Reactive Material Applied Nonuniformly Or Reacted Selectively Patents (Class 148/280)
  • Patent number: 10981836
    Abstract: The localized formation of graphene and diamond like structures on the surface of boron carbide is obtained due to exposure to high intensity laser illumination. The graphitization involves water vapor interacting with the laser illuminated surface of boron carbide and leaving behind excess carbon. The process can be done on the micrometer scale, allowing for a wide range of electronic applications. Raman is a powerful and convenient technique to routinely characterize and distinguish the composition of Boron Carbide (B4C), particularly since a wide variation in C content is possible in B4C. Graphitization of 1-3 ?m icosahedral B4C powder is observed at ambient conditions under illumination by a 473 nm (2.62 eV) laser during micro-Raman measurements. The graphitization, with ˜12 nm grain size, is dependent on the illumination intensity. The process is attributed to the oxidation of B4C to B2O3 by water vapor in air, and subsequent evaporation, leaving behind excess carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2021
    Assignees: University of South Carolina, Morgan State University
    Inventors: Mvs Chandrashekhar, Joshua Letton, Travis Williams, Abdulganiyu Ajilore, Michael Spencer
  • Patent number: 10163840
    Abstract: A method of establishing conductive connections is disclosed. The method includes providing an integrated circuit die having a plurality of solder balls each of which has an oxide layer on an outer surface of the solder ball. The method also includes performing a heating process to heat at least the solder balls and applying a force causing each of a plurality of piercing bond structures on a substrate to pierce one of the solder balls and its associated oxide layer to thereby establish a conductive connection between the solder ball and the piercing bond structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2018
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Teck Kheng Lee
  • Patent number: 10086437
    Abstract: Problem: To provide a cutting tool formed from a silicon nitride-based sintered body having high fracture resistance and having residual stress of a rake face and a flank face in an appropriate range. Solution: A cutting tool (1) formed from a silicon nitride-based sintered body containing not less than 50 volume % silicon nitride-based phase and from 10 to 30 volume % titanium nitride phase, uses an intersection ridge portion of a rake face (2) and a flank face (3) as a cutting edge (4), has a residual stress applied to the titanium nitride phase that is tensile stress, and is such that the tensile stress applied to the titanium nitride phase in the rake face (2) is greater than the tensile stress applied to the titanium nitride phase in the flank face (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2018
    Assignee: KYOCERA CORPORATION
    Inventor: Shinsuke Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 10036085
    Abstract: A non-scaling heat-treatable steel with particular suitability for producing hardened or die-hardened components is disclosed, characterized by the following chemical composition in % by weight: C 0.04-0.50; Mn 0.5-6.0; Al 0.5-3.0; Si 0.05-3.0; Cr 0.05-3.0; Ni less than 3.0; Cu less than 3.0; Ti 0.010-?0.050; B 0.0015-?0.0040; P less than 0.10; S less than 0.05; N less than 0.020; remainder iron and unavoidable impurities. Further disclosed is a method for producing a non-scaling hardened component from the steel and a method for producing a hot strip from a steel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2018
    Assignee: SALZGITTER FLACHSTAHL GMBH
    Inventors: Joachim Schöttler, Friedrich Luther, Stefan Mütze
  • Patent number: 9680162
    Abstract: A stainless steel member for a separator of a solid polymer fuel cell has excellent cell properties with little deterioration in performance over long periods of operation without worsening of the corrosion resistance of a stainless steel separator. The stainless steel member has a stainless steel base metal, and a passive film and electrically conductive precipitates both provided on a surface of the stainless steel base metal. The electrically conductive precipitate penetrates the passive film and includes a substance originating from the stainless steel base metal. An electrically conductive layer comprising a nonmetallic electrically conductive substance is preferably provided on the surface of the passive film, and the electrically conductive layer is preferably electrically connected to the stainless steel base member through the electrically conductive precipitates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION
    Inventors: Hideya Kaminaka, Junko Imamura, Akira Seki, Kouichi Takeuchi
  • Patent number: 9601762
    Abstract: A particulate lithium metal composite materials having a layer containing phosphorous and a method for producing said phosphorous-coated lithium metal products, characterized in that melted, droplet-shaped lithium metal is reacted in a hydrocarbon solvent with a phosphorous source that contains the phosphorous in the oxidation stage 3, and use thereof for the pre-lithiation of electrode materials and the production of battery anodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: Rockwood Lithium GmbH
    Inventors: Ulrich Wietelmann, Christoph Hartnig, Ute Emmel, Sven Schröter
