Abstract: The heat exchanger has a hollow coil through which a liquid is to flow, having a series of adjacent, essentially parallel turns, between which turns members having apertures for the flow of a fluid therethrough, elongated heat conducting paths and in compressed and deformed condition are disposed, for clamping contact with the turns and pressure contact with each other. Examples of such members are woven mesh having strands and expanded metal foil. The members extend across the space encompassed by the turns and thus conduct heat between the turns and a fluid passed through the mesh members in the direction of the axis of the coil, i.e. perpendicular to the planes of the coil turns. The members and coil turns are maintained in compressing contact by a perforated plate at each end of the coil, which plates engage the adjacent members.
Abstract: The publication relates to means for cooling a body, comprising at least a tube through which a liquid coolant is flowing in order to remove heat away from the at least one tube and its surroundings. The tube(s) houses an internally arranged hose having a wall thickness, permeability and/or porousity and a quality which corresponds to the heat energy to be removed from the tube(s) and/or it surroundings. The hose has preferably an outer diameter which corresponds substantially to the internal diameter of the tube(s) and the hose is formed of a texture of a flexible material such as for example textile or fiberglass. The hose may be fastened to the tube at its inlet end.
Abstract: A step-type heat-exchanger particularly useful for low temperature applications comprises a housing including a thermally-conductive member partitioning its interior into first and second chambers, and a sintered spongy layer of fine thermally-conductive particles bonded to each of the two opposite faces of the thermally-conductive member so as to be exposed for direct contact with a heat-exchange fluid when introduced into each of the two chambers. Also described are a method and apparatus for making the heat-exchanger, in which method and apparatus aluminum pressure plates are applied under heat and pressure to sinter the thermally-conductive particles to form the sintered spongy layers bonded to the opposite faces of the thermally-conductive member.
Abstract: A plate type evaporator comprising a plurality of vertically extending plate elements assembled face-to-face to define therebetween alternate channels for a heating medium and for a liquid to be evaporated. The plate elements have porous layers formed on their opposed heat transfer surfaces functioning as the channels for the liquid to be evaporated. The porous layers are utilized as nuclear boiling accelerating members to improve the capability of evaporating liquid on the boiling heat transfer surfaces.
Abstract: A solar heat collector is described in which a filamentary heat absorber is disposed within a housing having opaque, heat-insulated sides and bottom and a plurality of partially evacuated tubular members substantially transparent to incident solar radiation mounted on the top thereof. Means are provided for supplying fluid flow to the housing and removing fluid flow from the housing to provide for the transfer of heat energy from the filaments in the absorber to the fluid flow. Light entering the housing through the transparent members enters the filamentary heat absorber, is internally reflected and absorbed. That portion of the light passing through the filamentary heat absorber strikes a reflecting layer, which redirects heat and light back into the filamentary heat absorber.
Abstract: An atmospheric heat exchange apparatus constructed from two thin polymeric films is provided which can be mounted for operation on contoured surfaces. Heat is transferred between the atmosphere and a liquid medium flowing between the sheets. The apparatus can be mounted with no operational degradation resulting from flow-inhibiting bends in the polymeric films.
Abstract: A silicon substrate adapted for large scale integrated electronic circuits upon a lower surface has its upper surface coated with a highly porous heat sink film. The film is composed of a porous metal, preferably aluminum, formed by vacuum deposition (evaporation or sputtering) at a high pressure of an inactive gas. The gas can have a pressure of from about 0.5-100 millitorr, and a suitable gas is argon. A porous aluminum film with interconnected nucleation sites which are in the form of reservoir type cavities is manufactured on a silicon surface. The cavities tend to trap vapor of a liquid coolant in contact with the thin film contained in a package enclosing the substrate and its integrated circuit. Cooling fins can be used to cool the coolant.
