Fully-sealed Or Vacuum-maintained Chamber (e.g., Ampoule) Patents (Class 117/109)
  • Patent number: 10776698
    Abstract: A method of training an artificial neural network The artificial neural network comprising a plurality of connections connecting nodes arranged in at least an initial and a subsequent layer. The method comprises receiving a training example, the training example having input values, a target, and an associated training salience value indicating an importance of the input values to determining the target. The method further comprises determining salience values for nodes of the initial layer from the training salience value; determining an activation value for at least one node of the subsequent layer by propagating the input values using a subset of the connections selected based on the determined salience values for the nodes of the initial layer; and training the artificial neural network using the activation value, the trained artificial neural network configured to determine a relationship between the input data values and the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2020
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Anthony Knittel, Tuan Hue Thi
  • Patent number: 10714572
    Abstract: A silicon carbide epitaxial substrate includes a silicon carbide single-crystal substrate having a diameter of 100 mm or larger and including a principal surface inclined at an angle of more than 0 degrees and not less than 8 degrees with respect to a {0001} plane, a silicon carbide epitaxial layer formed on the principal surface and having a thickness of 20 ?m or thicker, and a basal plane dislocation contained in the silicon carbide epitaxial layer and having one end coupled to a threading screw dislocation contained in the silicon carbide epitaxial layer and the other end present in a surface of the silicon carbide epitaxial layer. The basal plane dislocation extends in a direction having a slope of 20 degrees or more and 80 degrees or less with respect to a <11-20> direction in a {0001} basal plane. Density of the basal plane dislocation is 0.05/cm2 or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES, LTD.
    Inventor: Tsutomu Hori
  • Patent number: 10364491
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are methods for diffusing precursors into polymer substrates, including methods of chemically modifying polymeric materials by static, low-pressure infiltration of reactive gaseous molecules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2019
    Assignee: Georgia Tech Research Corporation
    Inventors: Mark D. Losego, Collen Z. Leng, Brandon Deane Piercy
  • Patent number: 10316428
    Abstract: In various embodiments, methods of forming single-crystal AlN include providing a substantially undoped polycrystalline AlN ceramic having an oxygen concentration less than approximately 100 ppm, forming a single-crystal bulk AlN crystal by a sublimation-recondensation process at a temperature greater than approximately 2000° C., and cooling the bulk AlN crystal to a first temperature between approximately 1500° C. and approximately 1800° C. at a first rate less than approximately 250° C./hour.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2019
    Assignee: Crystal IS, Inc.
    Inventors: Sandra B. Schujman, Shailaja P. Rao, Robert T. Bondokov, Kenneth E. Morgan, Glen A. Slack, Leo J. Schowalter
  • Patent number: 10087549
    Abstract: A SiC single crystal having low density of threading screw dislocations, threading edge dislocations, micropipe defects, base plane dislocations and stacking faults is provided. This is achieved by a method for producing a SiC single crystal in which a SiC seed crystal substrate is contacted with a Si—C solution having a temperature gradient such that the temperature decreases from the interior toward the surface, to grow a SiC single crystal, the method including: a first step in which a SiC single crystal is grown with a (1-100) plane as the growth surface, a second step in which a {0001} plane is exposed from the grown SiC single crystal, and a third step in which the SiC single crystal having the exposed {0001} plane is used as a seed crystal, and the {0001} plane is used as the growth surface for growth of a SiC single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2018
    Assignee: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventor: Katsunori Danno
  • Patent number: 9048166
    Abstract: A method for controlled growth of silicon carbide and structures produced by the method are disclosed. A crystal of silicon carbide (SiC) can be grown by placing a sacrificial substrate in a growth zone with a source material. The source material may include a low-solubility impurity. SiC is then grown on the sacrificial substrate to condition the source material. The sacrificial substrate is then replaced with the final substrate, and SiC is grown on the final substrate. A single crystal of silicon carbide is produced, wherein the crystal of silicon carbide has substantially few micropipe defects. Such a crystal may also include a substantially uniform concentration of the low-solubility impurity, and may be used to make wafers and/or SiC die.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 2, 2015
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Tyler Leonard, Hudson M. Hobgood, William A. Thore
  • Patent number: 9023306
    Abstract: The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 ?m/h.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Carnegie Institution of Washington
    Inventors: Russell J. Hemley, Ho-Kwang Mao, Chih-Shiue Yan, Qi Liang
  • Patent number: 8986448
    Abstract: To provide a method of manufacturing a single crystal 3C-SiC substrate that can dramatically reduce surface defects generated in a processing of epitaxial growth and can secure a quality as a semiconductor device while simplifying a post process. The method of manufacturing a single crystal 3C-SiC substrate where a single crystal 3C-SiC layer is formed on a base substrate by epitaxial growth is provided. A first growing stage of forming the single crystal 3C-SiC layer to have a surface state configured with a surface with high flatness and surface pits scattering in the surface is performed. A second growing stage of further epitaxially growing the single crystal 3C-SiC layer obtained in the first growing stage so as to fill the surface pits is performed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: Air Water Inc.
