Chilling To Subambient Temperature Patents (Class 148/577)
  • Patent number: 10376943
    Abstract: A frozen forming method for a large-size thin-walled aluminum alloy component using an aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate is described. An aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate is cooled to a temperature with a cryogenic fluid medium, and temperature of a weld zone is regulated to be lower than that of a base metal zone; and the component is fabricated by a tool integrally with aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate, by placing aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate onto tool; assembling tool and filling with cryogenic fluid medium so temperature of tool is ?150 to ?196 degrees Celsius; and apply pressure to deform the aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate when temperature of a weld zone reaches ?150 degrees Celsius to ?196 degrees Celsius, thereby facilitating forming the aluminum alloy tailor-welded plate to a designed shape of the aluminum alloy component; and disassembling the tool, and taking out the aluminum alloy component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Inventor: Shijian Yuan
  • Patent number: 10312431
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing bistable strips having different curvatures, each strip including a plurality of portion of layers of materials, wherein at least one specific layer portion is deposited by a plasma spraying method in conditions different for each of the strips.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignees: STMICROELECTRONICS SA, STMICROELECTRONICS (CROLLES 2) SAS
    Inventors: Emilie Trioux, Pascal Ancey, Stephane Monfray, Thomas Skotnicki, Skandar Basrour, Paul Muralt
  • Patent number: 10047415
    Abstract: The present invention is a metallic wire rod comprising iridium or an iridium-containing alloy and, the wire rod has in the cross section thereof biaxial crystal orientation of 50% or more of abundance proportion of textures in which crystallographic orientation has preferred orientation to <100> direction. In the present invention, crystal orientation in the outer periphery from semicircle of the cross section which is the periphery of the wire rod is important, and in this zone, abundance proportion of textures in which crystallographic orientation has preferred orientation to <100> direction is preferably not less than 50%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignee: Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K.K.
    Inventors: Koichi Sakairi, Kunihiro Tanaka, Muneki Nakamura, Fumie Seki
  • Patent number: 9988709
    Abstract: A sintered compact magnesium oxide target for sputtering having a purity of 99.99 wt % or higher excluding C, a density of 3.57 g/cm3 or higher, and a whiteness of 60% or less. In order to uniformly deposit a magnesium oxide film, a magnesium oxide target having a higher purity and a higher density is being demanded. An object of this invention is to provide a target capable of realizing the above, and a method for producing such a target. While a magnesium oxide sintered compact sputtering target is produced by hot-pressing a raw material powder, there is a problem in that color shading occurs in roughly ?60 (within a circle having a diameter of 60 mm) at the center part of the target. Conventionally, no particularly attention was given to this problem. However, in recent years, it has become necessary to investigate and resolve this problem in order to improve the deposition quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2018
    Assignee: JX Nippon Mining & Metals Corporation
    Inventors: Akira Hisano, Yuichiro Nakamura
  • Patent number: 8911571
    Abstract: This invention discloses an L,R,C method and equipment for casting amorphous, ultracrystallite and crystallite metal slabs or other shaped metals. A workroom (8) with a constant temperature of tb=?190° C. and a constant pressure of pb=1 bar, and liquid nitrogen of ?190° C. and 1.877 bar is used as a cold source for cooling the casting blank. A liquid nitrogen ejector (5) ejects said liquid nitrogen to the surface of ferrous or non-ferrous metallic slabs or other shaped metals (7) with various ejection quantity v and various jet velocity k. Ejected liquid nitrogen comes into contact with the casting blank at cross section c shown in FIG. 2. This method adopts ultra thin film ejection technology, with a constant thickness of said film at 2 mm and ejection speed Kmax of said liquid nitrogen at 30 m/s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Inventor: Zhuwen Ming
  • Patent number: 8845829
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a Cu alloy conductor includes the steps of: adding and dissolving In of 0.1-0.7 weight % to a Cu matrix containing oxygen of 0.001-0.1 weight % (10-1000 weight ppm) to form a molten Cu alloy, performing a continuous casting with the molten Cu alloy, rapidly quenching a casting material to a temperature by at least 15° C. or more lower than a melting point of molten Cu alloy, controlling the casting material at a temperature equal to or lower than 900° C., and performing a plurality of hot rolling processes to the casting material such that a temperature of a final hot rolling is within a range of from 500 to 600° C. to form the rolled material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Hitachi Metals, Ltd.
