Solid Fuel Patents (Class 123/23)
  • Patent number: 10995719
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a fuel injection arrangement for a diesel type engine configured to use carbonaceous aqueous slurry fuels. The fuel injection arrangement includes an injector nozzle for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber; a pump chamber housing a fuel pumping element for generating a pressurised fuel flow to the injector nozzle along an injection path between the pumping element and the injector nozzle; and a check valve connected to a fuel supply for regulating and supplying fuel to the injection path via a check valve outlet. A region immediately downstream of the check valve outlet defines an outlet region and the check valve is arranged to expose the outlet region to the pressurised fuel flow to facilitate flushing of the outlet region during fuel flow between the pumping element and the injector nozzle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION
    Inventor: Louis James Wibberley
  • Patent number: 10989121
    Abstract: A fuel circulation system of a diesel type engine configured to use carbonaceous aqueous slurry or emulsion fuels. The diesel type engine includes a fuel injection system which is fluidly connected to the fuel circulation system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2021
    Assignee: COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION
    Inventor: Louis James Wibberley
  • Patent number: 10890149
    Abstract: A fuel supply valve for a slurry fuel injector valve, the fuel supply valve comprising: a fuel inlet for fluid communication with a slurry fuel reservoir; a fuel outlet for fluid communication with a nozzle of the fuel injector valve; a pump chamber port for fluid communication with a pump chamber of the fuel injector valve; and a valve gate moveable between a first position, at which the fuel inlet is in fluid communication along a first slurry fuel flow path with the pump chamber port, and a second position, at which the fuel outlet is in fluid communication along a second slurry fuel flow path with the pump chamber port; wherein the valve gate is operable with a valve actuation liquid from an engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2021
    Assignee: A.P. Møller—Mærsk A/S
    Inventors: Matteo Imperato, Tim Reeve
  • Patent number: 10851753
    Abstract: A fuel injector is provided which has a valve member, a valve member guide and a spring chamber. Discharge of fuel out of a fuel injector outlet is controlled by movement of the valve member within a bore of the valve member guide. The spring chamber contains a biasing member, which is a compression spring, and which biases the valve member into contact with a valve seat when in a closed configuration. The fuel supply passage is provided, which by-passes the spring chamber, to direct a flow of the fuel to an outlet chamber of the fuel injector, and the cleaning fluid supply passage is provided to supply a pressurized cleaning fluid to a second end of the bore to restrict leakage of the fuel from the outlet chamber towards the second end of the bore along a clearance extending between the valve member and the valve member guide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2020
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventors: Graeme Mawhinney, Alan R. Stockner, Paul Stark, David Mack
  • Patent number: 10630145
    Abstract: A converting device arranged to transfer thermodynamic energy of a compressed working fluid into electrical energy. The converting unit is comprised of at least one cylinder which encloses a piston. In an embodiment, said at least one piston is provided with a magnetic portion. A ferromagnetic coil surrounds the piston and is integrated with the cylinder. As the piston moves through the coil, electrical energy is generated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2020
    Assignee: NODITECH AB
    Inventor: Hardy Hollingworth
  • Patent number: 10539107
    Abstract: A fuel injection unit for assembly to a cylinder head and for injecting first and second fuel to a cylinder of an internal combustion piston engine includes a first fuel feeding section, a second fuel feeding section, a pressure accumulator in the first fuel feeding section, and a flow fuse arranged in the first fuel feeding section between the pressure accumulator and a fuel injection valve of the first fuel feeding section. The fuel injection valve includes a fuel handling section and control section, and the control section is a hydraulic control section fluidly separated from the fuel handling section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2020
    Assignee: WARTSILA FINLAND OY
    Inventors: Franco Cavressi, Dave Jay
  • Patent number: 10378495
    Abstract: A fuel system includes a fuel injector having a fuel passage and a purging fluid passage formed therein. A nozzle tip inner surface defines a sac forming a blind end of the fuel passage in the fuel injector. A coaxial concentric check assembly includes a purging check movable to admit a purging fluid such as pressurized air into the fuel passage to purge the sac of fuel. Reduced injector dribble is observed from the purging of fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Assignee: Caterpillar Inc.
