With Working Patents (Class 148/635)
  • Patent number: 7867344
    Abstract: A method is proved for hot pressing hot rolled steel sheet, cold rolled steel sheet, Al-based plated steel sheet or Zn-based plated steel sheet, where the hot pressed sheet can exhibit a strength of at least about 1200 Mpa, and my be prevented from exhibiting hydrogen embrittlement. The steel sheet may include between about 0.05 to 0.5 wt % C, and/or it may be plated with an Al-based or Zn-based plating material. The steel sheet may be heating to a temperature greater than an Ac3 temperature and not more than about 1100° C. before pressing. An atmosphere can be provided during heating which contains not more than about 6 vol % of hydrogen and a dew point of not more than about 10° C. The exemplary methods may be used to form high strength parts which may be used, e.g., in automobiles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Nippon Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Kazuhisa Kusumi, Jun Maki, Masayuki Abe, Masahiro Ohgami, Norihiro Fujita, Shinya Nakajima
  • Patent number: 6780257
    Abstract: A base plate of a stainless-steel body material formed by pressing is polished and cleared of burrs by means of an abrasive material that consists mainly of Fe2O3 in a polishing process. The polished base plate is heated to a heat treatment temperature for solid solution in a reducing atmosphere in a heat treatment process. In this heat treatment process, an oxide in the constituents of minute fragments of the abrasive material in the surface of the body material of the base plate is reduced to leave iron, which is dispersed into the body material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Assignees: IBM Japan Ltd., NHK Spring Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tsuyoshi Nagata, Hiroyasu Tsuchida, Yoshio Uematsu, Kiyoshi Satoh, Kosuke Tamaru
  • Patent number: 5820705
    Abstract: A method of quenching a metal object having steps of: (a) providing a liquid coolant having a temperature from about 100.degree. F. to about 180.degree. F. and containing about 0.01 to about 0.1 standard cubic feet of carbon dioxide gas per gallon of water dissolved therein; and (b) spraying the liquid coolant on the metal object to quench the metal object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Ho Yu, Jeffrey A. Nicol, Daniel E. Hunter, Robert A. Ramser
  • Patent number: 5681407
    Abstract: A method of quenching a metal object comprising: (a) providing a reservoir of liquid coolant containing gas that has been dissolved therein; and (b) immersing the metal object in the reservoir to quench the metal. The gas is selected from the group consisting of nitrogen and carbon dioxide and is preferably carbon dioxide. The gas is preferably maintained within the range of 0.001 to 0.2 standard cubic feet of gas per gallon of coolant. The liquid coolant is preferably water. In a preferred embodiment, the reservoir of liquid coolant is open to ambient pressure and temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1997
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Ho Yu, Jeffrey A. Nicol, Robert A. Ramser, Daniel E. Hunter
  • Patent number: 5164021
    Abstract: In composition of a Fe-Ni alloy used for television shadow masks and containing in, Co, Mn, Si and Cr as the major components, additional inclusion of Be assures high deformation resistance and easy pore formation via etching without impairing its inherent low thermal expansion. Introduction of annealing at 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. temperature into production process sufficiently lowers proof stress of the product without causing any noticeable crystal coarseness. Increased mechanical strength enables production of a thin shadow mask material well suited for pore formation via etching, thereby assuring high grade screen display.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1992
    Assignee: Yamaha Corporation
    Inventors: Jun Kato, Tsuyuki Watanabe, Naofumi Nakamura
  • Patent number: 4776897
    Abstract: This disclosure is concerned with a method for treating a stainless steel surface by high temperature oxidation. The surface of a stainless steel article is cleaned, TiO.sub.2 and SiO.sub.2 are mixed in microparticles to form a coating agent, and water is added to the mixture to make a slip. The slip is coated on the steel surface to form a coating having a uniform thickness. The coating is dried and the article is subjected to a heat-treatment to form an oxide film. This treatment is performed in an oxidizing atmosphere for a time and a temperature suitable for the color tone to be produced. A desirable temperature for the heat-treatment is between 350.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. When a coating agent is used, it is later removed by washing, etc. after cooling the article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1988
    Assignee: Shinko-Pfaudler Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Haruji Takahashi, Shigeo Goto, Syuichi Takata, Mitsuaki Shibata, Tomihira Hata
  • Patent number: 4769089