    Inventors: Seigi Aoyama, Takaaki Ichikawa, Hiroyoshi Hiruta, Hiromitsu Kuroda
  • Patent number: 8545621
    Abstract: Using a helium cryostat, the temperature for a substrate wafer(s) is reduced to 2.2 Kelvin over a period of twenty-four hours. Next, a soak segment will hold the temperature of the substrate wafer at 2.2 Kelvins for a period of ninety-six hours. At these low temperatures, alloys such as GaAs, InP, and GaP will form dipole molecular moments, which will re-align along lines of internal magnetic force as molecular bonds condense. Next the substrate wafer's temperature is ramped up to room temperature over a period of twenty-four hours. Next, the temperature of the substrate wafer is ramped up to assure that the temperature gradients made to occur within the wafer are kept low. Typically, a temper ramp up temperature will range between 300° F. to 1100° F. and depends upon the single crystal material used to construct the substrate wafer. Next, the substrate wafer undergoes a temper hold segment, which assures that the entire substrate wafer has had the benefit of the tempering temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: OPC Laser Systems LLC
    Inventor: Joseph Reid Henrichs
  • Patent number: 8418746
    Abstract: This invention discloses an L,R,C method and equipment for casting amorphous, ultracrystallite and crystallite metal slabs or other shaped metals. A workroom (8) with a constant temperature of tb=?190° C. and a constant pressure of pb=1 bar, and liquid nitrogen of ?190° C. and 1.877 bar is used as a cold source for cooling the casting blank. A liquid nitrogen ejector (5) ejects said liquid nitrogen to the surface of ferrous or non-ferrous metallic slabs or other shaped metals (7) with various ejection quantity v and various jet velocity k. Ejected liquid nitrogen comes into contact with the casting blank at cross section c shown in FIG. 2. This method adopts ultra thin film ejection technology, with a constant thickness of said film at 2 mm and ejection speed Kmax of said liquid nitrogen at 30 m/s.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2013
    Inventor: Zhuwen Ming
  • Patent number: 8388774
    Abstract: A multi-wave thermal process for treating a metal to improve structural characteristics is herein disclosed. The metal can be placed in a chamber. Each wave of the process can include: selecting a target temperature; selecting a temperature rate; and controlling the temperature rate while chilling the metal by introducing a cryogenic material into the chamber, while preventing over-stressing of the metal, to the target temperature at the temperature rate. While chilling the metal, the process can include inserting a hold time on the metal at an intermediate temperature for equalization of the temperature uniformly throughout the metal, thereby creating uniformity in a microcrystalline structure of the metal. The process can further include: stopping the introduction of the cryogenic material once the target temperature is reached and holding the metal at the target temperature. The process can result in a treated metal without fractures and with an organized microcrystalline structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 5, 2013
    Inventor: Daniel Martin Watson
  • Patent number: 8025749
    Abstract: The sputter target has a composition selected from the group consisting of high-purity copper and copper-base alloys. The sputter target's grain structure is at least about 99 percent recrystallized; and the sputter target's face has a grain orientation ratio of at least about 10 percent each of (111), (200), (220) and (311). In addition, the sputter target has a grain size of less than about 10 ?m for improving sputter uniformity and reducing sputter target arcing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2011
    Assignee: Praxair S. T. Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman
  • Publication number: 20100269961
    Abstract: A process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other fcc matrix alloys while maintaining ductility. The method is particularly applicable to face-centered-cubic materials that undergo dynamic recovery when strain-hardened at room temperature. The material is first subjected to equal channel angular pressing to create an ultra fine grain structure (“UFG”). The UFG sample is then subjected to cryogenic drawing and finally to subcryogenic deformation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2010
    Publication date: October 28, 2010
    Inventors: Ke Han, Robert Walsh, David Embury
  • Patent number: 7744707
