Miscellaneous Patents (Class 122/4R)
  • Patent number: 6062174
    Abstract: A reduced-pressure steam heating device and a method for eliminating the banging noise generated therein as the heat carrier fluid is being heated. In the device, a heat carrier fluid sealed inside an evacuated container is heated to generate steam, the heat of which is used to heat the intended object. The heat carrier fluid is agitated and circulated as it is being heated to eliminate any banging noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kopuran
    Inventor: Toshio Abe
  • Patent number: 5558047
    Abstract: A low NO.sub.x, integrated boiler-burner cogeneration apparatus includes a horizontally fired, factory assembled package boiler having an inlet plenum and a furnace space. A gas turbine-generator having an outlet for providing turbine exhaust gas to the furnace space is connected to the boiler. A multi-nozzle burner (MNB) array including a plurality of vertically and horizontally spaced burner nozzles is located at an entrance to the furnace space for supplying fuel for combustion into the furnace space while distributing the heat of the combustion exhaust gases across the furnace space to minimize NO.sub.x formation. One or more chill tube assemblies are located within the furnace space immediately downstream of the MNB array for rapidly reducing the temperature of the combustion exhaust gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1996
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Richard C. Vetterick
  • Patent number: 5549078
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a heating device for submersion within a tank of water to boil the water to produce steam, and for superheating the steam, comprising an outer sleeve; an inner sleeve partially disposed through the outer sleeve and having a proximal end, and a distal end in the form of an outlet port, the inner sleeve further defining a vapor chamber; a heating element disposed within the vapor chamber and in electrical communication with an external electrical power supply, the heating element adapted to produce heat in response to electrical energy from the power supply; a steam inlet tube extending outwardly from the inner tube and in fluid communication with the vapor chamber; and a one way valve disposed within the vapor chamber adjacent the outlet port, the valve adapted to selectively gate the flow of vapor from within the vapor chamber through the outlet port; wherein the heating device is configured to heat the water within the tank to a boil to produce steam, the steam inlet tube ada
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1996
    Inventors: Robert L. Annecharico, Norman Campbell
  • Patent number: 5526775
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed reactor has substantially vertical walls with cooling elements, defining the interior of the reactor chamber, and a device for introducing fluidization gas at the bottom of the fluidized bed reactor. Particulate material is introduced into the reactor. A separator separates particulate material from the exhaust gases, the separator being in connection with the reactor chamber. A return duct is connected to the separator. A bubbling fluidized bed is adjacent the reactor and provided with a heat exchanger for cooling particulate material, and side walls, rear and front walls having cooling elements in fluid communication with the cooling elements of the reactor chamber; and a discharge channel with a separate fluidizing gas source for discharging particles from the bottom of the bubbling bed to adjacent the top of the bubbling bed in the reactor chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventor: Timo Hyppanen
  • Patent number: 5370085
    Abstract: Steam generator comprising a supply of water to be evaporated, a steam outlet and a heat source, which steam generator is characterised in that it is formed by a casing subdivided into two chambers (2, 3) by a waterpermeable porous partition (4),one (3) of the two chambers accommodating the heat source (6),the other chamber (2) receiving the supply water (5).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignees: Trouvay & Cauvin, Armstrong International, Inc.
    Inventor: Bernard Dangreau
  • Patent number: 5356487
    Abstract: A combustion device for producing predetermined radiation spectral output and heat for a variety of applications including lighting, cooking, heating water, electric power generation, and providing inexpensive photons to enhance chemical and physical reactions.A process for the preparation of a porous ceramic burner is described which comprises drawing a solution which contains metal oxide fibers onto a burner skeleton by use of a vacuum to form a base fiber layer. The base fiber layer is dried, after which an additional metal oxide fiber layer, the outer fiber layer, is added over the base fiber layer. In another embodiment of the invention, an intermediate fiber layer is placed over the base layer, prior to the addition of the outer fiber layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1994
    Assignee: Quantum Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark K. Goldstein, Jeffrey R. LaBar, John C. Bass, Boyd S. Conklin
  • Patent number: 5335628
    Abstract: A fuel cell and a boiler are coupled in such a manner that the water used to capture excess heat generated by the fuel cell is used for boiler feedwater heating. In one embodiment, steam generated by the boiler is used in an operation that converts the steam to condensate, and the condensate is returned to the fuel cell for use as a heat sink for the thermal energy generated within the fuel cell unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1994
    Assignee: Aqua-Chem, Inc.