  • Patent number: 9517595
    Abstract: A composite includes a substrate having an oxide layer, a nano film formed on the oxide layer, a plastic member, the nano film has a three-dimensional network structure, the plastic member covers the nano film and penetrates into the three-dimensional network structure, the plastic member bonds with the substrate through the nano film and the oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2016
    Assignees: SHENZHEN FUTAIHONG PRECISION INDUSTRY CO., LTD., FIH (HONG KONG) LIMITED
    Inventors: Jer-Sheng Lee, Yu-Tsai Wang, Jiang-Long Liang, Ying-Bo Yang
  • Patent number: 9447502
    Abstract: Provided is a means for fixing calcium phosphate onto the surface of a metal by a treatment method which uses no acid and produces less residue. A method of producing a calcium phosphate composite in which calcium phosphate is bonded to the surface of a base material, the method including a surface treatment step of bringing the surface of the base material into contact with a surface treating agent, and then into contact with a silane coupling agent, to surface treat the base material; a polymerization step of initiating, after the surface treatment step, polymerization of the silane coupling agent by means of a polymerization initiator; and a bonding step of bonding the silane coupling agent at the surface of the base material after the polymerization step, with calcium phosphate; wherein the base material is a metal, and the surface treating agent is ozone water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2016
    Assignees: IWATANI CORPORATION, SOFSERA CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kunihiko Koike, Yasumichi Kogai, Masami Nakagawa
  • Patent number: 9260791
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of fabricating a thermal barrier comprising a ceramic coating layer covering at least a portion of the structure of a substrate, wherein the ceramic coating layer is deposited on the substrate solely by a cathodic electrodeposition process between at least one cathode (26) and at least one anode (28), the substrate being formed of an electron-conducting material and constituting the cathode. In characteristic manner, the electrolyte (24) comprises at least one salt from the group comprising the salts of lanthanides, of yttrium, of zirconium, and of hafnium, such that the coating layer applied by the electrodeposition process includes at least one oxide from the group comprising the oxides of lanthanides, of yttrium, of zirconium, and of hafnium, and it also includes a step of heat treating the ceramic coating layer at a temperature lying in the range 400° C. to 2000° C. for a duration of at least 10 min.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2016
    Assignees: SNECMA, UNIVERSITE DE LA ROCHELLE
    Inventors: Fernando Pedraza Diaz, Baptiste Bouchaud, Josseline Balmain, Gilles Bonnet, Justine Menuey
  • Publication number: 20140124100
    Abstract: Methods of reducing an initial cross-sectional area of a hole in a component to a predetermined cross-sectional area including preparing a composition comprising at least an aluminum alloy with a melting temperature higher than aluminum, applying the composition to an interior surface of the hole, and then heating the component to cause a metal within the component to diffuse from the component into the composition and react with the aluminum alloy in the composition to form a coating on the interior surface of the hole. The heating step is performed to selectively modify the initial cross-sectional area of the hole and thereby directly attain the predetermined cross-sectional area thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2012
    Publication date: May 8, 2014
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Stephen Gerard Pope, Dennis William Cavanaugh, John Gregory Obeirne, Eric Eicher McConnell, Mark Lawrence Hunt, Canan Hardwicke
  • Publication number: 20130133995
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for forming a brake rotor including a desired custom marking having a predetermined size and shape. The method includes applying a chemical treatment to a marking portion of a surface of the rotor. The marking portion has a size and shape corresponding to the predetermined size and shape of the desired custom marking. The chemical treatment is configured to affect, in a predetermined manner, an ability of a stimulus, to which the rotor is to be exposed, to alter properties of the rotor. The method also includes exposing the rotor, having the chemical treatment applied thereto, to the stimulus. The stimulus alters properties of the rotor at the marking portion differently than the stimulus alters properties of the rotor at other portions of the rotor adjacent the marking portion, thereby forming physical differences in the rotor, which, being visually perceptible, form the custom marking.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 28, 2011
    Publication date: May 30, 2013
    Applicant: GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS LLC
    Inventors: Michael D. Hanna, James A. Webster
  • Publication number: 20130004885
    Abstract: A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2011
    Publication date: January 3, 2013
    Inventors: Dusan Strmcnik, Bostjan Genorio, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Nenad Markovic
  • Publication number: 20120328903
