Iaddend.: ##EQU29## where P.sub.mo =constant at calibration
.phi..sub.1i +.phi..sub.2i =PP.sub.i =pulse pressure during cycle i
k=constant
j=constant
.[.P.sub.2i =P.sub.mo +.phi..sub.2i +P.sub.o.].
.Iadd.P.sub.si =P.sub.mo +.phi..sub.2i +P.sub.o.Iaddend.
P.sub.di =P.sub.mo -.phi..sub.1i +P.sub.o
P.sub.mi =(P.sub. si +P.sub.di)/2
P.sub.o =constant
r.sub.i =ratio of exponentials
K.sub.3 =coefficient (variable or constant)..Iadd.

17. Apparatus for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
means for detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient, and for providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said means for detecting being attachable to said patient to thereby detect said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said minimum amplitude and said maximum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of increase of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
means for measuring said maximum amplitude; said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
means for calculating the magnitude of selected ones of said parameters, said means for calculating being connected to both said means for detecting and means for measuring;
wherein means for calculating calculates the magnitude of the pulse pressure parameter in accordance with the following expression; ##EQU30## where PP.sub.i =Pulse Pressure-- P.sub.s -P.sub.d
P.sub.s =Systolic blood pressure
P.sub.d =diastolic blood pressure
k=constant
K'=constant..Iaddend..Iadd.

18. A method for determining the magnitude of heart-related parameters in a patient;

comprising:
detecting blood volume, and thereby blood volume variation, in said patient and providing a signal representative of said blood volume, and thereby said blood volume variation;
said blood volume variation being cyclic in nature whereby said signal comprises a cyclic curve having, in each cycle of variation, a variable slope, a maximum amplitude representative of the maximum amount of blood volume, a minimum amplitude representative of the minimum amount of blood volume, a first time interval between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a maximum rate of change of said signal being representative of the maximum rate of change of blood volume, a second time interval between the minimum amplitude and the time of the maximum rate of change of said signal, a first difference in amplitude between said maximum amplitude and said minimum amplitude, a second difference in amplitude between the maximum amplitude and the amplitude at the time of maximum change of rate of said signal being representative of the difference in volume between the maximum amount of blood volume and the volume at the time of maximum rate of change of said blood volume, and a pulse repetition period;
measuring said maximum amplitude, said minimum amplitude, said maximum rate of change of said signal, said first difference, said second difference, said first time interval, and said second time interval; and
calculating the magnitude of the mean arterial pressure P.sub.mi in accordance with the following expression: ##EQU31## where PP.sub.i =Pulse Pressure=P.sub.s -P.sub.d
P.sub.s =Systolic blood pressure
P.sub.d =Diastolic blood pressure
k=constant
K'=constant.

Referenced Cited

U.S. Patent Documents

4030485 June 21, 1977 Warner
4425920 January 17, 1984 Bowland

Foreign Patent Documents

2092309 August 1982 GBX

Patent History

Patent number: RE33834
Type: Grant
Filed: Jul 20, 1990
Date of Patent: Mar 3, 1992
Assignees: Sylvia Warner (St. Laurent), Priyamvada Sankar (Brossard)
Inventor: Glenfield Warner (St. Laurent)
Primary Examiner: Asok Pal
Law Firm: Chilton, Alix & Van Kirk
Application Number: 7/556,101

Classifications

Current U.S. Class: 128/668; 128/666; 128/691; 128/694; 128/713
International Classification: A61B 502;