    Inventor: William R. Dunbar
  • Patent number: 5318109
    Abstract: A heat exchange apparatus is composed of a plurality of tube banks arranged in rows each comprising a plurality of tubes arranged in a direction normal to a gas flow in a gas passage duct and in the heat exchanger, an interval of a space between mutually adjoining tube banks in the gas flow direction is less than eight times of a depth of a tube group disposed on an upstream side with respect to the gas flow and baffle plates are disposed in the respective tube banks for preventing a multibank tubing compound resonance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1994
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Minoru Yamada, Akira Nemoto
  • Patent number: 5279260
    Abstract: A water to fuel electrolysis system for providing hydrogen and oxygen gases to a steam boiler for the production of heat and steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1994
    Inventor: John F. Munday
  • Patent number: 5166487
    Abstract: An apparatus for cooking an article is provided including a cooking chamber, a heating means for producing heated gases for introduction into said chamber for convective heating without microwave interference, and a source of microwaves for heating with microwave energy. At least one freely rotating stirring means is positioned in gas and microwave communication with the heating chamber, and is caused to rotate from a flow of the heated gases. The stirring means serves to distribute both microwave energy and the heated gases about the chamber for uniform, simultaneous convection and microwave heating. A pilotless gas source is provided which includes an initiation chamber within a combustion chamber. The initiation chamber is positioned by a microwave opaque material and includes a flame sensor which eliminates the flow of gas in the combustion chamber when no flame is present.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1992
    Assignee: Tecogen, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Hurley, Timothy J. Norman, Paul J. Childs
  • Patent number: 5050540
    Abstract: A method of blanketing a boiler with nitrogen to reduce the level of oxygen dissolved in water in the boiler. The method includes the steps of creating a nitrogen blanket in the boiler, then preserving the nitrogen blanket during the subsequent filling of the boiler, and providing sufficient contact in the boiler between the water and the nitrogen to maximize the reduction of the level of oxygen dissolved in the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1991
    Inventor: Arne Lindberg
  • Patent number: 5044326
    Abstract: Apparatus is provided for controlling the burning of a volatile waste liquid together with a conventional fuel in a boiler in the form of a free-standing module which contains a flow-control valve for the waste liquid. This system includes a means for monitoring the position to the fuel-control valve for the conventional fuel and a separate means for monitoring the position of a controlled valve for feeding of the volatile liquid. The two monitoring means are coupled and comparisons are made of the relative valve positions indicated thereby. The process controller used for such comparison contols a valve which stops the flow of volatile liquid to the burner in the event that more than a predetermined discrepancy occurs between the indicated valve positions. Said controller may also be employed to correct the valve position. Other features include a reverse purge pumping system which is actuated upon shutdown of volatile fuel flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 3, 1991
    Assignee: Aqua-Chem, Inc.
    Inventors: Philip R. Coerper, Boris M. Tynkov
  • Patent number: 5005530
    Abstract: The method of combining two furnaces into one, each furnace having a lower radiant section that includes upright walls and horizontal heat exchanger tubes, and an upper convection section, the lower section having associated fuel burners, including removing the horizontal heat exchanger tubes from the lower section; extending the lower section upright walls vertically upwardly, and providing space between the vertically extended lower sections; providing top walls over the vertically extended lower sections, and providing vertically extending heat exchanger tubing and suspending the tubing vertically within the vertically extended lower radiant sections, to be heated by hot gases produced by combustion of fuel supplied via the burners; and providing and locating an upright convection section of the furnace in flow receiving communication with the lower sections via lateral passages therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1991
    Inventor: Frank W. Tsai
  • Patent number: 4864971
    Abstract: A condensate separator having a housing formed as a channel profile member with one open side face and including integrally formed mounting portions for fastener elements, the open ends of the channel profile member being closed by respective covers, and the open side face by a carrier carrying the control device.The condensate separator is particularly suitable for industrial steam-pressing stations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Veit GmbH & Co.