    Abstract: A method to limit surface zone recrystallization in a superalloy article includes limiting recrystallization in a surface zone of a superalloy article by treating the superalloy article in an oxygen-containing environment to introduce oxygen into the surface zone in an amount sufficient to pin any new grain boundaries in the surface zone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 23, 2011
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Inventors: Yuriy G. Kononenko, Igor V. Belousov, Vadim Ivanovich Bondarchuk, Andrii Marynskyi, Carl R. Soderberg
  • Patent number: 8268095
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a hot dip galvannealed steel sheet, including the steps of: subjecting a steel sheet to hot dip galvanizing to manufacture a hot dip galvanized steel sheet; heating the hot dip galvanized steel sheet for alloying; subjecting the hot dip galvanized steel sheet to temper rolling; bringing the temper-rolled hot dip galvanized steel sheet into contact with an acid solution containing at least one ion selected from the group consisting of Zr ions, Ti ions, and Sn ions to thereby form an acid solution film on the surface of the steel sheet; after completion of the contact, a state where the acid solution film is formed on the surface of the steel sheet is held for at least 1 second; and washing with water the hot dip galvanized steel sheet after holding, to thereby form a Zn oxide layer having a thickness of 10 nm or more on the surface of the galvanized steel sheet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2012
    Assignee: JFE Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Masuoka, Shoichiro Taira, Yoshiharu Sugimoto, Naoto Yoshimi, Masayasu Nagoshi, Wataru Tanimoto
  • Publication number: 20120125487
    Abstract: A surface treatment method of a magnesium alloy article includes, instead of forming a primer on a magnesium alloy based composite first, directly performing a hairline finish process on the magnesium alloy based composite, to form a hairline structure on a surface of the magnesium alloy based composite, and performing a chemical oxidation process on the magnesium alloy based composite, to form a glossy film covering the hairline structure on the magnesium alloy based composite, thereby forming a magnesium alloy article structure. Alternatively, another chemical oxidation process is performed before the hairline finish process, to form an oxide film on the surface of the magnesium alloy based composite.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2011
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Applicant: GETAC TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventor: Chun-Hsiang CHEN
  • Publication number: 20120100657
    Abstract: A method for bonding a first copper element onto a second copper element including forming a crystalline copper layer enriched in oxygen on each of surfaces of each of the first and second elements through which the elements will be in contact, the total thickness of both layers being less than 6 nm, which includes: a) polishing the surfaces so as to obtain a roughness of less than 1 nm RMS, and hydrophilic surfaces, b) cleaning the surfaces to suppress presence of particles due to the polishing and the major portion of corrosion inhibitors, and c) putting both crystalline copper layer enriched in oxygen in contact with each other.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2010
    Publication date: April 26, 2012
    Applicants: Stmicroelectronics (Crolles 2) SAS, Commisariat A L'Energie Atomique et Aux Ene Alt
    Inventors: Lea Di Cioccio, Pierric Gueguen, Maurice Rivoire
  • Patent number: 8021497
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a hardened steel part having a cathodic corrosion protection, whereby a) a coating is applied to a sheet made of a hardenable steel alloy in a continuous coating process; b) the coating is essentially comprised of zinc; c) the coating additionally contains one or more oxygen-affine elements in a total amount of 0.1% by weight to 15% by weight with regard to the entire coating; d) the coated steel sheet is then, at least in partial areas and with the admission of atmospheric oxygen, brought to a temperature necessary for hardening and is heated until it undergoes a microstructural change necessary for hardening, whereby; e) a superficial skin is formed on the coating from an oxide of the oxygen-affine element(s), and; f) the sheet is shaped before or after heating, and; g) the sheet is cooled after sufficient heating, whereby the cooling rate is calculated in order to achieve a hardening of the sheet alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: voestalpine Stahl GmbH
    Inventors: Martin Fleischanderl, Siegfried Kolnberger, Josef Faderl, Gerald Landl, Anna Elisabeth Raab, Werner Brandstätter
  • Patent number: 7879400
    Abstract: There is provided a substrate processing apparatus equipped with a metallic component, with at least a part of its metallic surface exposed to an inside of a processing chamber and subjected to baking treatment at a pressure less than atmospheric pressure. As a result of this baking treatment, a film which does not react with various types of reactive gases, and which can block the out diffusion of metals, is formed on the surface of the above-mentioned metallic component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Hitachi Kokusal Electric Inc.