    Inventors: Hidetoshi Asamura, Keisuke Kawamura, Satoshi Obara
  • Patent number: 8945305
    Abstract: Methods for depositing a material, such as a metal or a transition metal oxide, using an ALD (atomic layer deposition) process and resulting structures are disclosed. Such methods include treating a surface of a semiconductor structure periodically throughout the ALD process to regenerate a blocking material or to coat a blocking material that enables selective deposition of the material on a surface of a substrate. The surface treatment may reactivate a surface of the substrate toward the blocking material, may restore the blocking material after degradation occurs during the ALD process, and/or may coat the blocking material to prevent further degradation during the ALD process. For example, the surface treatment may be applied after performing one or more ALD cycles. Accordingly, the presently disclosed methods enable in situ restoration of blocking materials in ALD process that are generally incompatible with the blocking material and also enables selective deposition in recessed structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Eugene P. Marsh
  • Patent number: 8936680
    Abstract: The present invention, which provides a crucible for producing single-crystal silicon carbide, and a production apparatus and a production method for single-crystal silicon carbide, which are capable of stably growing a single-crystal silicon carbide ingot good in crystallinity at high yield, is a crucible for producing single-crystal silicon carbide having a crucible vessel for holding silicon carbide raw material and a crucible cover for attaching a seed crystal and is adapted to sublimate a silicon carbide raw material in the crucible vessel to supply silicon carbide sublimation gas onto a seed crystal attached to the crucible cover and grow single-crystal silicon carbide on the seed crystal, which crucible for producing single-crystal silicon carbide is provided in the crucible vessel and the crucible cover with threaded portions to be screwed together and is provided with a sublimation gas discharge groove or grooves capable of regulating flow rate by relative rotation of the threaded portions; and is a
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2015
    Assignee: Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation
    Inventors: Masakazu Katsuno, Tatsuo Fujimoto, Hiroshi Tsuge, Masashi Nakabayashi
  • Patent number: 8900362
    Abstract: A method of growing a single crystal of gallium oxide at a lower temperature than the melting point (1900° C.) of gallium oxide is provided. A compound film (hereinafter referred to as “gallium oxide compound film”) containing Ga atoms, O atoms, and atoms or molecules that easily sublimate, is heated to sublimate the atoms or molecules that easily sublimate from inside the gallium oxide compound film, thereby growing a single crystal of gallium oxide with a heat energy that is lower than a binding energy of gallium oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akiharu Miyanaga, Tatsuya Honda, Takatsugu Omata, Yusuke Nonaka
  • Patent number: 8882911
    Abstract: An apparatus for manufacturing a silicon carbide single crystal grows the silicon carbide single crystal on a seed crystal by supplying a material gas from below the seed crystal. The apparatus includes a heating container and a base located in the heating container. The seed crystal is mounded on the base. The apparatus further includes a first inlet for causing a purge gas to flow along an inner wall surface of the heating container, a purge gas source for supplying the purge gas to the first inlet, a second inlet for causing the purge gas to flow along an outer wall surface of the base, and a mechanism for supporting the base and for supplying the purge gas to the base from below the base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: DENSO CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yuuichirou Tokuda, Kazukuni Hara, Jun Kojima
  • Patent number: 8871025
    Abstract: In a crystal growth method, a seed crystal 8 and a source material 4 are provided in spaced relation inside of a growth crucible 6. Starting conditions for the growth of a crystal 14 in the growth crucible 6 are then established therein. The starting conditions include: a suitable gas inside the growth crucible 6, a suitable pressure of the gas inside the growth crucible 6, and a suitable temperature in the growth crucible 6 that causes the source material 4 to sublimate and be transported via a temperature gradient in the growth crucible 6 to the seed crystal 8 where the sublimated source material precipitates. During growth of the crystal 14 inside the growth crucible 6, at least one of the following growth conditions are intermittently changed inside the growth crucible 6 a plurality of times: the gas in the growth crucible 6, the pressure of the gas in the growth crucible 6, and the temperature in the growth crucible 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: II-VI Incorporated