    Inventors: Bobby John, Glen Martin, Jonathan W. Anders, Robert Campion
  • Patent number: 10329493
    Abstract: A method for converting a biomass to a bio-oil includes providing a four-stroke internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, at least one piston, and a crankshaft coupled to each of the at least one piston. The method also includes coupling a power source to the crankshaft in a manner such that the power source drives rotation of the crankshaft. The method also includes injecting a first mixture including a biomass and a non-oxidizing compression gas into one of the cylinders. The method also includes compressing and heating the first mixture during a compression stroke of the pistons. The compression and heating of the first mixture pyrolizes the biomass to produce a second mixture including a bio-oil and the compression gas. The method also includes decompressing and cooling the second mixture during an expansion stroke of the pistons. The decompression and cooling of the second mixture quenches secondary pyrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: The Trustees of the Stevens Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Nicholaus Joseph Parziale
  • Patent number: 10309293
    Abstract: A thermal insulation film is formed on a bottom surface of a cylinder head facing a top surface of a piston. The thermal insulation film in a region (a circumferential region) of a bottom surface of the cylinder head configuring a squish area in a circumferential edge of a cavity region is formed to be thinner than the thermal insulation film in a region (a cavity region) of the bottom surface of the cylinder head facing a cavity. The thermal insulation film in the circumferential region is polished, and surface roughness thereof is equal to or lower than 3 ?m. The thermal insulation film in the cavity region is not polished, and surface roughness thereof is 3 to 8 ?m on average.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Manabu Tateno
  • Patent number: 10260467
    Abstract: A fuel injection valve includes a nozzle needle that opens or closes an injection hole communicating with an internal combustion engine, and a high-pressure fuel is introduced into a control room to urge the nozzle needle to close the injection hole. An orifice body includes a discharge passage through which the fuel is discharged from the control room to a low pressure portion, and an orifice-body sheet surface that is flat and surrounds a downstream end part of the discharge passage. A valve body contacts with or separates from the orifice-body sheet surface to close or open the discharge passage. A chamfered part is provided on a corner part in which the orifice-body sheet surface intersects with the discharge passage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2019
    Assignee: DENSO CORPORATION
    Inventors: Ryuichi Ezaki, Naofumi Adachi
  • Patent number: 10132250
    Abstract: The system comprises a fuel description module structured to provide a first signal, and a control circuit operable to receive the first signal. The fuel description module comprises a fuel consumption detection package. The fuel consumption detection package an intake manifold temperature sensor and an exhaust temperature sensor, wherein the first signal corresponds to a difference between the exhaust manifold temperature (EMT) and the intake manifold temperature (IMT). The control circuit is responsive to the first signal to produce a second signal indicating a total energy content (Efuel) of fuel supplied to the dual-fuel engine. The Efuel value indicating the total energy content provided to the engine from a first fuel and a second fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2018
    Assignee: Cummins Inc.
    Inventors: Jinghua Zhong, C. Larry Bruner, John F. Wright, Timothy P. Lutz, Phanindra Garimella, Jacob A. Brown
  • Patent number: 10030574
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a fuel injection method for a compression-ignition direct-injection internal-combustion engine comprising at least a cylinder (10), a cylinder head (12) carrying fuel injectors (14), a piston (16) sliding in the cylinder, a combustion chamber (34) delimited on one side by an upper face (44) of the piston comprising a projection (48) extending in the direction of the cylinder head and located in the center of a concave bowl (46) with at least two mixing zones (Z1, Z2). The injectors project fuel in at least two fuel jet sheets (36, 38) with different sheet angles (A1, A2). The injection into the combustion chamber with the fuel jets (40) by one sheet (36) is in a radial direction (C1) which forms a non-zero angle (b2) with the radial direction (C2) of fuel jets (42) of the other sheet (38). The oxidizer is admitted into the cylinder in a swirling motion with a swirl number less than or equal to 1.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2018
    Assignee: IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES
    Inventors: Lionel Martinez, Stéphane Richard, Olivier Laget
  • Patent number: 9517135
    Abstract: The condylar prosthesis (10) for a temporo-mandibular joint includes a mandibular implant (12), which is intended to be rigidly attached to the branch of a mandible, and a joint head (16), which is intended to serve as a replacement mandibular condyle, the mandibular implant (12) including an anchoring stem (14) permitting the use of an intramedullary connection in the summit of the branch of the mandible, and the distal end of the anchoring stem (14) being offset towards the front of the prosthesis (10) with respect to the joint head (16) and in a median plane of the prosthesis (10), the condylar prosthesis (10) being characterized in that the anchoring stem (14) follows a curved profile along its length and in the median plane of the prosthesis, the direction of curvature of the anchoring stem being oriented towards the front of the prosthesis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2016