    Inventor: Gunther von Stein
  • Patent number: 4846112
    Abstract: An ullage compensator is disclosed for a stored chemical energy power propulsion system. With the invention, at least one movable wall (16) is provided within a reactor having a chamber (10) which is movable between a first position at which the chamber has a maximum reaction volume to a second position at which the reaction chamber has a minimum volume. A force is applied to the movable wall by a bellows to cause the wall to project into the chamber in response to the force when a reaction is occurring within the chamber. The invention eliminates damage to the interior surface of the chamber and the inlet port(s) for introducing an oxidant into the chamber which sustains the reaction caused by direct contact with a gaseous oxidant which causes the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: Sundstrand Corp.
    Inventors: John T. Buford, Kerry M. Peters
  • Patent number: 4846113
    Abstract: The expense of provide pelletized metallic lithium for use in a heat exchanger for a thermal power source is eliminated by a construction including a closeable chamber (10, 12, 20, 22) with an ignition device (28) within the chamber (10, 12, 20, 22), and a reactant inlet (29) to the chamber (10, 12, 20, 22) by disposing a body of fuel (24) in the chamber (10, 12, 20, 22) which is made up of alternating layer of metallic lithium sheet (42, 44) and solid perhalogenated polymer sheet (40, 46).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: Sundstrand Corporation
    Inventors: David Morgan, Donald A. Straznickas, deceased
  • Patent number: 4794682
    Abstract: A heat exchanger 16 for a thermal power source includes a chamber 18 provided with an igniter 28 and a reactant inlet 30. Within the chamber 18 is a mass of lithium pellets 10 and 12, each provided with a coating 14.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1989
    Assignee: Sundstrand Corporation
    Inventor: John T. Buford
  • Patent number: 4686938
    Abstract: A method, and a system for practicing the method, of heating liquid in a separator utilizing heat from a glycol regenerator. The system employs a gas pressure operated pump for pumping heat exchange fluid through a closed loop flow path. A gas burner in the regenerator vessel has a pilot light. Piping connects combustible gas to the burner and to the gas pressure operated pump and from the gas pressure operated pump to the pilot light. A thermostatically controlled valve is positioned in the heat exchange closed loop fluid flow path and opens and closes in response to the temperature of the liquid in the separator vessel, the valve opening to permit flow of heat exchange fluid in response to a detected low liquid temperature. Flow of gas through the pump remaining substantially constant at all times and providing a fuel source for the continuous operation of the pilot light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1987
    Assignee: Process Equipment & Service Co., Inc.
    Inventor: James E. Rhodes
  • Patent number: 4671211
    Abstract: A heat exchanger (16) for a thermal power source includes a chamber provided with an igniter and a reactant inlet. Within the chamber is a mass of lithium pellets, each provided with a coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1987
    Assignee: Sundstrand Corporation
    Inventor: John T. Buford
  • Patent number: 4495899
    Abstract: Apparatus for providing for low pressure operation of a high pressure boiler including a low pressure relief valve mounted on the boiler and adapted to release steam from the boiler at a steam pressure lower than the pressure developed during high pressure operation of the boiler. An electrically operated control valve is provided for selectively connecting the low pressure relief valve to the boiler, and the valve is controlled for precluding connection of the low pressure relief valve to the boiler until the steam pressure in the boiler drops below the relief pressure of the low pressure relief valve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1985
    Inventor: Victor V. Carberry
  • Patent number: 4494467
    Abstract: Apparatus for combustion of methanol and similar fuels comprising first combustion apparatus receiving a supply of methanol or similar fuel for heating thereof and removing the water content thereof, thereby producing steam, second combustion apparatus disposed above the first combustion apparatus and in fluid communication therewith for combustion of hydrocarbon fuel resulting from the operation of the first combustion apparatus; and utilization apparatus receiving steam from the first combustion apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1985
    Inventor: Daniel Berman
  • Patent number: 4474143
    Abstract: A maintenance platform is provided for gaining access to the upper area of the furnace (10) of a steam generator that can be quickly and easily assembled during a maintenance shutdown. The main beams (26) forming the framework of the platform are supported both from the furnace walls (42, 44) and also from the furnace roof (32, 34, 38). These beams, which are of considerable length, are stored outside of the furnace in a nearly vertical position when not in use, and are guided into the furnace by a plurality of rollers (40), so as to keep the beams in a single plane close to the outer furnace wall while they are being moved into the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 2, 1984
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Steven P. Wincze
  • Patent number: 4336839