    Abstract: A deep cryogenic tempering process for brake components such as rotors and drums is provided, wherein the unique processing profile is dependent on properties of the specific brake components. The process comprises the steps of placing a brake component at a temperature within a cryogenic processing chamber, cooling the brake component at a descent rate until the brake component temperature is approximately ?300° F., maintaining the brake component temperature at ?300° F. for a stay time, raising the temperature of the brake component to approximately ?300° F. at an ascent rate, maintaining the temperature of the brake component at 300° F. for a post temper time, and lowering the temperature of the brake component to room temperature at a cool down rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2010
    Inventor: Robert Woolley Brunson
  • Patent number: 7740723
    Abstract: A precious metal sputter target has a composition selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, osmium and single-phase alloys thereof. The sputter target's grain structure is at least about 99 percent recrystallized and has a grain size of less than about 200 ?m for improving sputter uniformity. The cryogenic method for producing these sputter targets is also effective for improving sputter performance for silver an gold sputter targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2010
    Assignee: Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Wendell Stuber, Binu Mathew
  • Patent number: 7731810
    Abstract: A nanocomposite comprising a plurality of nanoparticles dispersed in a molybdenum-based matrix, and an x-ray tube component formed from such a nanocomposite. The nanocomposite contains volume fraction of nanoparticle dispersoids in a range from about 2 volume percent to about 20 volume percent. A method of making such molybdenum-based nanocomposites is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2010
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Pazhayannur Ramanathan Subramanian, Judson Sloan Marte, Paul Leonard Dupree
  • Patent number: 7699946
    Abstract: A method for preparing a nanostructured aluminum alloy involves heating an aluminum alloy workpiece at temperature sufficient to produce a single phase coarse grained aluminum alloy, then refining the grain size of the workpiece at a temperature at or below room temperature, and then aging the workpiece to precipitate second phase particles in the nanosized grains of the workpiece that increase the ductility without decreasing the strength of the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2010
    Assignee: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Yonghao Zhao, Yuntian T. Zhu
  • Patent number: 7597840
    Abstract: The formation of amorphous porous bodies and in particular to a method of manufacturing such bodies from amorphous particulate materials. The method allows for the control of the volume fraction as well as the spatial and size distribution of gas-formed pores by control of the size distribution of the powder particulates. The method allows for the production of precursors of unlimited size, and because the softened state of the amorphous metals used in the method possesses visco-plastic properties, higher plastic deformations can be attained during consolidation as well as during expansion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Marios Demetriou, William L. Johnson, Christopher Thomas Veazey, Jan Schroers
  • Publication number: 20090194175
    Abstract: The invention relates to a shut-off device (1) and a process for producing a shut-off device with a housing (2) and a shut-off flap (3) that is pivotally located in the housing, a shut-off flap seat (7) formed by the components (2; 3; 8, 12a; 12b) being located between the housing (2) and the shut-off flap (3). To achieve the object of ensuring a good fit and thus a high level of tightness of the shut-off device, it is suggested according to the invention that the components (2; 3; 8, 12a; 12b) of the shut-off device (1) that form the shut-off flap seat (7) are subjected to treatment by cold ageing in the low temperature range. This treatment by cold ageing takes place advantageously before final mechanical working of the components (2; 3; 8, 12a; 12b) with liquid nitrogen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 27, 2005
    Publication date: August 6, 2009
    Inventors: Metin Gerceker, Martin Hock
  • Publication number: 20090090438
    Abstract: A process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other fcc matrix alloys. The method is particularly applicable to face-centered-cubic materials that undergo dynamic recovery when strain-hardened at room temperature. A cryogenic strain hardening process is used to create a high strength pure copper or copper+Al2O3 alloy. The strength of the material is substantially increased. However, the loss of conductivity is minimal. In the preferred embodiment, pure copper or a copper alloy is drawn into a wire at a temperature of about 77 K. Dynamic recovery of the material is substantially reduced. With this method, drawn copper wire exhibits a strength level about 45% higher than that achievable by an equivalent room temperature deformation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2007
    Publication date: April 9, 2009