    Abstract: An aperture mask comprised of a nickel-iron alloy having a low thermal expansion for a color CRT is produced by combining a first annealing to produce a low coercive force and mechanical properties desirable for a warm forming operation during which a desired profile of the mask is produced with minimized springback and a second annealing after forming to provide a stress free low coercive force mask also having an oxidized high thermal emissivity surface. Wherein the process requires control of the atmospheres and oxidizing potentials in the two annealing steps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: Allegheny Ludlum Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas H. Gray
  • Patent number: 4719065
    Abstract: A method for bonding silicone rubber to a metal member is shown in which the metal member is first treated by heating the metal member to a temperature and for a time sufficient to form an oxide layer on the outer surface of the metal member. The treated metal member is then contacted with an uncured silicone rubber composition, and the silicone rubber composition is cured to bond the treated metal member to the silicone rubber composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1988
    Assignee: JMK International, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert M. Gibbon
  • Patent number: 4715902
    Abstract: Process for applying a protective coating to a metal substrate which provides a thermal barrier and a barrier against oxidation of the substrate. The coating material is a mixture of (1) zirconium and/or hafnium and (2) a metal such as nickel which does not form a stable oxide at a high temperature in an atmosphere having a very low concentration of oxygen. The coating is subjected to such conditions to produce an outer oxide layer of metal zirconium and/or hafnium and an inner metal layer of the second metal alloyed with one or more components of the substrate. The oxide layer provides thermal and oxidation protection and the inner layer bonds the coating to the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1987
    Assignee: S R I International
    Inventors: Ibrahim M. Allam, David J. Rowcliffe
  • Patent number: 4714497
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a process for preparing ferrous parts of a color television tube and a furnace for operating such a process.According to the invention, each ferrous part behind the base of the television tube, is prepared in a single furnace and undergoes successively an annealing, a reduction and an oxidation in three parts of the furnace 3, 4 and 5, in such a way as to eliminate the mechanical stresses, remove the rust and deposit homogeneous and adhesive layers of iron oxides I and II.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1987
    Assignee: Videocolor
    Inventor: Bernard Poncet
  • Patent number: 4702779
    Abstract: A heat process for producing corrosion resistant steel articles, comprising a first step during which the articles placed in a furnace are nitrided in a gaseous atmosphere to produce on their surface a first layer consisting essentially of epsilon type iron nitride, followed by a second stage during which the articles are exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere to form a second, oxide-rich layer on the surface of the articles. According to the invention, during the first step, an atmosphere comprising 20 to 70% by volume of ammonia NH.sub.3, 1 to 5% by volume of nitrous oxide N.sub.2 O and 25 to 79% by volume of nitrogen N.sub.2 is introduced into the furnace, the concentration ratio of ammonia to nitrous oxide [NH.sub.3 ]/[N.sub.2 O] in the introduced atmosphere being greater than 5 so that the furnace atmosphere is not oxidizing, and during the second step, an atmosphere comprising 0 to 25% by volume NH.sub.3, 0 to 5% by volume N.sub.2 O and 70 to 100% by volume N.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1987
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide
    Inventors: Michel Madsac, Rene Mauvoisin
  • Patent number: 4683010
    Abstract: A compacted knitted wire seal and a method of forming the seal. The method comprises the steps of knitting a flattened wire to form a tubular sock, rolling the sock on itself, heating the rolled sock in an atmosphere containing oxygen to anneal the wire in the sock and to form oxides on the surfaces of the wire, and compressing the annealed and oxidized ring to form a compacted wire ring seal of preferably V-shaped cross section. The seal made by the method has sufficient flexibility to permit it to compensate for minor irregularities in the configurations of elements with which it is positioned in engagement, and the oxides on the surfaces of the wire in the seal improve the leak-rate qualities of the seal. The seal is particularly effective for use in automotive catalytic converters, wherein it is utilized for sealing between monolith and housing portions of converters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1987
    Assignee: ACS Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Hans J. Hartmann
  • Patent number: 4678520
    Abstract: Electrical shorting between dense arrangements of electrical lead-ins having a normal operating potential difference therebetween in an arc sustaining atmosphere is substantially avoided by providing the lead-ins with an adherent, flexible, oxide coating. The lead-ins are preferably formed from a nickel-iron alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1987