    Assignees: UNIVERSITE DE BORDEAUX, CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE, UNIVERSIDADE DE AVEIRO
    Inventors: Antonio Ramos, Michel Mesnard
  • Patent number: 8387570
    Abstract: A coke burning engine is described wherein hot coke fuel chunks are first compressed with air and reacted therewith to form a carbon monoxide rich gas, during a compression cycle time period. Next these primary reacted gases are mixed into and burned with secondary air during a blowdown cycle time period. These fully reacted gases are expanded though an expander engine whose power output drives the air compressor, and yields a net useful engine power output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2013
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Publication number: 20120192814
    Abstract: A metal fuel powered driving system comprises: a cylinder; a piston disposed movably in and cooperating with the cylinder to define a combustion chamber; an arc generating unit including first and second electrodes extending into the combustion chamber, the first electrode being in the form of a first active metal wire; and a first wire supplying unit configured to feed the first active metal wire into the combustion chamber. When the power supplying source applies a voltage to the first and second electrodes, electric arc is generated between the first active metal wire and the second electrode to vaporize and combust the metal wire for driving movements of the piston. A method of driving a piston in a cylinder is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2011
    Publication date: August 2, 2012
    Inventors: Jien-Wei YEH, Kuang-Chien Hsieh
  • Patent number: 8100095
    Abstract: An engine includes at least one cylinder, an intake valve, a conduit, a positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device, and an oxidizing gas source supplying an oxidizing gas to the conduit. The cylinder is defined by a cylinder block having a bore, a cylinder head coupled to the top of the cylinder block, and a piston received in the bore of the cylinder block. The intake valve is communicatively coupled with the cylinder head. The conduit is communicatively coupled with the intake valve. The positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device is communicatively coupled with the conduit. The positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device meters a supply of a powdered fuel including a substantially explosible powder such that the intake valve admits a powdered fuel dispersion including the substantially explosible powder dispersed in the oxidizing gas at an explosible ratio such that the powdered fuel dispersion is explosible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2012
    Inventors: James K. McKnight, Edward Bacorn, Ken W. White
  • Patent number: 8056529
    Abstract: This invention presents a compact, light, efficient and high power output rotary internal combustion engine utilizing the waste heat. The engine has a rotor rotatable within a housing, but has no piston. The rotor has a plurality of combustion chambers, with inlets for introduction of fuel and outlets for exhaust of combustion products. The exhaust imparts rotation to the rotor within the housing. Fixed end caps are provided at each end of the housing. The engine is cooled with steam, air and water. The engine is suitable for applications that require efficient, high power to weight ratio, such as aircrafts, ships, and heavy duty transportation. The engine may use low grade fuel with a low cetane number, by using specially treated pulverized coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Inventor: Ziyad A. Qamhiyeh
  • Publication number: 20110259286
    Abstract: A fuel injection system is described for injecting slurry fuels into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, equipped with a fuel common rail, and fitted with a gas to fuel contactor chamber for dissolving supplementary atomizing gas into the continuous phase of the slurry fuel, at high pressure. Each fuel injector comprises a combined double valve for starting and stopping fuel injection, so that slurry fuel containing atomizing gas is only depressurized when injected into the engine combustion chamber, when such depressurization greatly improves fuel atomization and combustion efficiency. In this way small bore, high speed, diesel engines can be efficiently operated on high viscosity, low cost fuels such as tars from tar sands, tars from coal and biomass, and residual petroleum fuels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 21, 2010
    Publication date: October 27, 2011
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Patent number: 7784435
    Abstract: A particulate deflagration combustion engine for burning particulate fuel and method. Fine fuel particles are fed to a mixing box by a pre-measured auger system where the fuel is mixed with dried, compressed combustion air in a desire fuel to air ratio. The fuel mixture enters a combustion cylinder where it is ignited by a pair of spark plugs located approximately 120 degrees apart in the walls of the cylinder. The hot combustion gases leave the cylinder and are vented through an exhaust stack. The exhaust stack is connected to air driers supplying dry combustion air to the engine, thereby pulling a vacuum on the air driers and removing moisture from the air driers. A control panel receives input from dew point monitors, oxygen sensors, and infrared sensors provided in the engine to control the operation of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Deflagration Energy, L.L.C.