    Inventors: Ke Han, Robert Walsh, David Embury
  • Patent number: 7344675
    Abstract: A method of producing high strength nanophase metal alloy powder by cryomilling metal powder under conditions which cause the formation of intrinsic nitrides, and of producing high strength metal articles by subjecting the nitrided cryomilled powder to thermo-mechanical processing. The intrinsic nitrides present within the alloy significantly reduce grain growth during thermo-mechanical processing, resulting in formed metal products of high strength and improved ductility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2008
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Thomas J. Van Daam, Clifford C. Bampton
  • Patent number: 7241328
    Abstract: A method for preparing ultra-fine, submicron grain titanium or titanium-alloy articles (78) used for joining or assembling of detail components. Coarse-grained titanium or titanium-alloy materials (52) are severely mechanically deformed using cryogenic milling into an ultra-fine, submicron grain powder, degassed and consolidated under controlled pressure and temperature. The resulting fasteners, articles, or components manufactured from such material have improved material performance characteristics associated with this ultra-fine, submicron grain material structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2007
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventor: Steven Glenn Keener
  • Patent number: 7163595
    Abstract: The thermal process for treating a metal to improve structural characteristics of the metal entails placing a metal within a thermal control apparatus; introducing a cryogenic material into the thermal control apparatus to decrease the metal temperature, while preventing over-stressing of the metal, to a first target temperature ranging from ?40 degrees F. and ?380 degrees F. at a first temperature rate ranging from 0.25 degrees per minute and 20 degrees per minute; stopping the introduction of the cryogenic material once the first target temperature is reached; increasing the chamber temperature to a second target, temperature ranging from 0 degrees F. and 1400 degrees F.; and increasing the metal temperature to the second target temperature at a second temperature rate ranging from 0.25 degrees per minute and 20 degrees per minute, resulting in a treated metal without fractures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2007
    Inventor: Daniel Watson
  • Patent number: 6942763
    Abstract: An aluminum alloy sputter target having a sputter target face for sputtering the sputter target is disclosed. The sputter target face has a textured-metastable grain structure. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain orientation ratio of at least 35 percent (200) orientation. The textured-metastable grain structure is stable during sputtering of the sputter target. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain size of less than 5 ?m. The method forms aluminum alloy sputter targets by first cooling an aluminum alloy target blank to a temperature of less than ?50° C. Then deforming the cooled aluminum alloy target blank introduces plastic strain into the target blank and reduces the grain size of the grains to form a textured-metastable grain structure. Finally, finishing the aluminum alloy target blank forms a finished sputter target that maintains the textured-metastable grain structure of the finished sputter target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2005
    Assignee: Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Jaak Van den Sype
  • Publication number: 20040261917
    Abstract: The thermal process for treating a metal to improve structural characteristics of the metal entails placing a metal within a thermal control apparatus; introducing a cryogenic material into the thermal control apparatus to decrease the metal temperature, while preventing over-stressing of the metal, to a first target temperature ranging from −40 degrees F. and −380 degrees F. at a first temperature rate ranging from 0.25 degrees per minute and 20 degrees per minute; stopping the introduction of the cryogenic material once the first target temperature is reached; increasing the chamber temperature to a second target, temperature ranging from 0 degrees F. and 1400 degrees F.; and increasing the metal temperature to the second target temperature at a second temperature rate ranging from 0.25 degrees per minute and 20 degrees per minute, resulting in a treated metal without fractures.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2004
    Publication date: December 30, 2004
    Inventor: Daniel Watson
  • Patent number: 6797085
    Abstract: A metallurgical process expands the grain structure in a heat sink from a fine grain to a coarse grain to improve the thermal conductivity of the heat sink. The temperature of the heat sink is raised to a level high enough to lead to a secondary re-crystallization grain growth in the metal alloy. The temperature of the heat sink is then gradually lowered to a cryogenic temperature and then immediately brought back up to ambient temperature to strengthen the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Terrance Dishongh, Prateek Dujari, Bin Lian, Damion Searls