    Assignee: GTE Products Corporation
    Inventors: Andre C. Bouchard, Paul A. Thibault, Radomir I. Lagushenko
  • Patent number: 4664722
    Abstract: A method for hardening a selected region of a steel bearing surface of an earth boring bit using the steps of stretching a rubber protector over a seal region to be protected from treatment (the rubber being selected from the group consisting of silicone, neoprene and nitrile), exposing the bearing surface and protector to a medium (selected from the group consisting of carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, siliconizing, chromizing and boronizing) of the type for altering the chemical composition of the steel to be hardened, heating the medium and bearing surface, cooling the bearing and protector, and removing and cleaning the surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Hughes Tool Company-USA
    Inventors: Douglas L. Clinkscales, Stephen B. Long, Carl S. Wheeler
  • Patent number: 4664881
    Abstract: The present invention pertains to zirconium base alloys containing about 0.1 to 0.6 weight percent tin; about 0.07 to 0.24 weight percent iron; about 0.05 to 0.15 weight percent chromium; and up to about 0.05 weight percent nickel. The balance of the alloy is zirconium with incidental impurities. The levels of the incidental impurity, oxygen, is controlled to a level of less than about 350 ppm. These alloys have been designed to minimize the adverse effects of pellet-clad interaction, when they are used as a liner bonded to the inside surface of water reactor nuclear fuel cladding. Specific cladding and fuel element designs according to the present invention are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventors: Harry M. Ferrari, Raymond F. Boyle, Fred D. Kingsbury, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4661171
    Abstract: This disclosure is concerned with a method for treating a stainless steel surface by high temperature oxidation. The surface of a stainless steel article is cleaned. TiO.sub.2 and SiO.sub.2 are mixed in microparticles to form a coating agent, and water is added to the mixture to make a slip. The slip is coated on the steel surface to form a coating having a uniform thickness. The coating is dried and the article is subjected to a heat-treatment to form an oxide film. This treatment is performed in an oxidizing atmosphere for a time and a temperature suitable for the color tone to be produced. A desirable temperature for the heat-treatment is between 350.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. When a coating agent is used, it is later removed by washing, etc. after cooling the article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1987
    Assignee: Shinko-Pfaudler Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Haruji Takahashi, Shigeo Goto, Syuichi Takata, Mitsuaki Shibata, Tomihira Hata
  • Patent number: 4661169
    Abstract: A ferritic stainless steel alloy is provided which is hot workable and is resistant to thermal cyclic oxidation and scaling at elevated temperatures. The iron-chromium-aluminum alloy contains cerium, lanthanum and other rare earths and is suitable for forming thereon an adherent textured aluminum oxide surface. Also provided are an oxidation resistant catalytic substrate made from the alloy and a method of making the steel article and products having a textured aluminum oxide surface. The method includes steps of heat treating the cold worked steel article to form the adherent textured oxide surface and, optionally, pretreatment heating of the cold worked article before the texture heat treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1987
    Assignee: Allegheny Ludlum Corporation
    Inventors: George Aggen, Paul R. Borneman, Stephen D. Washko
  • Patent number: 4659628
    Abstract: A paint priming method which forms, on the surface part of a ferrous material to be treated, a nitride layer with an adequate depth and preferably .epsilon. phase as a main phase thereof, and with no carbon adhesion to the surface thereof, by carrying out a gas soft nitriding treatment with gas components which generate no free carbon. The nitride layer formed on the surface part of the material is used as a presubstrate on which direct painting is possible, thereby providing a simplified and improved presubstrate treatment for painting.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1987
    Assignee: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Teruoki Watanabe, Yahiko Nakamura, Akio Hidaka, Shunji Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi Nozaki
  • Patent number: 4637837
    Abstract: A process is provided for boriding metals and metal alloys in a fluidized bed at a temperature of from about 580.degree. to about 1300.degree. C. As a boriding agent, there was used a granular material comprising essentially spherical particles having a particle size of from about 0.025 to about 5.00 mm, which granular material was manufactured by spray drying a preferably aqueous suspension or dispersion based on materials that yield boron, and which can contain fillers, extenders and binders.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1987
