Including Means Forming A Flat Shape (e.g., Ribbon) Patents (Class 117/211)
  • Patent number: 10640304
    Abstract: An apparatus for locating a preform on a mold includes a preform handling tool and a force sensor coupled to the preform handling tool such that the force sensor is capable of sensing forces applied to the preform during handling of the preform by the preform handling tool. The apparatus includes a control device that is arranged and operable to move the preform handling tool relative to the mold. A method of locating the preform on the mold includes picking up the preform using the preform handling tool and placing the preform in a vicinity of the mold. Positions on the mold are mapped with an edge of the preform with the aid of the force sensor. The preform is paced on the mold according to the mapped positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2020
    Assignee: CORNING INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Kevin Thomas Morris, Andrew Nathan Nassau, Michael George Shultz, Matthew John Towner, Kevin William Uhlig, Ljerka Ukrainczyk, Thomas Achille Yorio
  • Patent number: 10100432
    Abstract: An apparatus (10) for producing an SiC single crystal is used in the solution growth includes a seed shaft (28) and a crucible (14). The seed shaft (28) has a lower end surface (28S) to which an SiC seed crystal (32) is to be attached. The crucible (14) holds an Si—C solution (15). The seed shaft (28) includes a cylinder part (28A), a bottom part (28B), and a low heat conductive member (28C). The bottom part (28B) is located at the lower end of the cylinder part (28A) and has the lower end surface (28S). The low heat conductive member (28C) is arranged on the upper surface of the bottom part (28B) and has a thermal conductivity lower than that of the bottom part (28B). This production apparatus can make the temperature within the crystal growth surface of the SiC seed crystal less liable to vary.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignee: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Nobuhiro Okada, Kazuhito Kamei, Kazuhiko Kusunoki, Nobuyoshi Yashiro, Koji Moriguchi, Hironori Daikoku, Motohisa Kado, Hidemitsu Sakamoto
  • Patent number: 9963800
    Abstract: Various single crystals are disclosed including sapphire. The single crystals have desirable geometric properties, including a width not less than about 15 cm and the thickness is not less than about 0.5 cm. The single crystal may also have other features, such as a maximum thickness variation, and as-formed crystals may have a generally symmetrical neck portion, particularly related to the transition from the neck to the main body of the crystal. Methods and for forming such crystals and an apparatus for carrying out the methods are disclosed as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2018
    Assignee: SAINT-GOBAIN CERAMICS & PLASTICS, INC.
    Inventors: John Walter Locher, Steven Anthony Zanella, Ralph Lampson MacLean, Jr., Herbert Ellsworth Bates
  • Patent number: 9903043
    Abstract: The invention provides a crucible assembly and method of manufacturing a crystalline silicon ingot by use of such crucible assembly. The crucible assembly of the invention includes a crucible body and a fiber textile article. The fiber textile article is made of a plurality of carbon fibers, and is loaded on a bottom of the crucible body. The fiber textile article has a plurality of intrinsic pores randomly arranged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2018
    Assignee: SINO-AMERICAN SULICON PRODUCTS INC.
    Inventors: Wen-Huai Yu, Hung-Sheng Chou, Yu-Min Yang, Kuo-Wei Chuang, Sung-Lin Hsu, I-Ching Li, Wen-Ching Hsu
  • Patent number: 9551089
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for growing a sapphire sheet via edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) including an angled heat shield with respect to the a side surface of a die tip. The present disclosure is further directed to an sapphire sheets and batches of such sheets having features such as a particular maximum low spot thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: SAINT-GOBAIN CERAMICS & PLASTICS, INC.