  • Patent number: 6726786
    Abstract: The invention relates to processes for the production of a buckling-resistant stove-finished structural member from cold rolled and dressed strip (cold strip) non-ageing steel with high bake-hardening potential, more particularly of more than 70 N/mm2. The characterising feature of the invention is that the cold strip is converted by dressing into a yield point stretch-free state (Reh−Rel<2 N/mm2), then stored at a temperature below room temperature and further processed into the form of a structural member, whereafter the strip is finally stove finished.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2004
    Assignee: Thyssen Krupp Stahl AG
    Inventors: Rolf Bode, Ilse Heckelmann
  • Publication number: 20040060620
    Abstract: In accordance with the invention, nanostructured metallic materials having high tensile strength and increased ductility are prepared by providing a metallic material, deforming the metallic material to form a plurality of dislocation cell structures, annealing the material at a temperature from about 0.3 to about 0.7 of its absolute melting temperature, and cooling the annealed metallic material. The result is a nanostructured metal or alloy having increased tensile strength as compared with the corresponding coarse-grained material and substantially greater ductility as compared with nanostructured material made by conventional processes. Using this process applicants have made nanostructured alloys with tensile strengths in excess of 1.5 Gpa and ductility greater than 1 per cent strain-to-failure. They have also made nanostructured metals with tensile strength in excess of 400 MPa and ductility in excess of 50% strain-to-failure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2003
    Publication date: April 1, 2004
    Applicant: JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Ev An Ma, Yinmin Wang, Mingwei Chen
  • Patent number: 6695937
    Abstract: A golf club head is comprised of cryogenically treated steel resulting in the striking face having a reduced face thickness of between 0.115 inches and 0.130 inches, and therefore, a reduced striking face mass. Extra material which is eliminated from the striking face, is distributed in other areas of the club head to enhance performance. In an iron club head embodiment, the club head includes a heel portion, toe portion, bottom sole portion, top ridge portion, hosel portion, striking face, rear surface, and peripheral mass on the rear surface which forms a rear cavity. A cantilevered mass extends from the bottom sole portion toward the top ridge portion within the rear cavity, spaced apart from the rear surface. In a wood club head embodiment, the club head includes a hollow body having an inner cavity delimited by a sole portion, a striking face, a heel portion, a toe portion, and a crown portion which links the striking face, toe portion, and heel portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Nicklaus Golf Equipment Co., L.C.
    Inventor: John Thomas Stites, III
  • Publication number: 20040031546
    Abstract: The method manufactures high-purity ferromagnetic sputter targets by cryogenic working the sputter target blank at a temperature below at least −50° C. to impart at least about 5 percent strain into the sputter target blank to increase PTF uniformity of the target blank. The sputter target blank is a nonferrous metal selected from the group consisting of cobalt and nickel; and the nonferrous metal has a purity of at least about 99.99 weight percent. Finally, fabricating the sputter target blank forms a sputter target having an improved PTF uniformity arising from the cryogenic working.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 11, 2003
    Publication date: February 19, 2004
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Holger J. Koenigsmann, David E. Dombrowski, Thomas J. Hunt
  • Publication number: 20040025986
    Abstract: A precious metal sputter target has a composition selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, osmium and single-phase alloys thereof. The sputter target's grain structure is at least about 99 percent recrystallized and has a grain size of less than about 200 &mgr;m for improving sputter uniformity. The cryogenic method for producing these sputter targets is also effective for improving sputter performance for silver and gold sputter targets.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2002
    Publication date: February 12, 2004
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Wendell Stuber, Binu Mathew
  • Publication number: 20040011440