    Inventors: Avinash Gupta, Utpal K. Chakrabarti, Jihong Chen, Edward Semenas, Ping Wu
  • Patent number: 8866159
    Abstract: A high quality single crystal wafer of SiC is disclosed having a diameter of at least about 100 mm and a micropipe density of less than about 25 cm?2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian Powell, Mark Brady, Robert Tyler Leonard
  • Patent number: 8852342
    Abstract: A surface of a single crystalline semiconductor-carbon alloy layer having a surface normal along or close to a major crystallographic direction is provided by mechanical means such as cutting and/or polishing. Such a surface has naturally formed irregular surface features. Small semiconductor islands are deposited on the surface of single crystalline semiconductor-carbon alloy layer. Another single crystalline semiconductor-carbon alloy structure may be placed on the small semiconductor islands, and the assembly of the two semiconductor-carbon alloy layers with the semiconductor islands therebetween is annealed. During the initial phase of the anneal, surface diffusion of the semiconductor material proceeds to form vicinal surfaces while graphitization is suppressed because the space between the two semiconductor-carbon alloy layers maintains a high vapor pressure of the semiconductor material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Christos D. Dimitrakopoulos, Marcus O. Freitag, Alfred Grill, Robert L. Wisnieff
  • Publication number: 20140220296
    Abstract: A method of forming an SiC crystal including placing in an insulated graphite container a seed crystal of SiC, and supporting the seed crystal on a shelf, wherein cushion rings contact the seed crystal on a periphery of top and bottom surfaces of the seed crystal, and where the graphite container does not contact a side surface of the seed crystal; placing a source of Si and C atoms in the insulated graphite container, where the source of Si and C atoms is for transport to the seed crystal to grow the SiC crystal; placing the graphite container in a furnace; heating the furnace; evacuating the furnace; filling the furnace with an inert gas; and maintaining the furnace to support crystal growth to thereby form the SiC crystal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 18, 2013
    Publication date: August 7, 2014
    Applicant: Dow Corning Corporation
    Inventors: Mark Loboda, Roman Drachev, Darren Hansen, Edward Sanchez
  • Patent number: 8785946
    Abstract: A high quality single crystal wafer of SiC is disclosed having a diameter of at least about 3 inches and a 1 c screw dislocation density from about 500 cm?2 to about 2000 cm?2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian Powell, Mark Brady, Stephan G. Mueller, Valeri F. Tsvetkov, Robert T. Leonard
  • Patent number: 8758510
    Abstract: A method is used for producing an SiC volume monocrystal by sublimation growth. During growth, by sublimation of a powdery SiC source material and by transport of the sublimated gaseous components into the crystal growth region, an SiC growth gas phase is produced there. The SiC volume monocrystal grows by deposition from the SiC growth gas phase on the SiC seed crystal. The SiC seed crystal is bent during a heating phase before such that an SiC crystal structure with a non-homogeneous course of lattice planes is adjusted, the lattice planes at each point have an angle of inclination relative to the direction of the center longitudinal axis and peripheral angles of inclination at a radial edge of the SiC seed crystal differ in terms of amount by at least 0.05° and at most by 0.2° from a central angle of inclination at the site of the center longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: SiCrystal Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Thomas Straubinger, Michael Vogel, Andreas Wohlfart
  • Patent number: 8658118
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide more inexpensive high purity crystalline silicon which can satisfy not only a quality required to a raw material of silicon for a solar cell but also a part of a quality required to silicon for an up-to-date semiconductor and a production process for the same and provide high purity silicon tetrachloride used for production of high purity crystalline silicon and a production process for the same. The high purity crystalline silicon of the present invention has a boron content of 0.015 ppmw or less and a zinc content of 50 to 1000 ppbw. The production process for high purity crystalline silicon according to the present invention is characterized by that a silicon tetrachloride gas and a zinc gas are supplied to a vertical reactor to react them at 800 to 1200° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignees: JNC Corporation, JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation, Toho Titanium Co., ltd.