    Inventors: Takahiro Maeda, Kiyohiko Maeda, Takashi Ozaki
  • Patent number: 7572345
    Abstract: Substrates comprising a surface comprising chromium, said surface being adapted to exhibit reduced coefficient of friction and/or increased hardness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2009
    Assignee: Southwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Geoffrey Dearnaley, Kevin C. Walter
  • Publication number: 20090139610
    Abstract: A method for hardening groove walls of the ring groove of a steel piston by a laser beam consists of conducting process gas that contains oxygen onto a groove wall of the steel piston, and putting the steel piston into rotation. The groove wall is irradiated with the laser beam until an oxide layer has formed on the groove wall. Subsequently, the feed of the process gas is turned off, and the groove wall is heated and hardened, in tracks. The degree of heat conductivity of the groove wall is improved by the oxide layer on the groove wall, thereby bringing about faster heating and hardening of the groove wall. The reflectivity of the groove wall is also reduced in this way, so that only little light is reflected by the groove wall onto other regions of the groove, so that these regions are not unintentionally heated and hardened.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2008
    Publication date: June 4, 2009
    Inventors: Achim Fedyna, Christian Peschke
  • Patent number: 7537663
    Abstract: A corrosion-inhibiting coating, process, and system that provides a tight, adherent zinc- or zinc-alloy coating that is directly deposited onto steel or cast iron surfaces for enhanced corrosion protection. A process for applying the coating is also provided. The process includes the application of two sequential aqueous baths. The first bath contains a precursor zinc compound while the second bath contains a reducing agent to deposit the zinc directly upon the steel or cast iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2009
    Assignee: University of Dayton
    Inventors: Andrew W. Phelps, Jeffrey A. Sturgill
  • Patent number: 7468108
    Abstract: A capacitor electrode forming method includes chemisorbing a layer of at least one metal precursor at least one monolayer thick on a substrate, the layer including non-metal components from the precursor. The chemisorbed layer can be treated with an oxidant and the non-metal components removed to form a treated layer of metal. A capacitor electrode can be formed including the treated layer and, optionally, additional treated layers. Preferably, treating the layer does not substantially oxidize the metal and the treated layers exhibit the property of inhibiting oxygen diffusion. The chemisorbing and the treating can be performed at a temperature below about 450° C. or preferably below about 350° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2008
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Eugene P. Marsh
  • Publication number: 20080283155
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for stabilizing lithium metal powder. The method comprises the steps of heating the lithium metal powder to above its melting point to provide molten lithium metal, dispersing the molten lithium metal, and contacting the dispersed molten lithium metal with a phosphorous-containing compound to provide a substantially continuous protective layer of lithium phosphate on the lithium metal powder.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2008
    Publication date: November 20, 2008
    Inventors: Marina Yakovleva, Yuan Gao, Yangxing Li
  • Publication number: 20080202637
    Abstract: Methods for improving adhesion between a shape memory alloy and a polymeric material include functionalizing a surface of the shape memory polymer with a phosphorous containing compound or an organosilane coupling agent. Other methods include surface texturing the shape memory alloy surface, independently or in combination with the functionalization.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 23, 2007
    Publication date: August 28, 2008
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations, Inc.