    Abstract: The sputter target has a composition selected from the group consisting of high-purity copper and copper-base alloys. The sputter target's grain structure is at least about 99 percent recrystallized; and the sputter target's face has a grain orientation ratio of at least about 10 percent each of (111), (200), (220) and (311). In addition, the sputter target has a grain size of less than about 10 &mgr;m for improving sputter uniformity and reducing sputter target arcing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 18, 2002
    Publication date: January 22, 2004
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman
  • Patent number: 6652668
    Abstract: The method manufactures high-purity ferromagnetic sputter targets by cryogenic working the sputter target blank at a temperature below at least −50° C. to impart at least about 5 percent strain into the sputter target blank to increase PTF uniformity of the target blank. The sputter target blank is a nonferrous metal selected from the group consisting of cobalt and nickel; and the nonferrous metal has a purity of at least about 99.99 weight percent. Finally, fabricating the sputter target blank forms a sputter target having an improved PTF uniformity arising from the cryogenic working.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 25, 2003
    Assignee: Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Holger J. Koenigsmann, David E. Dombrowski, Thomas J. Hunt
  • Publication number: 20030205463
    Abstract: An aluminum alloy sputter target having a sputter target face for sputtering the sputter target. The sputter target face has a textured-metastable grain structure. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain orientation ratio of at least 35 percent (200) orientation. The textured-metastable grain structure is stable during sputtering of the sputter target. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain size of less than 5 &mgr;m. The method forms aluminum alloy sputter targets by first cooling an aluminum alloy target blank to a temperature of less than −50° C. Then deforming the cooled aluminum alloy target blank introduces plastic strain into the target blank and reduces the grain size of the grains to form a textured-metastable grain structure. Finally, finishing the aluminum alloy target blank forms a finished sputter target that maintains the textured-metastable grain structure of the finished sputter target.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 11, 2003
    Publication date: November 6, 2003
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Jaak Van den Sype
  • Patent number: 6588218
    Abstract: A process for treating a conductor winding component of a dynamoelectric device incorporates a cryogenic cycle having a ramp down phase during which the conductor winding component is ramped down from at least about −100° F. in a dry cryogenic environment to about −300° F. over several hours, preferably greater than five (5) hours and including seven (7) hours or more, followed by a cryogenic hold phase during which the conductor winding component is held at about −300° F. over an additional several hours, preferably greater than twenty-four (24) hours and including thirty-six (36) hours or more, followed by a cryogenic ramp up phase during which the conductor winding component is ramped up to about −200° F. over another several hours, preferably greater than twelve (12) hours and including eighteen (18) hours or more.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Assignee: CryoPro, L.L.C.
    Inventor: David C. Hutchison
  • Publication number: 20030098102
    Abstract: The high-purity aluminum sputter target is at least 99.999 weight percent aluminum and has a grain structure. The grain structure is at least 99 percent recrystallized and has a grain size of less than 125 &mgr;m. The method forms high-purity aluminum sputter targets by first cooling a high-purity target blank to a temperature of less than −50° C. and then deforming the cooled high-purity target blank introduces intense strain into the high-purity target. After deforming, recrystallizing the grains at a temperature below 200° C. forms a target blank having at least 99 percent recrystallized grains. Finally, finishing at a low temperature sufficient to maintain the fine grain size of the high-purity target blank forms a finished sputter target.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2001
    Publication date: May 29, 2003
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Thomas J. Hunt
  • Publication number: 20030098103
    Abstract: The high-purity aluminum sputter target is at least 99.999 weight percent aluminum and has a grain structure. The grain structure is at least 99 percent recrystallized and has a grain size of less than 200 &mgr;m. The method forms high-purity aluminum sputter targets by first cooling a high-purity target blank to a temperature of less than −50° C. and then deforming the cooled high-purity target blank introduces intense strain into the high-purity target. After deforming, recrystallizing the grains at a temperature below 200° C. forms a target blank having at least 99 percent recrystallized grains. Finally, finishing at a low temperature sufficient to maintain the fine grain size of the high-purity target blank forms a finished sputter target.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 16, 2002