    Assignee: Elektroschmelzwerk Kempten GmbH
    Inventors: Alfred G. von Matuschka, Norbert Trausner
  • Patent number: 4636266
    Abstract: A method is set forth of passivating at least a portion of a surface of a stainless steel member to retard buildup of radioactive materials on such surface portion. The surface portion is preferably polished until it is substantially featureless at 100 times magnification. The polished surface is exposed to a gaseous oxygen source at a temperature of 150.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. for at least about five hours. When a pipe passivated as set forth above is utilized in a water system of a light water nuclear reactor, radioactive buildup on the surface is significantly reduced as compared to pipes which have been passivated by exposure to liquid during the passivating process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1987
    Assignee: Radiological & Chemical Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Roger H. Asay
  • Patent number: 4623400
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for surface coating of workpieces in fluidized beds under atmospheric or slightly higher pressure is disclosed. The process comprises submerging the workpiece(s) in the fluidized bed, mixing a metal halide with an inert gas to form the fluidizing gas, feeding to the fluidized bed another gas which is capable of reacting with the metal halide in the fluidized bed and coating the workpiece(s). The workpiece(s) are maintained at a temperature in the range of from 1600.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F. until it is evenly coated. The apparatus comprises a saturator vessel for saturating the inert gas with the metal halide and a fluid bed reactor. There are several advantages that the present invention offers over the prior art, namely, the coating can be performed in a relatively short period of time, 4 to 5 hours and that atmospheric pressure can be used, eliminating the need for a costly vacuum system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1986
    Assignee: Procedyne Corp.
    Inventors: Joseph E. Japka, Robert Staffin, Swarnjeet S. Bhatia
  • Patent number: 4612061
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a picture tube shadow mask wherein a thin metal plate containing iron and nickel as major components is first etched to form a plurality of mask apertures, then, annealing of the metal plate is performed and, after being cooled in a reducing atmosphere, a darkened oxide layer is formed on the surface of the annealed metal plate by subjecting the metal plate at first to a relatively weak oxidizing steam atmosphere and then to a relatively strong oxidizing steam atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1986
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Fumio Suzuki, Makoto Fujinuma, Yasuhisa Ohtake, Michihiko Inaba
  • Patent number: 4608098
    Abstract: Improved adherence of oxide wear layers on hard metal or cemented carbide substrates is attained by providing a thin surface-oxidized bonding layer comprising a carbide or oxycarbide of at least one of tantalum, niobium or vanadium, optionally adding aluminum to the bonding layer, and finally providing an outer oxide wear layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1986
    Assignee: General Electric Co.
    Inventor: Thomas E. Hale
  • Patent number: 4608093
    Abstract: Cobalt-free ferromagnetic particles are disclosed. The particles are comprised of ferromagnetic metal inner cores and an outer oxidized layer. The particles have a saturation magnetization of 60 to 100 emu/g and a coercive force of 500 Oe or more. The outer layer provides a means for stabilizing the magnetic characteristics of the particles at temperatures not higher than 80.degree. C. in air. The particles are produced by gradually oxidizing ferromagnetic metal particles containing no cobalt in oxygen-containing gas such that the surface-oxidized metal particles have a saturation magnetization of 60 to 100 emu/g. The particles provided have good magnetic characteristics which are maintained with the passage of time even when the particles are subjected to adverse temperature and humidity conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1986
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shizuo Umemura, Tatsuji Kitamoto
  • Patent number: 4588449
    Abstract: In aluminum-containing stainless steel foil, the presence of magnesium impurity in an amount greater than about 0.002 weight percent has been found to inhibit formation of a preferred oxide surface layer characterized by multitudinous oxide whiskers of a type suitable for tightly bonding an applied coating. A method for purifying magnesium-contaminated foil comprises heating the foil to selectively vaporize the magnesium while avoiding incipient melting of the base alloy, preferably between about 1000.degree. C. and 1150.degree. C. The magnesium vapors escape into a suitable ambient phase such as a vacuum or a dry hydrogen gas. Thereafter, the foil is oxidized under conditions effective to produce the desired whiskers. A preferred steel is composed of an iron-base alloy comprising about 15 to 25 weight percent chromium and 3 to 6 weight percent aluminum, and optionally may contain cerium or yttrium in an amount effective to promote oxide adherence.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventor: David R. Sigler