    Inventors: Louis G. Hector, Andrew M. Mance, William R. Rodgers, Pablo D. Zavattieri, David A. Okonski, Elena Sherman, William Barvosa-Carter
  • Patent number: 7105065
    Abstract: A capacitor electrode forming method includes chemisorbing a layer of at least one metal precursor at least one monolayer thick on a substrate, the layer including non-metal components from the precursor. The chemisorbed layer can be treated with an oxidant and the non-metal components removed to form a treated layer of metal. A capacitor electrode can be formed including the treated layer and, optionally, additional treated layers. Preferably, treating the layer does not substantially oxidize the metal and the treated layers exhibit the property of inhibiting oxygen diffusion. The chemisorbing and the treating can be performed at a temperature below about 450° C. or preferably below about 350° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2006
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Eugene P. Marsh
  • Patent number: 6933053
    Abstract: In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a process for forming a specific reactive element barrier on a titanium and aluminum containing substrate is provided. The process includes creating a dry air atmosphere with a concentration of water vapor below about 750 ppm at a temperature above about 550° C. contiguous to a surface of the substrate on which the barrier layer is to be formed. The temperature is maintained above 550° C. and the water vapor concentration is maintained below about 100 ppm while the water vapor in the dry air atmosphere is reacted with specific reactive elements at the substrate surface. The reaction forms a specific reactive element oxide barrier layer which is strongly bonded to the substrate surface. The barrier layer includes an aluminum oxide layer at the substrate/barrier layer interface and a second oxide layer at a barrier layer/atmosphere interface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2005
    Inventor: Donald L. Alger
  • Patent number: 6884363
    Abstract: A method for treating the surface of a stainless steel product for a fuel cell containing, in wt %, 0.15% or less of C, 17 to 36% of Cr, 0.005 to 3.5% of B, which comprises the first step of forming in advance a passive film with an oxidizing acid on the surface of the stainless steel product, the second step of allowing an aqueous acid solution to corrode the passive film, to thereby project one or more of a M23C6 type carbide, a M23(C, B)6 type borocarbide and M2B type boride, which are inclusions having good electroconductivity, the third step of forming a passive coating film with an oxidizing acid on the surface of the steel product except that of the inclusion above projected, and the fourth step of washing with water and drying.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2005
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Teruyuki Ohtani, Makoto Tsuji, Masao Utsunomiya
  • Patent number: 6855212
    Abstract: Oxidation protection of a titanium-based alloy is provided with improved fatigue properties by a titanium aluminide coating of between 2 to 12 microns by diffusing the Al into the Ti at a temperature below the melting point of the Al. The coating is gas deposited and protects the titanium-based alloys from oxidation at high temperature utilization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2005
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Derek Raybould, Paul Chipko, William E. Fischer
  • Patent number: 6843861
    Abstract: A coated nickel-base superalloy article, which is otherwise susceptible to the formation of a secondary reaction zone, is prepared by furnishing a nickel-base superalloy article substrate having thereon an initial aluminum-containing coating comprising an initial-coating additive zone and an initial-coating diffusion zone. The article is susceptible to the formation of the secondary reaction zone if heated to an elevated SRZ reaction temperature for an SRZ reaction period of time. The formation of the secondary reaction zone is avoided by first removing the initial-coating additive zone and the initial-coating diffusion zone, and thereafter depositing a subsequent aluminum-containing coating onto the article substrate. The subsequent aluminum-containing coating includes a subsequent-coating additive zone and a subsequent-coating diffusion zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Theodore Robert Grossman, Ronald Gustav Rajala, Dwayne Edward Burnett, William Scott Walston, Wendy Howard Murpjy
  • Patent number: 6758917
    Abstract: A method for forming a chromium-rich layer on the surface of a nickel alloy workpiece containing chromium includes heating the workpiece to a stable temperature of about 1100° C., and then exposing the workpiece to a gaseous mixture containing water vapor and one or more non-oxidizing gases for a short period of time. The process conditions are compatible with high temperature annealing and can be performed simultaneously with, or in conjunction with, high temperature annealing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 6, 2004
    Assignee: Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd.