    Inventors: Satoshi Hayashida, Wataru Kato
  • Patent number: 8647435
    Abstract: HVPE reactors and methods for growth of p-type group III nitride materials including p-GaN. A reaction product such as gallium chloride is delivered to a growth zone inside of a HVPE reactor by a carrier gas such as Argon. The gallium chloride reacts with a reactive gas such as ammonia in the growth zone in the presence of a magnesium-containing gas to grow p-type group III nitride materials. The source of magnesium is an external, non-metallic compound source such as Cp2Mg.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Ostendo Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Vladimir A. Dmitriev, Oleg V. Kovalenkov, Vladimir Ivantsov, Lisa Shapovalov, Alexander L. Syrkin, Anna Volkova, Vladimir Sizov, Alexander Usikov, Vitali A. Soukhoveev
  • Patent number: 8647436
    Abstract: Isotopically-enriched graphene and isotope junctions are epitaxially grown on a catalyst substrate using a focused carbon ion beam technique. The focused carbon ion beam is filtered to pass substantially a single ion species including a single desired carbon isotope. The ion beam and filtering together provide a means to selectively isotopically-enrich the epitaxially-grown graphene from given carbon precursor and to selectively deposit graphene enriched with different carbon isotopes in different regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignees: Raytheon Company, The Arizona Board of Regents
    Inventors: Delmar L. Barker, William R. Owens, John Warren Beck
  • Patent number: 8647434
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for fast epitaxial deposition of compound semiconductor layers includes a low-energy, high-density plasma generating apparatus for plasma enhanced vapor phase epitaxy. The process provides in one step, combining one or more metal vapors with gases of non-metallic elements in a deposition chamber. Then highly activating the gases in the presence of a dense, low-energy plasma. Concurrently reacting the metal vapor with the highly activated gases and depositing the reaction product on a heated substrate in communication with a support immersed in the plasma, to form a semiconductor layer on the substrate. The process is carbon-free and especially suited for epitaxial growth of nitride semiconductors at growth rates up to 10 nm/s and substrate temperatures below 1000° C. on large-area silicon substrates. The process requires neither carbon-containing gases nor gases releasing hydrogen, and in the absence of toxic carrier or reagent gases, is environment friendly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Sulzer Metco AG
    Inventor: Hans Von Kaenel
  • Publication number: 20140014031
    Abstract: An apparatus for vapour phase crystal growth comprising an envelope assembly with a one source module defining at least one source volume, a growth module defining at least one growth volume, and a manifold module defining at least one manifold volume. The source module, manifold module and growth module are configured co-operably to define a fluidly continuous envelope volume including a flow restrictor between the source volume and the growth volume. A vacuum vessel containing one or more of the envelope assemblies. An evacuator to evacuate the vacuum vessel. A fluid communication path between the envelope volume and the vacuum vessel associated with each source volume at a location on the source volume side of its associated flow restrictor. A closure mechanism is configured to restrict the fluid communication path between each source volume and the vacuum vessel. A method of employing such an apparatus is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2012
    Publication date: January 16, 2014
    Applicant: KROMEK LIMITED
    Inventors: Max Robinson, John Tomlinson Mullins
  • Patent number: 8628615
    Abstract: An apparatus and methods of forming the apparatus include a film of transparent conductive titanium-doped indium oxide for use in a variety of configurations and systems. The film of transparent conductive titanium-doped indium oxide may be structured as one or more monolayers. The film of transparent conductive titanium-doped indium oxide may be formed using atomic layer deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2014
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Kie Y. Ahn, Leonard Forbes
  • Patent number: 8624267
    Abstract: A high quality single crystal wafer of SiC is disclosed having a diameter of at least about 3 inches and a 1 c screw dislocation density from about 500 cm?2 to about 2000 cm?2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian Powell, Mark Brady, Stephan G. Mueller, Valeri F. Tsvetkov, Robert T. Leonard
  • Patent number: 8624266