  • Patent number: 4581074
    Abstract: A method for cleaning and removing iron oxide deposits from the internal heat transfer surfaces of boiler tubes, which consists in purging the tubes with superheated steam and oxygen driven at a speed of 20 to 80 m/sec. The oxygen content is 0.3 to 1.0 kg per ton of steam. The process both cleans and passivates the metal surfaces of the tubes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1986
    Inventors: Nadezhda N. Mankina, Valentina Y. Kaplina, Ivan A. Govorukhin, Nikolai I. Gruzdev, Jury E. Mishenin, Nester I. Serebryannikov, Boris S. Fedoseev
  • Patent number: 4579752
    Abstract: Metal surfaces are protected from corrosion by reaction with a silane. In the case of a clean metal surface, reaction with the silane produces an intermetallic compound that is subsequently oxidized to yield a surface layer of, for example, silicon oxide. In the situation where the metal has an oxide coating, the silane reacts directly with this coating to produce the protective surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1986
    Assignee: AT&T Bell Laboratories
    Inventors: Lawrence H. Dubois, Ralph G. Nuzzo
  • Patent number: 4568393
    Abstract: A hard corrosion resistant surface is provided on a ferrous substrate by first overlay welding onto the substrate surface a chromium containing ferrous material. The deposited overlay can then be machined. It is thereafter subjected to a carburization treatment at a temperature and for a time sufficient to cause the overlay to become converted to an austenitic material containing iron chromium carbides. After cooling, the carburized overlay material is heated for a time and at a temperature sufficient to cause the austenitic matrix material to precipitate secondary carbides and convert to a martensite matrix material upon cooling. It is also contemplated to initiate the aforesaid treatment with a suitably selected chromium containing ferrous material that thereby is not overlay welded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Robert F. Kane, William D. Van Arnam, III
  • Patent number: 4556435
    Abstract: A method for preparing cores and the like such as magnetic recording head cores. They are made from metallic alloy oxides such as ferrite and used as electric, electronic, or magnetic elements of electric appliances such as tape recorders and televisions. The method is characterized by covering alloy compacts in part or as whole by silver and then baking them in an oxygen atmosphere for a predetermined time and at a predetermined temperature, whereby constituents of the alloy compacts are converted to oxides under strict control. Silver converging baked cores may be utilized for attaching terminals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1985
    Assignee: Chugai Denki Kogyo, K.K.
    Inventor: Akira Shibata
  • Patent number: 4555275
    Abstract: A method is proposed to attenuate hydrogen diffusion through fusion reactor components via controlled oxidation of prealloyed surfaces. Alloys of zirconium, vanadium, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, nickel and iron may be protected from hydrogen isotope permeation by using vanadium as an intermediate layer and either chromium, nickel-chromium, silicon or aluminum as the oxide forming component. This method may also be used to prevent hydrogen embrittlement of metals from external hydrogen environments and is applicable to the majority of alloy systems exhibiting hydrogen embrittlement phenomena.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1985
    Assignee: Grumman Aerospace Corporation
    Inventor: Albert G. Tobin
  • Patent number: 4529626
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a method for protecting a metal surface against carbon accumulation wherein the metal surface is one which is susceptible to carbon accumulation when exposed to an environment in which carbon-containing gases are undergoing decomposition which method comprises providing a coating on the metal surface which coating is comprised of a metal oxide selected from the group consisting of Ti.sub.4 O.sub.7, NbO.sub.2, and VO.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1985
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Rees T. Baker, James J. Chludzinski, James A. Dumesic
  • Patent number: 4514520
    Abstract: A catalyst comprising a metallic carrier having a catalytically active metal-containing surface layer, the catalytic metal being other than a noble metal, whereby the catalytically active surface layer is formed out of a homogeneous metallic carrier by oxidizing in an oxidizing gas such as air and subsequently reducing with hydrogen the surface of the metallic carrier at a temperature at which the active metal is substantially not sintered, characterized in that the carrier is a web or felt of fibers with a diameter between 4 and 100 microns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1985
    Assignee: N.V. Bekaert S.A.