    Inventors: Marc Ouellette, Joseph M. Collins, John Walter Locher, Guilford L. Mack, III, Abbie M. Jennings, Jan J. Buzniak, Christopher D. Jones
  • Publication number: 20140311402
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for growing a sapphire sheet via edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) including an angled heat shield with respect to the a side surface of a die tip. The present disclosure is further directed to an sapphire sheets and batches of such sheets having features such as a particular maximum low spot thickness.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Applicant: Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventors: Marc Ouellette, Joseph M. Collins, John Walter Locher, Guilford L. Mack, III, Abbie M. Jennings, Jan J. Buzniak, Christopher D. Jones
  • Publication number: 20140150716
    Abstract: Various single crystals are disclosed including sapphire. The single crystals have desirable geometric properties, including a width not less than about 15 cm and the thickness is not less than about 0.5 cm. The single crystal may also have other features, such as a maximum thickness variation, and as-formed crystals may have a generally symmetrical neck portion, particularly related to the transition from the neck to the main body of the crystal. Methods and for forming such crystals and an apparatus for carrying out the methods are disclosed as well.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 10, 2014
    Publication date: June 5, 2014
    Inventors: John Walter Locher, Stephen Anthony Zanella, Ralph Lampson MacLean, JR., Herbert Ellsworth Bates
  • Publication number: 20140102358
    Abstract: An apparatus, die, and method can be used form a ribbon from a melt, where capillaries are relatively short and spacers are relatively long as compared to a die opening. Such a configuration can cause the melt to flow is a transverse direction that is substantially parallel to the solid/liquid interface to help move impurities to desired locations. In a particular embodiment, a crystal ribbon can be formed where defects, such as microvoids and impurities, are at higher concentrations near outer edges of the crystal ribbon. The outer edges can be removed to produce crystal substrates that are substantially free of microvoids and have no or a relatively low concentration of impurities. In another particular embodiment, the transverse flow can also help to increase the crystal growth rate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2013
    Publication date: April 17, 2014
    Inventors: Jan J. Buzniak, Naveen Tiwari, Vignesh Rajamani, Charles Gasdaska, Christopher D. Jones, Guilford L. Mack, III, Fery Pranadi, Maureen DeLoffi, Martin Z. Bazant
  • Publication number: 20140083353
    Abstract: Systems and method for creating crystalline parts having a desired primary and secondary crystallographic orientations are provided. One embodiment may take the form of a method of manufacturing a part having a crystalline structure. The method includes melting aluminum oxide and drawing the melted aluminum oxide up a slit. Additionally, the method includes orienting the seed crystal relative to a growth apparatus such that a crystalline structure grows having a desired primary plane and a desired secondary plane orientation. Moreover, the method includes pulling the crystal as it forms to create a ribbon shaped crystalline structure and cutting a part from the crystalline structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2012
    Publication date: March 27, 2014
    Applicant: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Benjamin J. Pope, Christopher D. Prest, Dale N. Memering, Scott A. Myers
  • Patent number: 8673075
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for growing a semiconductor crystal include pulling the semiconductor crystal from melt at a pull speed and modulating the pull speed by combining a periodic pull speed with an average speed. The modulation of the pull speed allows in-situ determination of characteristic temperature gradients in the melt and in the crystal during crystal formation. The temperature gradients may be used to control relevant process parameters that affect morphological stability or intrinsic material properties in the finished crystal such as for instance the target pull speed of the crystal or the melt gap, which determines the thermal gradient in the crystal during growth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignees: Sumco Phoenix Corporation, Sumco Corporation
    Inventors: Benno Orschel, Andrzej Buczkowski, Joel Kearns, Keiichi Takanashi, Volker Todt
  • Patent number: 8580036
    Abstract: The method and apparatus includes a vessel having a bottom and sidewalls arranged to house the material in a molten state. A temperature controlled horizontally oriented, cooling plate is movable into and out of the top of the molten material. When the cooling plate is lowered into the top of the melt, an ingot of solid silicon is solidified downwards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Elkem Solar AS
    Inventor: Kenneth Friestad
  • Patent number: 8388751
    Abstract: A method of growing a ribbon crystal provides a crucible containing molten material and passes string through the molten material to grow the ribbon crystal. The method further directs gas flow around the ribbon crystal such that the gas flows down along the ribbon crystal toward the crucible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2013
    Assignee: Max Era, Inc.
    Inventors: David Harvey, Weidong Huang, Scott Reitsma, Minh Sy Le
  • Publication number: 20120145069
    Abstract: Various single crystals are disclosed including sapphire. The single crystals have desirable geometric properties, including a width not less than about 15 cm and the thickness is not less than about 0.5 cm. The single crystal may also have other features, such as a maximum thickness variation, and as-formed crystals may have a generally symmetrical neck portion, particularly related to the transition from the neck to the main body of the crystal. Methods and for forming such crystals and an apparatus for carrying out the methods are disclosed as well.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 14, 2012
    Publication date: June 14, 2012
    Applicant: SAINT-GOBAIN CERAMICS & PLASTICS, INC.
    Inventors: John Walter Locher, Steven Anthony Zanella, Ralph Lampson MacLean, JR., Herbert Ellsworth Bates
  • Publication number: 20110155045
    Abstract: A sheet wafer growth system includes a crucible for containing molten material and an afterheater positioned above the crucible. The afterheater has an inner surface disposed toward the crucible. The system further includes one or more shields adjacent to the inner surface of the afterheater. The afterheater and the shield(s) are configured to allow a sheet wafer to pass adjacent to the shield(s). Each shield has two or more substantially different thermally conductive regions such that the two or more regions are configured to control the temperature profile of the growing sheet wafer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Publication date: June 30, 2011
    Applicant: EVERGREEN SOLAR, INC.