    Inventors: Peter J. King, David M. Doyle
  • Patent number: 6752881
    Abstract: In a metalliferous storage material for hydrogen a metal oxide is provided in or on the surface of the metalliferous materialas a catalyst for the hydrogenation or dehydrogenation of the metalliferous storage material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2004
    Assignee: GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH
    Inventors: Thomas Klassen, Rüdiger Bormann, Wolfgang Oelerich, Volker Güther, Andreas Otto
  • Patent number: 6730179
    Abstract: Method for localized aluminide coating applied for the first time or as repair includes creating a contained space by disposing coating material comprising an aluminum source and a halide activator at least partially over and in an out-of-contact relation with a target surface of a metal substrate. Heating the substrate to a temperature to cause the aluminum source to react with the halide activator and the substrate results in diffusion aluminide coating of the targeted surface. An article comprising a target surface of a metal substrate, said surface bounding a contained space, and a coating tape comprising an aluminum source and a halide activator and disposed in an out-of-contact relation at least partially over the contained space whereby, when the substrate is heated to a temperature to cause the halide activator to react with the aluminum source, a diffusion aluminide coating is formed on the target surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Assignee: Sermatech International Inc.
    Inventor: Thomas Kircher
  • Patent number: 6730178
    Abstract: A metallic base material is covered with a coating layer of intermetallic compound, or a plurality of metallic base materials are welded to each other with an intermetallic compound, with reduced energy consumption within a short period of time. First metallic substance 31 in powdery form is piled up on metallic base material 2. Second metallic substance 3 in molten form is delivered onto piling layer 80 of the first substance. Thus, under the control of reaction initiation temperature, coating layer (or building up coating layer) 84 of intermetallic compound having a thickness of hundreds of microns (&mgr;m) to millimeters (mm) is formed on the base material 2 by the self-exothermic reaction between the first substance and the second substance. This method is also useful in the welding of a plurality of metallic base materials to each other with an intermetallic compound. The first substance can be constituted of, for example, Ni, Co or Fe. The second substance can be constituted of, for example, Al or Ti.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2004
    Assignees: JSR Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshinari Miyamoto, Kiyotaka Matsuura, Toshio Teramoto
  • Patent number: 6723177
    Abstract: A process for treating a chromium coating and/or the surface of a chromium alloy to increase hardness, and/or to decrease coefficient of friction; chromium alloys and/or chromium coatings with surfaces having increased hardness and/or decreased coefficient of friction; and, components comprising chromium alloys and/or chromium coatings with surfaces having increased hardness and/or decreased coefficient of friction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2004
    Assignee: Southwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Geoffrey Dearnaley, Kevin C. Walter
  • Patent number: 6699592
    Abstract: The invention provides a galvannealed steel sheet which has an oxide layer having 10 nm or larger thickness on the plateau of the coating layer flattened by temper rolling. With the use of the galvannealed steel sheet, no powdering occurs during press-forming, and stable and excellent sliding performance is attained. By selecting the area percentage of the plateau of the flattened coating layer to a range from 20 to 80%, making the coating layer single layer of &dgr;1 phase, and letting &zgr; phase exist in the &dgr;1 phase, further improved sliding performance and anti-powdering property are obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2004
    Assignee: NKK Corporation
    Inventors: Shoichiro Taira, Yoshiharu Sugimoto, Junichi Inagaki, Toru Imokawa, Shuji Nomura, Michitaka Sakurai, Masaaki Yamashita, Kaoru Sato, Masayasu Nagoshi, Akira Gamou, Yoichi Miyakawa, Shunsaku Node, Masahiro Iwabuchi
  • Patent number: 6695931
    Abstract: This invention is a method for forming a chemical conversion coating on ferrous metal substrates, the chemical solutions used in the coating and the articles coated thereby. By modifying and combining the features of two existing, but heretofore unrelated, coating technologies, a hybrid conversion coating is formed. Specifically, a molecular iron/oxygen-enriched intermediate coating, such as a dicarboxylate or phosphate, is applied to a ferrous substrate by a first oxidation. The intermediate coating pre-conditions the substrate to form a surface rich in molecular iron and oxygen in a form easily accessible for further reaction. This oxidation procedure is followed by a coloring procedure using a heated (about 120-220° F.) oxidizing solution containing alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal nitrate, alkali metal nitrite or mixtures thereof, which reacts with the iron and oxygen enriched intermediate coating to form magnetite (Fe3O4).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Birchwood Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Keith N. Ravenscroft, William V. Block
  • Patent number: 6679951
    Abstract: The invention relates generally to the prevention of copper oxidation during copper anneal processes. In one aspect of the invention, copper oxidation is prevented by carrying out the anneal in the presence of one or more organic reducing agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2004
    Assignee: ASM Intenational N.V.