    Publication date: May 29, 2003
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Thomas J. Hunt
  • Publication number: 20030089430
    Abstract: An aluminum alloy sputter target having a sputter target face for sputtering the sputter target. The sputter target face has a textured-metastable grain structure. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain orientation ratio of at least 35 percent (200) orientation. The textured-metastable grain structure is stable during sputtering of the sputter target. The textured-metastable grain structure has a grain size of less than 5 &mgr;m. The method forms aluminum alloy sputter targets by first cooling an aluminum alloy target blank to a temperature of less than −50 ° C. Then deforming the cooled aluminum alloy target blank introduces plastic strain into the target blank and reduces the grain size of the grains to form a textured-metastable grain structure. Finally, finishing the aluminum alloy target blank forms a finished sputter target that maintains the textured-metastable grain structure of the finished sputter target.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 14, 2001
    Publication date: May 15, 2003
    Inventors: Andrew C. Perry, Paul S. Gilman, Jaak Van den Sype
  • Patent number: 6544669
    Abstract: A method of making cookware and bakeware having a stick resistant and mar resistant cook surface comprising the steps of providing a cooking utensil having a cook surface, and cryogenically treating the cooking utensil at one or more selected temperatures comprising −100° F. to −300° F. or lower to harden said cook surface. The cooking utensil may have a bare metal cook surface, or it may be coated with a stick resistant coating such as one of a PTFE, metal nitride or sulfide coating or combinations thereof prior to the cryogenic hardening treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: Clad Metals LLC
    Inventor: William A. Groll
  • Patent number: 6506270
    Abstract: A heat treatment method of steel is capable of enhancing wear resistance, mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the steel due to the reduction of the retained austenite amount to substantially zero. In the method, an article of the steel is subjected to a quenching and then subzero treatment including cooling it at a cooling rate of 1 to 10° C./min. to a cooling temperature and holding the cooling temperature for a predetermined period of time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2003
    Assignees: Iwatani International Corporation, MMC Kobelco Tool Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kenzo Takashina, Yuji Komori, Kazuaki Tanaka, Masahiro Machida
  • Patent number: 6361627
    Abstract: A process for controlling grain growth in the microstructure of thin metal films (e.g., copper or gold) deposited onto a substrate. In one embodiment, the metal film is deposited onto the substrate to form a film having a fine-grained microstructure. The film is heated in a temperature range of 70-100°C. for at least five minutes, wherein the fine-grained microstructure is converted into a stable large-grained microstructure. In another embodiment, the plated film is stored, after the step of depositing, at a temperature not greater than −20° C., wherein the fine-grained microstructure is stabilized without grain growth for the entire storage period.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2002
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Patrick W. DeHaven, Charles C. Goldsmith, Jeffery L. Hurd, Suryanarayana Kaja, Michele S. Legere, Eric D. Perfecto
  • Patent number: 6314743
    Abstract: A process for treating carbide tool bits used by the electronics industry for printed circuit board (“PCB”) fabrication combines a cryogenic cycle with two or more tempering cycles. The tool bits are subjected to a cryogenic cycle having a ramp down phase during which the tool bits are ramped down in a dry cryogenic environment to about −300° F. over between about six (6) and eight (8) hours, followed by a cryogenic hold phase during which the tool bits are held at about −300° F. over between about twenty-four (24) and thirty-six (36) hours, followed by a cryogenic ramp up phase during which the tool bits are ramped up to about −100° F. over between about six (6) and eight (8) hours. That is followed by a first tempering cycle having a ramp up phase during which the tool bits are ramped up in a dry tempering environment to about 350° F. over about one-half (½) hour, followed by a hold phase during which the tool bits are held at about 350° F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: CryoPro, L.L.C.