    Inventors: Kaitlin Olsen, Weidong Huang, Christine Richardson
  • Publication number: 20100288186
    Abstract: Techniques are generally disclosed for forming crystalline bodies. An example system, device or method for forming crystalline bodies may include a crucible for containing molten crystalline material and a support for accommodating a seed on an end thereof, the support being movable along a translation axis in a pull direction to draw the seed crystal from the molten crystalline, thereby initiating growth of a crystalline body along a growth path. Further examples may include one or more nozzles configured to be coupled to a fluid source, the nozzles being positioned relative to the growth path for shaping the crystal body as the molten crystalline is pulled in the pull direction along the growth path.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 18, 2009
    Publication date: November 18, 2010
    Inventor: Christopher A. Bang
  • Patent number: 7799131
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for the continuous production of semiconductor ribbons by growth from a linear molten zone. The creation of the molten zone is achieved by application of an electric current, direct or alternating, parallel to the surface of the ribbon and perpendicular to the direction of growth, and intense enough to melt the said material, preferably using electrodes of the said material. The molten zone is fed by transference of the material, in the liquid state, from one or more reservoirs, where melting of the feedstock occurs. Preferably, the said electrodes and the said reservoir(s) are only constituted by the said material, thus avoiding contamination by foreign materials. The present invention is applicable, for example, in the industry of silicon ribbons production for photovoltaic application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2010
    Assignee: Faculdade de Ciencias Da Universidade de Lisboa
    Inventors: António Vallêra, João Serra, Jorge Maia Alves, Miguel Brito, Roberto Gamboa, João Henriques
  • Patent number: 7718003
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for growing a crystalline or poly-crystalline body from a melt is described, wherein the melt is retained by capillary attachment to edge features of a mesa crucible. The boundary profile of the resulting melt surface results in an effect which induces a ribbon grown from the surface of the melt to grow as a flat body. Further, the size of the melt pool is substantially reduced by bringing these edges close to the ribbon, thereby reducing the materials cost and electric power cost associated with the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2010
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Emanuel Michael Sachs
  • Patent number: 7708829
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for growing a crystalline or poly-crystalline body from a melt is described, wherein the melt is retained by capillary attachment to edge features of a mesa crucible. The boundary profile of the resulting melt surface results in an effect which induces a ribbon grown from the surface of the melt to grow as a flat body. Further, the size of the melt pool is substantially reduced by bringing these edges close to the ribbon, thereby reducing the materials cost and electric power cost associated with the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2010
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Emanuel Michael Sachs
  • Patent number: 7572334
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for forming a semiconductor sheet suitable for use as a solar cell by depositing an array of solidified drops of a feed material on a sheet support. The desired properties of the sheet fabricated with the teaching of this invention are: flatness, low residual stress, minority carrier diffusion length greater than 40 microns, and minimum grain dimension at least two times the minority carrier diffusion length. In one embodiment, the deposition chamber is adapted to form and process sheets that have a surface area of about 1,000-2,400 cm2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2009
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Arnold V. Kholodenko, Robert Z. Bachrach, Mark Mandelboym
  • Patent number: 7507291
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for concurrent growth of multiple crystalline ribbons from a single crucible employ meniscus shapers to facilitate continuous growth of discrete and substantially flat crystalline ribbons having controlled width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2009
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Lee Wallace, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20080308034
    Abstract: A ribbon crystal pulling furnace has an interior for enclosing at least a portion of one or more ribbon crystals, and an afterheater positioned within the interior. The afterheater has at least one wall with one or more openings that facilitate control of the temperature profile within the furnace.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 13, 2008
    Publication date: December 18, 2008
    Applicant: EVERGREEN SOLAR, INC.