    Inventors: Pekka J. Soininen, Kai-Erik Elers, Ernst H. A. Granneman
  • Patent number: 6669786
    Abstract: Disclosed are processes and compositions of solutions for chromate-replacement coatings for aluminum and aluminum alloys. A preferred method includes forming a boehmite coating layer that includes Al (III) ions on an aluminum surface, and applying an ionic conversion coating solution to the coating layer. The ionic conversion coating solution comprises hexavalent and trivalent ions. The trivalent ions are selected from the group consisting of Ce, Ga, Mn, Sc, Ti, Te and V. The hexavalent ions are selected from the group consisting of Mn, Mo, Se and W. It is contended that the resulting coatings provide corrosion resistance and self-healing effect in any defects present in the coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2003
    Assignee: Concurrent Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Krishnaswamy Sampath
  • Patent number: 6648987
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a layer with a sub-micrometre structure on a substrate. First, a layer is formed on the substrate. Agents for creating elastic strains are then formed in at least one predetermined position on the layer and the layer is then subjected to a strain-dependent solid-state reaction. This results in material separating and consequently, in the layer being structured in this position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH
    Inventors: Siegfried Mantl, Ludger Kappius, Qing-Tai Zhao, Armin Antons
  • Patent number: 6648988
    Abstract: Furnace run length extension by fouling control utilizing a pigging-passivation process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2003
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Trikur Anantharaman Ramanarayanan, Ashok Uppal, Changmin Chun
  • Patent number: 6635124
    Abstract: A process of forming a ceramic coating on a component. The process generally entails placing the component in a coating chamber containing oxygen and an inert gas, heating a surface of the component to a temperature of about 100 to about 150° C., and then generating a metal vapor from at least one metal target using a microwave-stimulated, oxygen-containing sputtering technique. The metal vapor is then caused to condense on the component surface to form a metal layer, after which the metal layer is treated with a microwave-stimulated plasma to oxidize the metal layer and form an oxide layer having a columnar microstructure. The generating, condensing and treating steps can be repeated any number of times to form multiple oxide layers that together constitute the ceramic coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2003
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: William Randolph Stowell, Bangalore Nagaraj
  • Patent number: 6613161
    Abstract: A method of laser marking which comprises applying a laser beam to a metal surface under the influence of an assist gas to produce durable, repeatable and striking colors on the metal surface. The method provides an easy and flexible alternative to conventional metal decorating techniques.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology
    Inventors: Hong Yu Zheng, Gnian Cher Lim
  • Patent number: 6607613
    Abstract: A metal alloy solder ball comprising a first metal and a second metal, the first metal having a sputtering yield greater than the second metal. The solder ball comprises a bulk portion having a bulk ratio of the first metal to the second metal, an outer surface, and a surface gradient having a depth and a gradient ratio of the first metal to the second metal that is less than the bulk ratio. The gradient ratio increases along the surface gradient depth from a minimum at the outer surface. The solder ball may be formed by the process of exposing the ball to energized ions of a sputtering gas for an effective amount of time to form the surface gradient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Frank D. Egitto, Edmond O. Fey, Luis J. Matienzo, David L. Questad, Rajinder S. Rai, Daniel C. Van Hart
  • Patent number: 6599636
    Abstract: A titanium aluminide substrate (4) is vulnerable to air oxidation, limiting the use of this substrate in a variety of industrial applications, including the aircraft and aerospace industries. A bilayer reactive barrier (2) is formed on a titanium aluminide substrate. The barrier layer includes an &agr;-Al2O3 layer (6) from the reaction of oxygen from the disassociation of water with alumina in a gaseous and water vapor atmosphere at high temperatures and low oxygen concentration. During the process, titanium migrates through the &agr;-Al2O3 to a gas/barrier layer surface (14) and is oxidized to form a Ti2O3 layer (8). A surface of the Ti2O3 layer is subsequently oxidized to form a TiO2 layer (12). In this manner, a triple layer barrier is formed in which the immersible TiO2 and &agr;-Al2O3 are separated by Ti2O3. The three layers are bonded to each with a bond strength greater than 4500 kPa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2003
    Inventor: Donald L. Alger
  • Patent number: 6592683
    Abstract: Ti alloy is embedded in a powder such as graphite and heated with the powder in an oxygen atmosphere. Oxygen atoms are diffused into the Ti alloy to form an oxygen diffusion layer of Ti—O solid solution, thereby increasing wear resistance of the valve. A poppet valve in an internal combustion engine may be made of such Ti alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2003
    Assignee: Fuji Oozx Inc.