    Abstract: Direct firing downbole steam generator basically comprises an injector assembly axially connected with a combustion chamber. Downstream of the combustion chamber and oriented so as to receive its output is a heat exchanger wherein preheated water is injected into the heat exchanger through a plurality of one-way valves, vaporized and injected through a nozzle, packer and check valve into the well formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1982
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventors: William R. Wagner, David E. Wright, Robert L. Binsley
  • Patent number: 4313399
    Abstract: Method and apparatus are disclosed in a form particularly adapted for use in the handling of viscous liquids, such as viscous oil, on a barge. The technique includes provision of an engine for driving an oil pump, heat exchange mechanism through which the oil is pumped and arranged to effect heat transfer from the engine to the oil in order to maintain the oil at a temperature sufficiently high to facilitate pumping, for instance for the purpose of delivery of the oil at the destination of the barge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1982
    Inventor: Robert B. Black
  • Patent number: 4292953
    Abstract: A continuous process for the combustion of solid fuels in the presence of an aqueous liquid phase under conditions such that oxides of nitrogen are not formed and oxides of sulfur and particles of ash are effectively prevented from contaminating the gaseous products released to the atmosphere. Fuel is charged as a slurry in alkaline aqueous solution and contacted with combustion air so that the catalytic properties of both water and alkali operate to permit rapid and complete combustion at comparatively low temperatures. Temperatures in the adiabatic reactor are, however, permitted to exceed the critical temperature of the liquid phase. Under the conditions of the process, formation of nitrogen oxides is negligible, sulfur in the fuel goes to sulfur trioxide which dissolves completely in the alkaline liquid phase which also retains particles of ash and unburned fuel. The resulting flue gas is essentially free from objectionable pollutants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1981
    Inventor: Norman L. Dickinson
  • Patent number: 4290275
    Abstract: There is provided a water storage heater having a heat pump including a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator. The condenser is arranged in heat relationship with a wall of an inner hot-water container. An outer shell is spaced from and surrounds the inner container to provide an interspace, at least part of the outer shell being constituted by the evaporator. Apertures are also provided in the outer shell to provide for air circulation through the interspace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1981
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Paulus J. Disco, Ernesto Quargentan, Pietro Santalucia
  • Patent number: 4280449
    Abstract: Steam generator for a solar power plant, with an evaporator heating surface having a front side exposable to focused sun rays and a rear side adjacent a chamber, and burner means for supplying at least part of the heat required by the steam generator, the burner including a sintered-block slab operating as a reformed-gas generator, a burner plate disposed downstream of the sintered-block slab in flow direction of the gas, the burner plate being disposed immediately adjacent the rear side of the evaporator heating surface, and an air-permeable further heating surface for the steam generator disposed between the sintered-block slab and the burner plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Assignee: Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Konrad Kunstle, Kurt Reiter, Christian Koch
  • Patent number: 4244325
    Abstract: A self-contained single structure for NOX disposal and heat recovery, comprising a burner means (12), including means to supply NOX (oxides of nitrogen) gases (146) to be reduced, primary air (130) in less-than-stoichiometric flow rate, and gaseous fuel (128) at selected flow rate. The gases flow into a first reducing section (114), in which the fuel is burned in a reducing atmosphere, and the NOX gases are reduced. Fire tubes (124) carrying water or steam are positioned to receive heat from the burning gases. At the outlet of the reducing section precooled stack gases (135) are injected (137) into the flame so as to cool the hot products of combustion. The direction of flow of hot gases is turned to 90.degree. (164) in a second section. At the end of the second section the direction of flow is turned 90.degree.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1981
    Assignee: John Zink Company
    Inventors: Wallace F. Hart, David O. Watts, Robert D. Reed
  • Patent number: 4226279
    Abstract: A method of suppressing formation of heat exchange fluid particles into standing waves is provided. Pursuant to the method a plurality of metal fins attached to a plurality of tube sections extending within a shell are disposed within a heat exchanger shell such that the fins extend parallel to the tube sections and parallel to the direction of flow of fluid through the shell. The fins define with the tube sections a barrier adapted to interrupt movement of columns of fluid particles in a direction perpendicular to the direction of flow of fluid through the shell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1980
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Frantisek L. Eisinger, Harry H. Pratt
  • Patent number: 4205631