    Abstract: A main surface of a silicon carbide substrate is inclined by an off angle in an off direction from {0001} plane of a hexagonal crystal. The main surface has such a characteristic that, among emitting regions emitting photoluminescent light having a wavelength exceeding 650 nm of the main surface caused by excitation light having higher energy than band-gap of the hexagonal silicon carbide, the number of those having a dimension of at most 15 ?m in a direction perpendicular to the off direction and a dimension in a direction parallel to the off direction not larger than a value obtained by dividing penetration length of the excitation light in the hexagonal silicon carbide by a tangent of the off angle is at most 1×104 per 1 cm2. Accordingly, reverse leakage current can be reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Shin Harada, Tsubasa Honke
  • Patent number: 8618552
    Abstract: A high quality single crystal wafer of SiC is disclosed having a diameter of at least about 100 mm and a micropipe density of less than about 25 cm?2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian Powell, Mark Brady, Robert Tyler Leonard
  • Patent number: 8591653
    Abstract: A compound semiconductor single-crystal manufacturing device (1) is furnished with: a laser light source (6) making it possible to sublime a source material by directing a laser beam onto the material; a reaction vessel (2) having a laser entry window (5) through which the laser beam output from the laser light source (6) can be transmitted to introduce the beam into the vessel interior, and that is capable of retaining a starting substrate (3) where sublimed source material is recrystallized; and a heater (7) making it possible to heat the starting substrate (3). The laser beam is shone on, to heat and thereby sublime, the source material within the reaction vessel (2), and compound semiconductor single crystal is grown by recrystallizing the sublimed source material onto the starting substrate (3); afterwards the laser beam is employed to separate the compound semiconductor single crystal from the starting substrate (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Issei Satoh, Naho Mizuhara, Keisuke Tanizaki, Michimasa Miyanaga, Takashi Sakurada, Hideaki Nakahata
  • Patent number: 8585821
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a monocrystal SiC epitaxial substrate is produced which includes a monocrystal SiC substrate; a buffer layer made of a first SiC epitaxial film formed on the monocrystal SiC substrate; and an active layer made of a second SiC epitaxial film formed on the buffer layer. The buffer layer is grown by heat-treating a set of the monocrystal SiC substrate, a carbon source plate, and a metal Si melt layer having a predetermined thickness and interposed between the monocrystal SiC substrate and the metal Si melt layer, so as to epitaxially grow monocrystal SiC on the monocrystal SiC substrate. The active layer is grown by epitaxially growing monocrystal SiC on the buffer layer by vapor phase growth method. This allows for production of a monocrystal SiC epitaxial substrate including a high-quality monocrystal SiC active layer being low in defects.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignees: Ecotron Co., Ltd., Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth
    Inventors: Nobuhiko Nakamura, Toru Matsunami, Kimito Nishikawa
  • Patent number: 8580035
    Abstract: Reducing the microvoid (MV) density in AlN ameliorates numerous problems related to cracking during crystal growth, etch pit generation during the polishing, reduction of the optical transparency in an AlN wafer, and, possibly, growth pit formation during epitaxial growth of AlN and/or AlGaN. This facilitates practical crystal production strategies and the formation of large, bulk AlN crystals with low defect densities—e.g., a dislocation density below 104 cm?2 and an inclusion density below 104 cm?3 and/or a MV density below 104 cm?3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Crystal IS, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Bondokov, Kenneth E. Morgan, Glen A. Slack, Leo J. Schowalter
  • Patent number: 8574528
    Abstract: A method of growing an epitaxial layer on a substrate is generally provided. According to the method, the substrate is heated in a chemical vapor deposition chamber to a growth temperature in the presence of a carbon source gas, then the epitaxial layer is grown on the substrate at the growth temperature, and finally the substrate is cooled in a chemical vapor deposition chamber to at least about 80% of the growth temperature in the presence of a carbon source gas. Substrates formed from this method can have a carrier lifetime between about 0.25 ?s and about 9.9 ?s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: University of South Carolina
    Inventors: Tangali S. Sudarshan, Amitesh Srivastava
  • Patent number: 8568531
    Abstract: A seed holder for use in a crystal growth reactor. The seed holder has a drool and a washer of outer diameter substantially the same as the drool inner diameter. A main body is disposed over the washer and drool, forming an enclosure above the washer and drool, the enclosure forming a cavity above the washer and drool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Pronomic Industry AB
    Inventors: Olof Claes Erik Kordina, Shailaja Rao, Joshua R. Christie
  • Patent number: 8491719