    Inventors: Masahito Hirose, Hiroaki Asanuma
  • Patent number: 6589365
    Abstract: A hydrogen peroxide solution is applied onto the surface of a metallic member to oxidize the metallic member and to form the oxide film. At this time, a light beam is irradiated towards the metallic member through the hydrogen peroxide solution to promote oxidization of the metallic member. The light beam is one of a visible ray, a laser beam, and an ultraviolet ray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Assignee: Matsumoto Dental University
    Inventor: Michio Ito
  • Publication number: 20030116229
    Abstract: A method for forming a chromium-rich layer on the surface of a nickel alloy workpiece containing chromium includes heating the workpiece to a stable temperature of about 1100° C., and then exposing the workpiece to a gaseous mixture containing water vapor and one or more non-oxidizing gases for a short period of time. The process conditions are compatible with high temperature annealing and can be performed simultaneously with, or in conjunction with, high temperature annealing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 18, 2002
    Publication date: June 26, 2003
    Inventors: Peter J. King, David M. Doyle
  • Patent number: 6582531
    Abstract: The present invention relates to structures within an x-ray device including an x-ray can, an x-ray can window frame insert, a rotor sleeve, and a bearing support assembly for a rotor structure. The various structures are fabricated from a chromium alloy of copper that is essentially oxygen free copper having a minor amount of chromium, the combination of which imparts desirable qualities to the x-ray device structures, including efficient heat sink and emissivity qualities that are beneficial in an x-ray device environment. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper is melted in an RF furnace in the presence of a minor amount of chromium and is either ingot cast or powder metallurgically cast into a desired article and further fabricated into a finished article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2003
    Assignee: Varian Medical Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Don Warburton
  • Publication number: 20030041923
    Abstract: Method for localized aluminide coating applied for the first time or as repair includes creating a contained space by disposing coating material comprising an aluminum source and a halide activator at least partially over and in an out-of-contact relation with a target surface of a metal substrate. Heating the substrate to a temperature to cause the aluminum source to react with the halide activator and the substrate results in diffusion aluminide coating of the targeted surface. An article comprising a target surface of a metal substrate, said surface bounding a contained space, and a coating tape comprising an aluminum source and a halide activator and disposed in an out-of-contact relation at least partially over the contained space whereby, when the substrate is heated to a temperature to cause the halide activator to react with the aluminum source, a diffusion aluminide coating is formed on the target surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2001
    Publication date: March 6, 2003
    Applicant: Sermatech International, Inc.
    Inventor: Thomas Kircher
  • Patent number: 6521053
    Abstract: A substrate is protected by first providing the substrate, and applying a ceramic coating overlying and bonded to the substrate. The ceramic coating is formed of an open-cell solid foam of ceramic cell walls having an interconnected intracellular volume therebetween which is filled at least in part with a metallic alloy. The ceramic coating has an exposed surface remote from the substrate. The exposed surface of the ceramic coating is heated to an exposure temperature such that at least some of the metallic alloy is lost from the intracellular volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2003
    Assignee: General Electric Co.
    Inventors: Richard John Grylls, Curtiss Mitchell Austin