    Inventor: David C. Hutchison
  • Patent number: 6258463
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for producing anodic coatings with superior corrosion resistance and other properties on aluminum and aluminum alloy surfaces by cryogenically treating the aluminum prior to anodizing. The invention also relates to the anodic coatings and to the anodically coated articles produced by the process. The anodized coating has a thickness of 0.001 to 0.5 mm and a time to penetration of at least 5 hours for aqueous solutions of HCl.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael Kevin Corridan
  • Patent number: 6231700
    Abstract: A high strength, highly electrically conductive copper-based alloy and method for producing the alloy are provided, with the alloy containing boron in the range of 0.0-2.9 at. %, magnesium in a range of about 2.8-7.6 at. %, tin in a range of about 2.1-4.3 at. %, and the balance copper and unavoidable impurities. The method for producing the high-strength, highly conductive alloy includes solution heat treating or annealing the material to dissolve the solute elements into a solid solution including the copper, rapidly quenching the material to freeze the solute elements in solid solution, and aging the material at a temperature in a range of about 400-475° C. to precipitation harden the alloy material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
    Inventors: Glen A. Stone, Stanley M. Howard
  • Patent number: 6210498
    Abstract: Reversible hydrogen storage alloys and methods and electrodes formed therefrom for nickel metal hydride batteries, in which the alloys are quenched from a melt at cooling rates selected to provide a high degree of disorder with an optimum local environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2001
    Assignee: Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Stanford R. Ovshinsky, Rosa T. Young, Benjamin Chao
  • Patent number: 6164079
    Abstract: This disclosure describes a cryogenic process for increasing the life of silicon nitride tool materials such as machining inserts used in the high-speed machining of cast irons and other materials. The process entails placing the tools in a cryogenic chamber where the temperature is lowered to about -320.degree. F. and held at that level for a period of time and then raised to ambient temperature. Both the lowering and raising of the temperature are at specifically controlled rates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Inventors: Christian Clark Waldmann, Fred J. Waldmann
  • Patent number: 6105374
    Abstract: A process for treating an article of metal containing material, the process in including subjecting the article to a deep cryogenic treatment at a temperature of -120.degree. F. or lower, subjecting the article to at most a partial tempering treatment, and then nitriding a surface of the article so as to form nitrides near a surface of the article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Nu-Bit, Inc.
    Inventor: Dennis J. Kamody
  • Patent number: 6056857
    Abstract: Sputtering targets are cryogenically annealed to provide a uniformly dense molecular structure by placing the target in a temperature-controlled cryogenic chamber and cooling the chamber to a cryogenic temperature at a controlled rate. The target is maintained at a cryogenic temperature to cryogenically anneal the target and the target is subsequently returned to ambient or elevated temperature. Improvements in sputtered particle performance and early life film uniformity are achieved with the cryo-annealed targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2000
    Assignee: Praxair S.T. Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas J. Hunt, Paul S. Gilman, James E. Joyce, Chi-Fung Lo, Darryl Draper
  • Patent number: 5993513
    Abstract: A method for controlling oxygen in valve metal materials. The method includes deoxidizing a valve metal material, typically tantalum, niobium, or alloys thereof, and leaching the material in an acid leach solution at a temperature lower than room temperature. In one embodiment of the present invention, the acid leach solution is prepared and cooled to a temperature lower than room temperature prior to leaching the deoxidized valve metal material. The method of the present invention has been found to lower both the oxygen and fluoride concentrations in valve metal materials, as the use of reduced acid leach temperatures provide lower oxygen for a given quantity of a leach acid, such as hydrofluoric acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: Cabot Corporation
    Inventor: James A. Fife
  • Patent number: 5993575
    Abstract: A method is provided for fabricating aluminum alloy sputtering targets having fine precipitates of a second phase material in small, randomly oriented and uniform grains. The method provided includes the steps of homogenizing the aluminum alloy billet at a temperature above the solidus temperature, deforming the billet, recrystallizing the billet at a temperature below the solidus temperature, and cryogenically deforming the billet. This minimizes second-phase precipitate size and prevents the formation of cubic structures, thereby generating fine uniform grain sizes having random orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignees: Sony Corporation, Materials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Chi-Fung Lo, Darryl Draper
  • Patent number: 5865913
    Abstract: A method for treating firearm barrels and components to achieve an end result of increased accuracy and extended barrel life. The method involves placing the firearm barrels and components into cryogenic processing and heat treating equipment. The processing temperature is then significantly lowered to about -300 F. and maintained for a predetermined time. The processing temperature is then raised back to ambient temperature. After achieving ambient temperature the processing temperature is then raised to about +300 F. and maintained for a predetermined time. Finally the processing temperature is lowered back to ambient temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: 300 Below, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter J. Paulin, John R. Koucky, Robert W. Brunson
  • Patent number: 5766380
    Abstract: A method of fabricating an alloy sputtering target having fine precipitates of the second phase material and small, randomly oriented and uniform grains. The new method includes solution treatment to minimize second-phase precipitate size, cryo-deformation to prevent the formation of cubic structures and recrystallization to generate fine uniform grain sizes having a random orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Assignees: Sony Corporation, Materials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Chi-Fung Lo, Darryl Draper