    Inventors: Weidong Huang, David Harvey, Scott Reitsma
  • Publication number: 20080134964
    Abstract: A system for producing a crystal formed from a material with impurities has a crucible for containing the material. The crucible has, among other things, a crystal region for forming the crystal, an introduction region for receiving the material, and a removal region for removing a portion of the material. The crucible is configured to produce a generally one directional flow of the material (in liquid form) from the introduction region toward the removal region. This generally one directional flow causes the removal region to have a higher concentration of impurities than the introduction region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 27, 2007
    Publication date: June 12, 2008
    Applicant: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: David Harvey, Weidong Huang, Richard L. Wallace, Leo van Glabbeek, Emanuel M. Sachs
  • Patent number: 7036387
    Abstract: A printed circuit board (PCB) having an integrated strain gage. In one embodiment, a PCB includes a component footprint suitable for mounting an electronic component. A strain gage is integrated into the PCB in a location under the component footprint. The strain gage includes at least one electrical conductor that is accessible for resistance measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2006
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Brett C. Ong, Keith G. Newman
  • Patent number: 7022180
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for concurrent growth of multiple crystalline ribbons from a single crucible employ meniscus shapers to facilitate continuous growth of discrete and substantially flat crystalline ribbons having controlled width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2006
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Lee Wallace, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6874378
    Abstract: A pressure transducer suitable for use as a component of a passive occupant detection system installed in a passenger vehicle. The transducer comprises first and second contact members separated by a spacing member. The first contact member has on a surface thereof a primary contact comprising first and second terminations and portions spaced apart in a first direction. The second contact member has on a surface thereof a plurality of secondary contacts crossing and facing the spaced-apart portions of the primary contact through an opening in the spacing member. Application of an increasing force causes the contact members to move toward each other, causing an increasing number of the spaced-apart portions to be shorted out by the secondary contacts and causing an increasing number of secondary contacts to contact the primary contact, thereby altering the electrical path between the terminations of the primary contact.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2005
    Assignee: Delphi Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Frans P. Lautzenhiser, Anthony J. Stankavich, John D Myers, Terrence Evans
  • Patent number: 6814802
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for concurrent growth of multiple crystalline ribbons from a single crucible employ meniscus shapers to facilitate continuous growth of discrete and substantially flat crystalline ribbons having controlled width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2004
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Lee Wallace, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6663710
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method that permits a seed crystal to be directed to a precise location of a melt for growing a ribbon-shaped crystal, but after the crystal has commenced growing, the ribbon-shaped crystal is continuously pulled up so as to produce a longitudinally extending crystal using a continuous pulling device. The method for producing a ribbon-shaped crystal includes growing a ribbon-shaped crystal on a seed crystal using a linear pulling device for pulling the seed crystal and a crystal growing at the end of the seed crystal in a vertical direction, and continuing to pull the ribbon-shaped crystal by using a continuous pulling device having a continuous pulling mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Kentaro Fujita, Kenji Terao, Hideyuki Isozaki, Iwao Satoh
  • Patent number: 6471768
    Abstract: A seed crystal is lowered toward a melt, and a contact between the seed crystal and the melt is detected using an image captured by an imaging device. The temperature of the melt is adjusted to keep a meniscus of the melt in contact with the seed crystal. The temperature of the melt is then lowered to create a wingout extending from the seed crystal. The length and symmetry of the wingout is detected with an image captured by the imaging device, and a ribbon of crystal following the wingout starts to be lifted from the melt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2002
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Kenji Terao, Hideyuki Isozaki, Taro Takahashi, Motohiro Niijima
  • Patent number: 6325852
    Abstract: A die for drawing crystals from a molten bath, has a body bored with at least one longitudinal capillary channel arranged between a lower face of the body. The die is intended to be immersed in the molten bath and an upper face of the body intended to support the liquid coming from the molten bath through the capillary channel. The die upper face has a flat surface onto which the capillary channel emerges, and this flat surface forms an angle &thgr; less than 90° with the longitudinal axis of the capillary channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventors: Fred Theodore, Jean Delepine, Jean-Philippe Nabot, Vladimir Kurlov
  • Patent number: 6217649
    Abstract: The invention features a method of continuous crystalline growth. A granular source material is introduced into a hopper. A volume of the granular source material exiting the hopper is disposed on a translationally moving belt. The volume of the granular source material forms an angle of repose with the moving belt. The granular source material disposed on the moving belt is continuously fed into a crucible comprising a melt of the granular source material at a rate based on the angle of repose, the speed of the belt, and the size of the opening of the hopper. A crystalline ribbon is continuously grown by solidifying the melt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Wallace, Jr., Emanuel M. Sachs, Jennifer Martz
  • Patent number: 6200383