    Abstract: The inlet vanes for an induced draft (ID) fan in a power plant boiler are position controlled in accordance with the furnace pressure to limit the potential destructive power developed by the fan. The ID inlet suction temperature is sensed and a control signal is developed as a function of the inlet temperature to limit the opening of the inlet vanes during boiler startup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1980
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Larry R. Parker
  • Patent number: 4182274
    Abstract: An arrangement for inhibiting low temperature gas-side corrosion of an out of service steam generator and its heat exchange and gas clean-up adjuncts. The arrangement provides for circulating pressurized heated air through the steam generator and its adjuncts, controlling the pressurization of the air to maintain positive gas-side pressure, controlling the heating of the air to maintain gas-side surfaces above the dew point, and returning the air which has passed through the steam generator and its adjuncts to the forced draft fan to be repressurized, reheated and reintroduced into the steam generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1980
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventor: Keith R. Williams
  • Patent number: 4135487
    Abstract: A heat exchange system is provided having first and second heat exchangers connected to one another. A burner supplies products of combustion to the first heat exchanger. Fluid heated in the first heat exchanger is pumped to the second heat exchanger. A blower forces air over the second heat exchanger to heat the air. An electric heater is provided in heat exchange relationship with the first heat exchanger. The electric heater maintains the temperature of the fluid in the first heat exchanger above the effective dew point of the flue gas in the heat exchanger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1979
    Assignee: Amana Refrigeration, Inc.
    Inventor: Herbert G. Hays
  • Patent number: 4003240
    Abstract: A calibration device having a thermally insulated storage receptacle for a liquid to be analyzed. The liquid is converted to a vapor form by passing a carrier gas through the liquid to be analyzed whereby the carrier gas is saturated with the liquid. The partial pressure of the liquid vapor in the gas is the function of the temperature of the liquid and the pressure of the saturated carrier gas. The saturated carrier gas is applied to the sample inlet of a vapor phase analyzer by a sample transport line that is maintained above the dew point of the saturated carrier gas. Since the concentration of the calibration liquid in the carrier gas can be precisely calculated by measuring the liquid temperature and the pressure of the saturated carrier gas, the response of the analyzer can be calibrated to this known concentration while maintaining the liquid to be analyzed in a liquid state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1977
    Assignee: Honeywell Inc.
    Inventor: Damien E. Durbin
  • Patent number: 3967590
    Abstract: A package heat exchange system having a burner positioned in the central plenum of a first heat exchanger and supplied with a fuel-air mixture through a blower supplied with fuel through a pressure regulator which requires a negative pressure at the blower input to draw gaseous fuel through the pressure regulator. Thermal energy is transferred from the first heat exchanger to a second heat exchanger or from the second heat exchanger to a third heat exchanger by pumped fluids and transferred to or from the second heat exchanger and air blown through the second heat exchanger to heat or cool the air with blowing of the air, operation of the burner and heating of the first heat exchanger when the burner is not operating being used to maintain the temperature of the surface of the first heat exchanger which contacts the products of combustion of the burner above the dew point of the products of combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Assignee: Amana Refrigeration, Inc.
    Inventors: Herbert G. Hays, Richard D. Maxwell
  • Patent number: 3967589
    Abstract: Energy system in which steam is generated by combustion of hydrogen in ozone enriched air. The steam so generated is supplied to an asymmetric microporous membrane which causes chemical disassociation of the steam to yield hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen gas is used to maintain combustion in a closed power generating system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1976
    Inventor: Ronald I. Papineau
  • Patent number: 3933128
    Abstract: Heat is generated by combustion of coal or like carbonaceous fuel reactant dissolved in molten salt. The generated heat is transferred to steam by an alternating sequence of direct contact heat exchanges of the salt and steam with a common heat transfer medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1974
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1976
    Assignee: Clean Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Frank B. Cramer
  • Patent number: RE30145
    Abstract: Energy system in which steam is generated by combustion of hydrogen in ozone enriched air. The steam so generated .[.is supplied to an asymmetric microporous membrane which causes chemical disassociation of the steam to yield hydrogen and oxygen..]. .Iadd.is further heated and activated and the gases from the activated steam are fed to an asymmetric membrane which diffuses only hydrogen therethrough. .Iaddend.The hydrogen gas is used to maintain combustion in a closed power generating system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1979
    Assignee: Unique Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronald I. Papineau