    Inventors: Jan Uytterhoeven, Pierre Jacobs, Ludo Adriaensen, Jan Geerts
  • Patent number: 4500605
    Abstract: The process of forming a composite with an alloy having an alloy component of about 0.5 to 12% aluminum and a matrix selected from a material of the group consisting of copper, iron or nickel. The alloy is heated in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to form a material oxide-rich layer on a surface of the alloy. The alloy is then heated in a reducing atmosphere to reduce the material oxide-rich layer to form an aluminum oxide on the surface of the alloy and a material-rich layer on the aluminum oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1985
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Julius C. Fister, John F. Breedis
  • Patent number: 4490412
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method of making a solar energy collector element which comprises the step of forming a carbon containing film on at least the sunlight receiving surface of a substrate which is made of an iron metal material, and then heat-treating at least the sunlight receiving surface in an oxidizing atmosphere. The solar energy collector element made by the method of the present invention is superior in selective absorption characteristics for the solar energy and inexpensive in manufacturing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1984
    Assignee: Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masahiko Yotuyanagi, Toshio Fukaya
  • Patent number: 4484954
    Abstract: A batch process for the halogenation of solid polymeric or metallic material comprising the following steps:(a) providing a closed system comprising a chamber containing air at about atmospheric pressure and having inlet and outlet means, a heat exchanger, and a circulation pump, all connected in series;(b) introducing the material into the chamber;(c) heating the chamber and the material to a selected temperature in the range of about 100.degree. F. to about 200.degree. F. by recirculating the air through the heat exchanger;(d) evacuating the system;(e) introducing a halogen into the system in an amount (i) of up to about 10 percent in excess of the theoretical amount of halogen required to halogenate the polymeric material to a desired depth and (ii) sufficient to provide a partial pressure in the system in the range of about 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Gregorio Tarancon
  • Patent number: 4483720
    Abstract: Process for applying a protective coating to a metal substrate which provides a thermal barrier and a barrier against oxidation of the substrate. The coating material is a mixture of two metals M.sub.1 and M.sub.2, e.g., cerium (M.sub.1) and cobalt (M.sub.2), one of which when exposed to an atmosphere containing a low partial pressure of oxygen and at a high temperature forms a stable oxide, the other of which does not form a stable oxide under such conditions. A coating consisting of such a metal alloy or mixture is subjected to such conditions to produce an outer oxide layer of metal M.sub.1 and an inner metal layer of M.sub.2 alloyed with one or more components of the substrate. The oxide layer provides thermal and oxidation protection and the inner layer bonds the coating to the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1984
    Assignee: S R I International
    Inventors: Robert W. Bartlett, Paul J. Jorgensen
  • Patent number: 4477291
    Abstract: Aluminium is coated on steel strip. The steel strip is heated in hydrogen to reduce surface oxides to iron, and is then sprayed at 400.degree. C. with nitrogen-atomized molten aluminium to a depth of 150 microns. Still in nitrogen/hydrogen, at 350.degree. C., the coated strip is rolled. Under these conditions, the aluminium is subjected to very high compressive stress (compared with its yield stress) while the steel does not even reach its yield stress.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 16, 1984
    Assignee: National Research Development Corporation
    Inventor: Alfred R. E. Singer
  • Patent number: 4475958
    Abstract: Method for the manufacturing of deformation-resistant oxide coatings on metallic workpieces, in which fissures are induced in the oxide layer formed on the surface of the workpiece as a result of severe deformations in the base material. The fissures are subsequently healed by filling the interstices with subsequently produced oxide resulting from a post-oxidation process. Repeating the process several times controls the natural stress condition of the surface layer such that the effective elastic deformation range is extended.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1984
    Assignee: M.A.N. Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nurnberg Aktiengesellchaft
    Inventors: August Muhlratzer, Bruno Stemmler, Hans Zeilinger
  • Patent number: 4469532