    Abstract: The present invention provides a high resistivity, high quality, large size SiC single crystal, SiC single crystal wafer, and method of production of the same, that is, a silicon carbide single crystal containing uncompensated impurities in an atomic number density of 1×1015/cm3 or more and containing vanadium in an amount less than said uncompensated impurity concentration, silicon carbide single crystal wafer obtained by processing and polishing the silicon carbide single crystal and having an electrical resistivity at room temperature of 5×103 ?cm or more, and a method of production of a silicon carbide single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation
    Inventors: Masashi Nakabayashi, Tatsuo Fujimoto, Mitsuru Sawamura, Noboru Ohtani
  • Patent number: 8470090
    Abstract: Affords large-diametric-span AlN crystals, applicable to various types of semiconductor devices, with superior crystallinity, a method of growing the AlN crystals, and AlN crystal substrates. The AlN crystal growth method is a method in which an AlN crystal (4) is grown by vapor-phase epitaxy onto a seed crystal substrate (2) placed inside a crystal-growth compartment (24) within a crystal-growth vessel (12) provided within a reaction chamber, and is characterized in that during growth of the crystal, carbon-containing gas is supplied to the inside of the crystal-growth compartment (24).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Naho Mizuhara, Michimasa Miyanaga, Tomohiro Kawase, Shinsuke Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 8449671
    Abstract: A method of fabricating an SiC single crystal includes (a) physical vapor transport (PVT) growing a SiC single crystal on a seed crystal in the presence of a temperature gradient, wherein an early-to-grow portion of the SiC single crystal is at a lower temperature than a later-to-grow portion of the SiC single crystal. Once grown, the SiC single crystal is annealed in the presence of a reverse temperature gradient, wherein the later-to-grow portion of the SiC single crystal is at a lower temperature than the early-to-grow portion of the SiC single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: II-VI Incorporated
    Inventors: Ping Wu, Ilya Zwieback, Avinesh K. Gupta, Edward Semenas
  • Patent number: 8444765
    Abstract: A method for large-scale manufacturing of gallium nitride includes a process for reducing and/or minimizing contamination in the crystals, for solvent addition to an autoclave, for improving or optimizing the solvent atmosphere composition, for removal of the solvent from the autoclave, and for recycling of the solvent. The method is scalable up to large volumes and is cost effective.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Soraa, Inc.
    Inventor: Mark P. D'Evelyn
  • Patent number: 8404044
    Abstract: An epitaxial growth film formation method allowing to adequately prevent the sticking phenomenon spreading over both a wafer and a susceptor when a horizontal disc-like susceptor is used to form an epitaxial growth film is provided. The epitaxial growth film formation method is a method of forming a vapor growth film on the wafer by placing the wafer having a diameter smaller than that of the susceptor approximately horizontally in substantially a center section on the horizontal disc-like susceptor, wherein the vapor growth film is formed on the wafer by bringing a circumferential recess step adjacent to a bottom inside from an edge part of the wafer and a convex step provided on a circumference of an upper surface inside from the edge part of the susceptor into contact.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: NuFlare Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Hideki Arai
  • Patent number: 8394197
    Abstract: Enhanced corrosion resistance is achieved in a coating by using a germanium-containing precursor and hollow cathode techniques to form a first layer directly on the surface of a workpiece, prior to forming an outer layer, such as a layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC). The use of a germanium or germanium-carbide precursor reduces film stress and enables an increase in the thickness of the subsequently formed DLC. Germanium incorporation also reduces the porosity of the layer. In one embodiment, a cap layer containing germanium is added after the DLC in order to further reduce the susceptibility of the coating to chemical penetration from the top.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: Sub-One Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew W. Tudhope, Thomas B. Casserly, Karthik Boinapally, Deepak Upadhyaya, William J. Boardman
  • Patent number: 8384090
    Abstract: A high quality single crystal wafer of SiC is disclosed having a diameter of at least about 3 inches and a 1c screw dislocation density of less than about 2000 cm?2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2013
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian Powell, Mark Brady, Stephan G. Mueller, Valeri F. Tsvetkov, Robert T. Leonard
  • Patent number: 8372199