    Inventor: Donald Keith Fritts
  • Publication number: 20100147233
    Abstract: A coke burning engine is described wherein hot coke fuel chunks are first compressed with air and reacted therewith to form a carbon monoxide rich gas, during a compression cycle time period. Next these primary reacted gases are mixed into and burned with secondary air during a blowdown cycle time period. These fully reacted gases are expanded though an expander engine whose power output drives the air compressor, and yields a net useful engine power output.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2008
    Publication date: June 17, 2010
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Publication number: 20090223467
    Abstract: An engine includes at least one cylinder, an intake valve, a conduit, a positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device, and an oxidizing gas source supplying an oxidizing gas to the conduit. The cylinder is defined by a cylinder block having a bore, a cylinder head coupled to the top of the cylinder block, and a piston received in the bore of the cylinder block. The intake valve is communicatively coupled with the cylinder head. The conduit is communicatively coupled with the intake valve. The positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device is communicatively coupled with the conduit. The positive displacement powdered fuel dispensing device meters a supply of a powdered fuel including a substantially explosible powder such that the intake valve admits a powdered fuel dispersion including the substantially explosible powder dispersed in the oxidizing gas at an explosible ratio such that the powdered fuel dispersion is explosible.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2009
    Publication date: September 10, 2009
    Inventors: James K. McKnight, Edward Bacorn, Ken W. White
  • Patent number: 7418927
    Abstract: A common rail supplementary atomizer of this invention, when used on a piston internal combustion engine, equipped with a common rail fuel injection system, improves slurry atomization, following injection, by expansion of gases, previously dissolved in the water phase of the slurry. This gas expansion separates the several fuel particles in each slurry droplet formed first during fuel injection. The thusly separated fuel particles subsequently burn more rapidly and completely, due to this fuel particle separation improving air access to the fuel. Apparatus is described for dissolving atomizing gas into the water phase of the slurry, in a contactor chamber at a pressure greater than the pressure prevailing in the engine cylinder volume, at the time of slurry injection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Publication number: 20080133109
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods to retrofit a pre-existing vehicle with a fuel cell system. The fuel cell system incorporates a fuel cell for powering an electric motor that has its rotor or armature constructed as part of a driveshaft such that the driveshaft can be turned via the electric motor or by the force of the vehicle's OEM type engine for the purpose of driving at least one wheel of the vehicle without the need for an interconnecting gearbox. The apparatus of the fuel cell system also includes an electronic control unit for controlling the fuel cell system. The electronic control unit can also control aspects of the OEM engine. The engine's OEM Engine Control Module (ECM) and the vehicle's original emission control devices are not modified or replaced in this conversion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 11, 2008
    Publication date: June 5, 2008
    Inventor: Grant B. Carlson
  • Patent number: 7311065
    Abstract: A powder fuel engine includes a battery, a cylinder and a generator. The battery is connected with an air compressor linked with an air tank, and the generator. The air tank is connected with a mixer and two powder tanks respectively via a pressurization tube. The powder tanks are to store different powders and respectively connected with a powder tube connected with the mixer. A powder jetting device connected to the mixer is connected with the cylinder that is provided with a powder combustion chamber, a piston, a spark plug and an outlet. The piston is connected with a connecting rod that is connected with a shaft. The generator is connected with an ignition device that is connected with the spark plug.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2007
    Inventor: Yi-Hsiung Lin
  • Patent number: 7308997
    Abstract: A combustion-operated setting tool for driving fastening elements in a constructional component includes a device (30) for adjusting setting energy applied to a setting piston (15) axially displaceable in a guide space (4) of a piston guide (13). The adjusting device (30) has a separation member (31) adjustably arranged between the receptacle (18) and the guide space (14) of the piston guide (13) and dividing the combustion chamber (20) in a first sub-chamber (21) arranged between the receptacle (18) and the separation member (31) and a second sub-chamber (22) arranged between the separation member (31) and the guide space (14) of the piston guide (13), the separation member (31) having a plurality of through-openings (34, 35) for controlling flow of the combustion gases into the guide space (14) of the piston guide (13), with an active opening cross-section of at least a portion of the through-openings (34, 35) changing dependent on an adjustable position of the separation member (31).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2007