    Abstract: The invention concerns an abrasion resistent coating for steel and a method which makes it possible to obtain such a coating.The coating comprises two surface layers. The first surface layer, the outer layer, is formed of the phase (Cr, Fe).sub.2 B and possibly the phase M.sub.23 C.sub.6, while the second surface layer, the inner one, is formed of the phase (Fe, Cr).sub.2 B. In order to obtain this coating, a boriding is effected on steels at a temperature less than or equal to 950.degree. C. for a period of time greater than or equal to four hours, followed by a chromizing at a temperature less than or equal to 950.degree. C. for a period of time greater than or equal to 10 hours.Application to all steels in order to increase their resistance to wear is possible.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Inventor: Guy R. Nicolas
  • Patent number: 4448612
    Abstract: A gaseous mixture of nitrogen and water vapor (dew point of about -8.degree. to 32.degree. C.), heated to 550.degree. to 750.degree. C., contacts the surfaces of a steel part for a sufficient time to produce adherent, deep-black layers on the part. Steel aperture masks and support frames for color television picture tubes may be blackened by the novel method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1984
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: Chris W. Ebert, Earle S. Thall
  • Patent number: 4448803
    Abstract: A semi-conducting, stable polychelate coating is manufactured in situ on a conducting substrate providing metal coordination centers, by carrying out a controlled chelating reaction and thermal treatment on the substrate surface with a predetermined specific amount (X.sub.o) of tetranitrile compound per unit substrate area. The temperature and duration as well as this specific amount (X.sub.o) are selected from given ranges to form a uniform polychelate coatingbonded to the substrate surface.Titanium electrodes are provided with such polychelate coatings for different purposes. Electrodes with other metal substrates are further provided with such polychelate coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1984
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Jurgen F. Gauger, Jean M. Hinden, Michael Katz
  • Patent number: 4435227
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is a method for the anti-wear treatment of the surface of steel parts having a carbon content of at least 0.15% and the coating obtained thereby. The method is characterized by the fact that an addition of sulfur, by depositing of a metal sulfide for example, and a vapor-phase chromizing are carried out in sucession on the surface to be treated.The coating obtained is characterized by the presence of a layer of chromium sulfide on the surface and by the partial recrystallization of the underlying M.sub.7 C.sub.3 chromium carbide layer.The invention can be applied to any moving mechanical system which is subject to abrasion. The invention has importance because it increases the resistance to wear and the life of the system treated while limiting the wear of the untreated opposing part as a result of friction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1984
    Inventor: Guy R. Nicolas
  • Patent number: 4425383
    Abstract: This invention is directed to an improved process for treating steel carrier core surfaces which comprises providing a steel carrier core composition, oxidizing in the air stream the surface of the carrier core at a temperature of from about 500 degrees Fahrenheit to about 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, adding water to the air stream prior to accomplishing the oxidation reaction, at a partial pressure of water in excess of 20 millimeters of mercury, thereby resulting in carrier cores having a resistance of from about 10.sup.5 ohm-cm to about 10.sup.12 ohm-cm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1984
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: John A. Creatura
  • Patent number: 4420330
    Abstract: A process for stabilizing pyrophoric acicular metal particles consisting essentially of iron, by reaction with oxygen-containing gases in two stages, wherein, in the first stage, up to 1/3 of the passivating layer present in the final state is formed at from 25.degree. to 45.degree. C. and, in a subsequent second stage, the remainder of the passivating layer is formed at from 50.degree. to 70.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 13, 1983
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Helmut Jakusch, Werner Loeser, Eberhard Koester, Peter Rudolf, Werner Senkpiel, Werner Steck
  • Patent number: 4419144
    Abstract: A process is disclosed herein in which the inner surface of a ferritic steel tube is subjected to relatively high temperature steam for a period of time, thereby resulting in the formation of a duplex scale layer of steam-grown oxide at the inner surface. As also disclosed herein, the steel tubing is pretreated so as to form a diffusion barrier at the center of the duplex layer. This barrier serves to retard the rate at which the duplex layer forms, thereby reducing the chances that the scale will grow to sufficient thickness that it will spall in response to thermal stress as the tube is placed into and taken out of service.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1983