    Abstract: Bulk GaN and AlGaN single crystal boules, preferably fabricated using a modified HVPE process, are provided. The single crystal boules typically have a volume in excess of 4 cubic centimeters with a minimum dimension of approximately 1 centimeter. If desired, the bulk material can be doped during growth, for example to achieve n-, i-, or p-type conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: Freiberger Compound Materials GmbH
    Inventors: Yuri V. Melnik, Vitali Soukhoveev, Vladimir Ivantsov, Katie Tsvetkov, Vladimir A. Dmitriev
  • Patent number: 8361226
    Abstract: This III-nitride single-crystal growth method, being a method of growing a AlxGa1-xN single crystal (4) by sublimation, is furnished with a step of placing source material (1) in a crucible (12), and a step of sublimating the source material (1) to grow AlxGa1-xN (0<x?1) single crystal (4) in the crucible (12), with the AlyGa1-yN (0<y?1) source (2) and an impurity element (3), which is at least one selected from the group consisting of IVb elements and IIa elements, being included in the source material (1). This growth method makes it possible to stably grow bulk III-nitride single crystals of low dislocation density and of favorable crystallinity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2013
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Michimasa Miyanaga, Naho Mizuhara, Shinsuke Fujiwara, Hideaki Nakahata, Tomohiro Kawase
  • Patent number: 8349077
    Abstract: Reducing the microvoid (MV) density in AlN ameliorates numerous problems related to cracking during crystal growth, etch pit generation during the polishing, reduction of the optical transparency in an AlN wafer, and, possibly, growth pit formation during epitaxial growth of AlN and/or AlGaN. This facilitates practical crystal production strategies and the formation of large, bulk AlN crystals with low defect densities—e.g., a dislocation density below 104 cm?2 and an inclusion density below 104 cm?3 and/or a MV density below 104 cm?3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: Crystal IS, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert T. Bondokov, Kenneth Morgan, Glen A. Slack, Leo J. Schowalter
  • Patent number: 8268075
    Abstract: A method of producing a zinc oxide-based semiconductor crystal, including: introducing at least zinc and oxygen on a surface of a substrate; and growing a zinc oxide-based semiconductor crystal on the substrate, wherein a total or partial portion of the zinc is ionized in a vacuum atmosphere of 1×10?4 Torr or less and is introduced to the surface of the substrate to grow the ZnO based semiconductor crystal. As a result, it is possible to provide a method of producing a zinc oxide based semiconductor crystal capable of growing a zinc oxide semiconductor crystal having excellent surface flatness and crystallinity and including an extremely small amount of impurities at a high growth rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2012
    Assignees: Fujikura Ltd., Chiba University
    Inventors: Koji Omichi, Yoshikazu Kaifuchi, Munehisa Fujimaki, Akihiko Yoshikawa
  • Publication number: 20120160157
    Abstract: There is provided a method of manufacturing a light emitting diode, the method including: growing a first conductivity type nitride semiconductor layer and an active layer on a substrate in a first reaction chamber; transferring the substrate having the first conductivity type nitride semiconductor layer and the active layer grown thereon to a second reaction chamber; and growing a second conductivity type nitride semiconductor layer on the active layer in the second reaction chamber, wherein an atmosphere including a nitride source gas and a dopant source gas supplying a dopant to be included in the second conductivity type nitride semiconductor layer is created in an interior of the second reaction chamber prior to the transferring of the substrate to the second reaction chamber. This method improves a system's operational capability and productivity. In addition, the crystallinity and doping uniformity of semiconductor layers obtained by this method may be improved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 12, 2011
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Inventors: Sang Heon HAN, Do Young Rhee, Jin Young Lim, Ki Sung Kim, Young Sun Kim
  • Patent number: 8197596
    Abstract: A crystal growth process comprising providing a reactor having a crucible with an injector apparatus and a seed holder. The injector apparatus has an inner gas conduit and an outer gas conduit wherein an inert gas is introduced into the outer conduit. The injector apparatus has an upper injector and a lower injector and a gap therebetween. The upper injector temperature is maintained at a higher temperature than the lower injector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Pronomic Industry AB
    Inventors: Olof Claes Erik Kordina, Shailaja Rao
  • Patent number: 8187380