    Assignee: Hilti Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jens Neumann, Norbert Heeb, Tilo Dittrich, Thomas Sperrfechter
  • Publication number: 20070266963
    Abstract: A powder fuel engine includes a battery, a cylinder and a generator. The battery is connected with an air compressor linked with an air tank, and the generator. The air tank is connected with a mixer and two powder tanks respectively via a pressurization tube. The powder tanks are to store different powders and respectively connected with a powder tube connected with the mixer. A powder jetting device connected to the mixer is connected with the cylinder that is provided with a powder combustion chamber, a piston, a spark plug and an outlet. The piston is connected with a connecting rod that is connected with a shaft. The generator is connected with an ignition device that is connected with the spark plug.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 22, 2006
    Publication date: November 22, 2007
    Inventor: Yi-Hsiung Lin
  • Patent number: 7281500
    Abstract: A supplementary slurry fuel atomizer of this invention, when used on a piston internal combustion engine, equipped with a common rail fuel injection system, improves slurry atomization, following injection, by expansion of gases, previously dissolved in the water phase of the slurry. This gas expansion separates the several fuel particles in each slurry droplet formed first during fuel injection. The thusly separated fuel particles subsequently burn more rapidly and completely, due to this fuel particle separation improving air access to the fuel. Apparatus is described for dissolving atomizing gas into the water phase of the slurry, in a contactor chamber at a pressure greater than the pressure prevailing in the engine cylinder volume, at the time of slurry injection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2007
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Patent number: 7261063
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for using pure dry biomass carbohydrates as fuels, fuel extenders and fuel oxygenates. Preferably, the apparatus and method would be used in internal combustion engines. The apparatus and method disclose the concept of mixing dry carbohydrates with hydrocarbon fuel to create a carbohydrate slurry fuel that burns as efficiently and cleanly as gasoline alone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2007
    Inventor: John J. Holland
  • Patent number: 6694928
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of combusting tallow, and particularly tallow that may be contaminated with the prion protein considered to be responsible for spreading the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) infection in cattle, in a standard high-speed compression ignition engine. The invention also extends to combustion of other animal/vegetable-based fats and oils, particularly waste cooking oils which are at risk of contamination by toxic chemicals which may potentially enter the food chain. The heat and power produced by the engine may then be used to generate electricity. In accordance with the invention, the tallow, etc. is combusted in an enriched oxygen atmosphere in the combustion chamber of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Otwoempower Corp.
    Inventor: John McNeil
  • Publication number: 20030192488
    Abstract: A method of reducing smoke and particulate emissions from steam boilers and process heaters operating on solid fuel by adding a fuel additive which contains an oil-dispersible iron compound and an over-based magnesium compound to the solid fuel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2003
    Publication date: October 16, 2003
    Inventor: Walter R. May
  • Patent number: 5992353
    Abstract: A method for operating an internal combustion engine includes the steps of feeding a high-pressurize and super-heated mixture of fuel vapor and water vapor to an injection valve at a cylinder head of a combustion chamber. The mixture is pressurized to at least 350 atm and is super-heated to at least 840.degree. F. Under these conditions at least the fuel vapor is dissociated and is converted into a mixture of organic gases having compositions which differ from the analysis of the original liquid fuel. The advantages of the method are a better fuel economy and a reduction of exhaust emissions of smoke, CO, NO.sub.x. The method also enables combustion of a plurality of energy containing liquids and solid matter, especially synthetic materials. Due to the high pressure and temperature of the vapor mixture, a dissociation of the vapors into small organic basic modules, especially carburetted hydrogen gases, occurs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Inventor: Werner Posselt
  • Patent number: 5931123
    Abstract: Fuel injector apparatus is described, for use on internal combustion engines using slurry fuels, wherein a portion of the engine air mass is passed through an aspirator passage shortly prior to combustion and the slurry fuel is aspirated into this air portion. The thusly mixed air and fuel slurry is distributed throughout the engine combustion chamber via several exit channels from the aspirator. The fuel portion of the slurry is reduced to a very small size when the slurry is prepared, and fine atomization of the slurry during injection into the engine is not needed. Hence relatively low velocity slurry injection can be used and injector wear problems greatly reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5706768