    Abstract: The invention features a method of controlling the depth of a melt for or crystal growth. According to the method, an input signal is applied through a crucible and a material disposed within the crucible. An output signal generated in response to the input signal is measured. The output signal relates to the depth of the melt. An amount of the source material introduced into the melt is adjusted to maintain the depth of the melt at a substantially constant level using the output signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2001
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Wallace, Jr., Richard C. Krauchune
  • Patent number: 6093244
    Abstract: A method and system for controlling the thickness of a pair of dendrites in a dendritic silicon web growth process to improve dendritic silicon web production. An image of each dendrite in a web emerging from a silicon melt in a furnace is produced by a pair of cameras focused on the dendrite pair. The dendrite images are digitized, the average thickness of the dendrites is calculated, and compared to set point parameters. The average difference between the dendrite thicknesses and the set point parameters is used to control the overall furnace temperature, while the differences between the thickness of each pair are used to control the lateral temperature distribution in the furnace in order to maintain the dendrite thickness within predetermined limits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Ebara Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: John R. Easoz, Barry Munshower
  • Patent number: 6090199
    Abstract: The invention features a method of continuous crystalline growth. A granular source material is introduced into a hopper. A volume of the granular source material exiting the hopper is disposed on a translationally moving belt. The volume of the granular source material forms an angle of repose with the moving belt. The granular source material disposed on the moving belt is continuously fed into a crucible comprising a melt of the granular source material at a rate based on the angle of repose, the speed of the belt, and the size of the opening of the hopper. A crystalline ribbon is continuously grown by solidifying the melt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Evergreen Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Wallace, Jr., Emanuel M. Sachs, Jennifer Martz
  • Patent number: 6071339
    Abstract: A crystal plate 1 is grown in a continuous process by first purifying a crystal source material, a crystal melt or powder, in a purification station 3. Valves 7 control the flow of purified crystal melt or source powder 9 to a first hot zone 11, whose temperature is above the melt temperature of the crystal. A dopant source 17 with controller 19 provides dopant to the liquefied crystal 15. The first heater zone 21 surrounding the first hot zone 11 heats the crystal above its melting temperature. The second heater zone 27 produces a temperature in the second zone which is below the melt temperature of the crystal. The liquefied crystal, the liquid solid interface and the first portion of the crystal are supported in a boat-shaped crucible container with a bottom 31 and side walls. As the crystal leaves the support plate 31 it passes on to a conveyor 33. The crystal moves within an enclosure 43, which has a noble gas or noble gas and reactant gas atmosphere 45.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Optoscint, Inc.
    Inventor: Kiril A. Pandelisev
  • Patent number: 5919304
    Abstract: When producing an oxide-series single crystal by continuously pulling downwardly by .mu. pulling down method, the composition of the single crystal can properly and quickly controlled to continuously produce the single crystal of a constant composition by changing the pulling rate of the single crystal. Preferably, the pulling rate is 20-300 mm/hr, and the pulling rate is decreased with the proceeding of growing of the single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Minoru Imaeda, Katsuhiro Imai, Tsuguo Fukuda
  • Patent number: 5820649
    Abstract: A liquid material such as molten silicon is stored in a crucible. A liquid material, which is identical to and held in the same conditions as the liquid material in the crucible, is continuously supplied from an auxiliary crucible to the crucible to keep constant the surface level of the liquid material in the crucible. The liquid material is continuously pulled up from the crucible at a predetermined speed while the liquid material is being solidified into a solid material such as a ribbon-like thin web of single-crystal silicon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Naoaki Ogure, Kazuyoshi Terashima
  • Patent number: 5667583
    Abstract: A method of growing a single crystal of a rare-earth silicate is disclosed which comprises heating raw materials in a crucible to thereby obtain a melt of the raw materials, contacting a lower end of a seed crystal with the melt and pulling the seed crystal to thereby grow a single crystal, and wherein the pulling is conducted along an axis of pulling having a gradient of at least 30.degree. from the b-axis ([010] axis) of the single crystal and a gradient of at least 25.degree. from the c-axis ([001] axis) of the single crystal. The invention also provides a method of machining a single crystal of a rare-earth silicate into a cylindrical form, comprising grinding a cylinder whose axis is directed so as to have a gradient of 0.degree. to 65.degree. from the c-axis ([001] axis) of the single crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1997
    Assignee: Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasushi Kurata, Kazuhisa Kurashige, Hiroyuki Ishibashi
  • Patent number: 3932180
    Abstract: Process for direct alpha to X phase conversion of metal-free phthalocyanine. In this process, the alpha polymorph of a metal-free phthalocyanine pigment can be directly converted to the X form by depositing the alpha form of the pigment on a suitable substrate followed by in situ conversion of this deposit by controlled heating. The X form of metal-free phthalocyanine is known to possess good electrophotographic speed, and, thus, can be used either alone or in combination with other photoconductive materials in electrophotography.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1973
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1976
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Clifford H. Griffiths, Michael S. Walker
  • Patent number: 3932454
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of substantially hexagonal crystals of metal-free alpha phthalocyanine, said crystals ranging in size from about 1 micron to about 75 microns is disclosed. Photoelectrophoretic and manifold processes employing said crystals are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1973
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1976
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Ray H. Luebbe, Jr.