    Assignee: Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
    Inventors: William R. Apblett, Jr., Irwin M. Rehn
  • Patent number: 4401479
    Abstract: The apparatus and method for processing steel strand wire cable and the like for use in prestressed concrete is disclosed in which the outer surface of the cable produced has a substantial pure rust or hydrated oxide coating thereon enabling the cable to be utilized immediately in concrete configurations to thereby produce substantially higher flexural strengths in prestressed concrete than heretofore in the prior art. The apparatus and method specifically encompasses the use of ultrasonic cleaning equipment which causes cavitation cleaning effects in the liquid medium through which the cable passes during its cleaning process. In effect, the ultrasonic cleaning "catalyzes" the chemical redox reactions by removing all surface inhibitors and reducing reactant diffusion barriers thus accelerating surface wetting of the strand cable with H.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, such that the rusting chemical reactions can occur spontaneously. The dominant bond developed between the steel and concrete is chemical.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1983
    Inventor: Nathaniel R. Quick
  • Patent number: 4391654
    Abstract: The invention is addressed to preventing full reduction of oxides and enabling nitriding temperature through the oxidized layer to be raised which leads in a relatively shorter time, to formation of thicker and harder superficial layers, diffusion saturated with nitrogen.This aim has been achieved by carrying on the tool oxidation process advantageously for the whole time of the gas nitriding process, the said oxidation process accompanying the gas nitriding process being carried on in steam consisting 5 to 0.5 percent by volume of the whole gas atmosphere, the atmosphere of dissociated ammonia being obtained by the dissociation of ammonia at the presence of steam, the process of a simultaneous nitriding and oxidation of tools being carried on for an arbitrary period of time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1983
    Assignee: Instytut Mechaniki Precyzyjnej
    Inventors: Jerzy Wyszkowski, Wladyslaw Panasiuk, Stanislaw Koprek, Andzei Piechal
  • Patent number: 4389439
    Abstract: Tubing, pump cylinders and tank vessels, and similar tubular apparatus for containing and conveying from a supply thereof a highly erosive composition slurry comprising fine particulates in a liquid medium and free of gross particulates along a predetermined path extending from a slurry supply is provided, and method therefor, the apparatus comrising a steel wall of elongated tubular configuration defining an interior surface confining the slurry on the predetermined path, the surface tending to erode though passing contact with the slurry, and an erosion resistant diffusion coating on the surface having an inner layer comprising intimately dispersed iron carbide and an outer layer consisting essentially of iron boride, in erosion blocking relation during conveyance of the slurry through the tubular apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1983
    Assignee: Turbine Metal Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Eugene V. Clark, George K. Sievers
  • Patent number: 4379745
    Abstract: Protection of cast austenitic stainless steel tubes is provided against initiation of carburization by (a) cold-working the inner surfaces of said tubes to deform the surface to such a degree that upon the subsequent heat treatment of step (b) below, dissolution of the M.sub.23 C.sub.6 carbides in the deformed region is accompanied by recrystallization resulting in a refined micrograin structure in the deformed regions to a substantially uniform minimum depth of about 20 microns; and (b) heating the cold-worked inner surfaces of said tubes, for an effective amount of time, at a temperature between its recrystallization temperature and its melting temperature, in an atmosphere of which the oxygen partial pressure is at least oxidizing with respect to chromium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1983
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Richard S. Polizzotti, Richard C. Krutenat
  • Patent number: 4369073
    Abstract: A thin corrosion protective film of an iron oxide can be formed on the inner surface of a condenser tube made of a copper alloy by first applying on the inner surface a thin layer of an acidic suspension containing iron powder and then exposing the thus-coated inner surface to an atmosphere of an oxidizing gas. The above method can be carried out in a relatively short period of time and also in a relatively simple fashion. The resultant protective film is uniform and hardly reduces the thermal conductivity of the condenser tube, thus ideal as a protective film for condenser tubes of a heat exchanger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1983
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho
    Inventors: Toshio Fukutsuka, Kazutoshi Shimogori, Etsuo Yamamoto, Kenji Miki