    Abstract: The invention relates to an arrangement in such ignition gaps or channels as are used in combustion devices, for example, internal combustion engines, to impart to an injected finely-divided particulate fuel a temperature sufficient for ignition, heat being transferred from the heated walls for the ignition gaps or channels. The novelty of the invention resides in that the ignition gap or gaps are zigzag-shaped or otherwise formed of two or more substantially straight sections connected at an angle to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1998
    Assignees: Jan .ANG.bom, Bengt G. Tornqvist
    Inventor: Jan .ANG.bom
  • Patent number: 5485812
    Abstract: A refuel mechanism for refueling solids into a reaction chamber, operating at pressure, is described which is capable of premixing several different solid materials before inserting these premixed materials into the reaction chamber. A number of hoppers, containing the differing solid materials, feed these solids together, via proportioning and transfer apparatus, into premixers. The final premix of the several differing solids is then inserted into the pressurized reactor by a refuel mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1996
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5479893
    Abstract: A modified primary reactor for cyclic char burning engines is described wherein the reaction chamber cross sectional area increases in the direction of char fuel motion. Additionally air inlet ports are distributed along the length of the chamber in the direction of char fuel motion in order to supply oxygen to the char fuel reaction throughout the reaction chamber. Porous ceramic chips are mixed with the char fuel and function as air storage reservoirs during compression, and as air supply sources during expansion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1996
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5386804
    Abstract: A process for the addition of ferrocene to combustion or motor fuels involves an improved metering of the additive ferrocene into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or a combustion system. The process utilizes the sublimation properties of ferrocene in that ferrocene is passed through sublimation into a stream of combustion gas or a substream thereof and with the combustion or motor fuel, which is present as a vapor or finely distributed as solid or liquid particles, fed to a chemical conversion through combustion. A preferred application consists of loading the combustion chamber of a diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter with a carrier gas stream enriched with ferrocene vapor in a sublimator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1995
    Assignee: Veba Oel Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hansjuergen Guttmann, Dieter Hoehr, Heinz-Kuno Schaedlich, Kurt-Peter Schug, Walter Thuenker
  • Patent number: 5313915
    Abstract: A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Robert E. McDowell, Steven L. Basic, Russel M. Smith
  • Patent number: 5271357
    Abstract: Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Bertrand D. Hsu, Gregory L. Confer, Zujing Shen, Martin J. Hapeman, Paul L. Flynn
  • Patent number: 5251576
    Abstract: In a system and method for feeding fuel, consisting of fine particles of solid fuel such as pulverized coal or the like and fuel oil, a predetermined amount of the fuel oil is fed into an oil reservoir within an injection valve through a control valve, and this fuel oil is injected through a nozzle hole of the injection valve with the aid of oil pressurized by a high-pressure pump. Only the above-mentioned fuel oil is injected, i.e. the pressurized oil is not injected. Also the aforementioned fuel oil never enters the high-pressure pump so as to prevent the plunger of the pump from seizing. The oil fed to the oil reservoir is returned to an oil tank via a circulation valve, and so, deterioration of the oil can be precluded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1993
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hiroshi Nakagawa, Yuuji Oda
  • Patent number: 5247909
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for enhancing the efficiency of a combustion process and thereby reducing undesirable emissions in which a solid combustion enhancing substance is converted into a highly dispersed, gas-transportable state at a controlled rate and is subsequently conveyed into the zone of combustion. The use of a substance in its solid state eases handling and avails highly effective materials for combustion and enhancement while the necessary conversion of the substance from one state to another enables a high degree of control as to its rate of addition to the combustion process. The substance's highly dispersed state when it enters the combustion process maximizes its effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1993
    Assignee: Advanced Combustion Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: William R. Simmons
  • Patent number: 5235936
    Abstract: A passive ferrocene injection system provides a container that defines an internal reservoir holding a quantity of solid phase ferrocene. A means is provided for maintaining an elevated reservoir temperature sufficient to produce a vapor of ferrocene. The reservoir is connected to the air inlet system of a combustion device in such a manner that the ferrocene vapor is metered into the air inlet stream. One portion of this connection is a flow orifice metering ferrocene vapor from the reservoir at least by diffusion, and more normally, by diffusive and convective transport mechanisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1993