    Abstract: Synthetic monocrystalline diamond compositions having one or more monocrystalline diamond layers formed by chemical vapor deposition, the layers including one or more layers having an increased concentration of one or more impurities (such as boron and/or isotopes of carbon), as compared to other layers or comparable layers without such impurities. Such compositions provide an improved combination of properties, including color, strength, velocity of sound, electrical conductivity, and control of defects. A related method for preparing such a composition is also described, as well as a system for use in performing such a method, and articles incorporating such a composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2012
    Assignee: Apollo Diamond, Inc
    Inventors: Robert C. Linares, Patrick J. Doering
  • Patent number: 8163086
    Abstract: A physical vapor transport growth technique for silicon carbide is disclosed. The method includes the steps of introducing a silicon carbide powder and a silicon carbide seed crystal into a physical vapor transport growth system, separately introducing a heated silicon-halogen gas composition into the system in an amount that is less than the stoichiometric amount of the silicon carbide source powder so that the silicon carbide source powder remains the stoichiometric dominant source for crystal growth, and heating the source powder, the gas composition, and the seed crystal in a manner that encourages physical vapor transport of both the powder species and the introduced silicon-halogen species to the seed crystal to promote bulk growth on the seed crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: Cree, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephan G. Mueller, Hudson M. Hobgood, Valeri F. Tsvetkov
  • Patent number: 8137459
    Abstract: The inventive method for producing nanoparticles for ferrofluids by electron-beam evaporation and condensation in vacuum, consists in evaporating an initial solid material and in fixing nanoparticles to a cooled substrate by means of a solidifiable carrier during vapour condensation, wherein a solid inorganic material, which is selected from a group containing metals, alloys or oxides thereof, is used as an initial material and a solid liquid-soluble material is used as a magnetic carrier material for fixing nanoparticles. The method also consists in simultaneously evaporating the initial material and the carrier composition by electron-beam heating. The vapour is deposited on the substrate, the temperature which is lower than the melting point of the carrier material, and the condensate of the magnetic material nanoparticles, which have a size and are fixed in the carrier, is produced. The particle size is adjusted by setting the specified temperature of the substrate during vapour deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: State Enterprise “International Center For Electron Beam Technologies of E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”
    Inventors: Boris Paton, Boris Movchan, Iurii Kurapov
  • Patent number: 8123859
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing bulk single crystals of AlN having low dislocation densities of about 10,000 cm?2 or less includes a crystal growth enclosure with Al and N2 source material therein, capable of forming bulk crystals. The apparatus maintains the N2 partial pressure at greater than stoichiometric pressure relative to the Al within the crystal growth enclosure, while maintaining the total vapor pressure in the crystal growth enclosure at super-atmospheric pressure. At least one nucleation site is provided in the crystal growth enclosure, and provision is made for cooling the nucleation site relative to other locations in the crystal growth enclosure. The Al and N2 vapor is then deposited to grow single crystalline low dislocation density AlN at the nucleation site. High efficiency ultraviolet light emitting diodes and ultraviolet laser diodes are fabricated on low defect density AlN substrates, which are cut from the low dislocation density AlN crystals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2012
    Assignee: Crystal IS, Inc.
    Inventors: Leo J. Schowalter, Glen A. Slack, J. Carlos Rojo
  • Publication number: 20110155051
    Abstract: A manufacturing apparatus for growing a SiC single crystal on a surface of a seed crystal that is made of a SiC single crystal substrate by supplying a source gas of SiC from a lower side of a vacuum chamber toward the seed crystal includes a pedestal, a rod member, and a cooling system. The pedestal is disposed in the vacuum chamber. The pedestal has a first surface on which the seed crystal is disposed and a second surface opposed to the first surface. The rod member holds the pedestal. The cooling system includes a temperature control pipe and a coolant temperature controller. The temperature control pipe is disposed on the second surface side of the pedestal. The coolant temperature controller controls a temperature of a coolant that flows to the temperature control pipe.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2010
    Publication date: June 30, 2011
    Applicant: DENSO CORPORATION
    Inventor: Kazukuni HARA