    Inventor: John J. Kracklauer
  • Patent number: 5216982
    Abstract: Reacted gas reservoirs are added to primary reactors of cyclic char burning engines and gasifiers within which product gas, created by reaction in the primary reactor, is stored during compression. An increased quantity of reactant gas can thus be passed through the reaction zone, and react therein to reacted gas, during each cycle of compression and expansion. The extent of primary reaction per cycle can be increased by this use of these product reacted gas reservoirs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1993
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5201283
    Abstract: Reacted gas reservoirs and reactant gas manifolds are added to primary reactors of cyclic char burning engines and gasifiers in order to create a flow of gas across the direction of motion of the solid char fuel. Preferably this cross flow direction through the rapid reaction zone is opposite to that through the volatile matter distillation zone. A larger and more stable rapid char fuel primary reaction zone can be created with this cross flow, and improved utilization of char fuel volatile matter can be achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1993
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5163385
    Abstract: An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Michael H. McMillian
  • Patent number: 5133301
    Abstract: Replenishment water is supplied to a coal-water slurry fuel injector between fuel releases, to resist clogging in the injector. The injector includes a cylindrical body having a needle valve in a central bore, and a fuel intake port which releases fuel into the engine through an opening in the side of the injector body. A nozzle having high pressure ducts is provided in an end of the body for releasing fuel into the engine. A clearance space is provided between the needle valve and the central bore for passage of the replenishment water into the injector. The replenishment water is forced into the nozzle and the high pressure ducts between releases of fuel. Lubricants can be added to the replenishment water, if desired. The replenishment water resists injector clogging by maintaining the fluidity of the coal-water slurry and purging dried coal particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1992
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Bertrand D. Hsu
  • Patent number: 5109808
    Abstract: Reacted gas reservoirs and reactant gas manifolds are added to primary reactors of cyclic char burning engines and gasifiers in order to create a flow of gas across the direction of motion of the solid char fuel. A larger and more stable rapid char fuel primary reaction zone can be created with this cross flow, and improved utilization of char fuel volatile matter can be achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5085183
    Abstract: An improved means for starting char burning engines is described wherein, during engine cranking for starting, compressed air is heated by burning with a liquid fuel and is then compressed into the pore spaces of the char fuel in order to increase the char fuel temperature to where it reacts rapidly with air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1992
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5056469
    Abstract: A fuel injection system for alternate fuels such as coal-water slurry comprises a conventional fuel injection pump for supplying timed and metered pulses of diesel fuel to an injector assembly. The injector assembly includes a shuttle piston in a cylinder which is connected at one end by an injection line to the pump and at the other end by a passage to an injection nozzle. The alternate fuel is introduced into the injector assembly passage under pressure through a check valve between injection intervals. A bleed passage in the pump delivery valve provides a rapid pressure decay in the injection line following injection, permitting the shuttle piston to return to its starting position under the influence of the alternate fuel pressure. The timed and metered injection pulses are transferred by the shuttle piston from the diesel fuel to the alternate fuel to open the injection nozzle and inject the alternate fuel into an engine cylinder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1991
    Assignees: AIL Corporation, AIL Corporation
    Inventor: John A. Kimberley
  • Patent number: 5027752
    Abstract: An air preheater is described which surrounds the char fuel reaction chamber of a char burning engine as an insulating layer, and through which the primary air passes to be preheated therein. By thusly preheating the primary air and insulating the char fuel reaction chamber a larger portion of the char fuel is maintained at or above its rapid reaction temperature. More complete char fuel burnup and more efficient combustion is obtained in this way.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1991
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey
  • Patent number: 5002024
    Abstract: An improved means for starting char burning engines is described wherein, during engine cranking for starting; compressed air is heated burning with a liquid fuel and is then compressed into the pore spaces of the char fuel in order to increase the char fuel temeprature to where it reacts rapidly with air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1991
    Inventor: Joseph C. Firey