March 26, 1980
Date of Patent:
May 3, 1983
International Business Machines Corporation
Abstract: A plate type evaporator comprising a plurality of vertically extending plate elements assembled face-to-face to define therebetween alternate channels for a heating medium and for a liquid to be evaporated. In order to accelerate the nuclear boiling of the liquid in the liquid channels, the heat transfer surface of each plate element has a plurality of vertically extending transversely spaced ridges projecting toward the associated liquid channel, such ridges being in contact with the heat transfer surface of the opposed plate element to provide areas of contact assisting in the evolution of vapor bubbles and divide the liquid channel into narrow sections assisting in the generation of vapor, such sections also assuring that even in deeper places in the liquid channel, vapor bubbles will be generated without yielding to the liquid pressure; alternatively, each plate element has a porous layer formed on its heat transfer surface facing the liquid channel.
Abstract: An improved solar collector is disclosed which includes a light absorbent component composed of a filamentous structure and a coating of solar radiation absorbent material on the filaments of the filamentous structure.
Abstract: A heat exchange surface having nucleate boiling cavities defined by subsurface cavities in combination with a thin porous coating. A preferred embodiment of the heat exchange surface includes a plurality of helical fins formed on the outer surface of a metallic tube, the tips of which are deformed by rolling to define gaps opening into fin cavities between adjacent fins. A porous open-celled coating flame-sprayed on the deformed portion of the fins substantially bridges these gaps, except at random open points caused by the inherent porosity of the coating. These openings in the porous coating in combination with the fin cavities provide nucleate boiling sites which promote efficient heat transfer for boiling a liquid.
May 18, 1981
Date of Patent:
November 16, 1982
The Trane Company
Duane F. Sanborn, John L. M. Holman, Chester D. Ware
Abstract: A humidifier and heater for air to be inhaled for connection to an inhalation conduit of a respirator comprises a housing having a bundle of vapor permeable fiber tubes which have evaporation fiber wall surfaces extending therethrough. A packing is arranged adjacent each end of the housing in said tubes and seals the space in the housing around the tubes between the packing. The tubes in the interior of the housing in the space have a coating on their exteriors of at least either copper or silver. Warm water is circulated into the housing in the space around the tubes and the inhalation air is directed through the tubes or vice versa.
Abstract: A low profile heat exchanger module (46) and method for forming the same wherein the heat exchanger module (46) is formed from one or more compact, single sheet primary surface heat exchanger core units (38a and 38b). Each single sheet primary surface core unit (38a and 38b) is made from a rectangular sheet of a suitable heat exchange material (10) which has been serrated along the longitudinal edges (18) to provide entrance ramps (20) and to minimize flow blockage. Fluid flow is controlled by closures (42, 44) in the ends of alternate flow passages (58, 64) which serve to isolate the fluid in one passage from the fluid in an adjacent passage.
Abstract: The humidity exchanger for a breathing apparatus and a conduit for the passage of inspiration and expiration air comprises a housing having an opening at each end and with a bundle of fiber tubules extending longitudinally through the housing and embedded at respective ends in packing so as to define a space within the housing around the tubes. Inspiration air is directed upwardly through the tubes past a non-return valve and out through a fitting which also forms a passage for the expiration air. The fitting also extends in communication with an inlet for the tube chamber, the space in the housing around the tubes and between the packing. An outlet is also provided for the chamber around the tubes which extends out to atmosphere.
Abstract: A humidity exchanger for a breathing apparatus includes an outer housing having one end with an opening for the passage of inspiration and expiration air therethrough and an opposite end into which is fitted a separate inner housing. The inner housing carries a first tube bundle of fibrous tubules defining passages therethrough for the passage of either inspiration or expiration air. This passage contains spaced apart packings through which the tubules extend and spaced between the packings defines a heat exchange space around the tubules. Construction includes an inner tube or conduit centrally of the bundle with a passage of heat of the inspiration or the expiration air into the space surrounding the tubules within the inner housing. The inner housing leads into a front space of the outer housing through a conduit connected to the user of the apparatus.
Abstract: A respirator includes an arrangement for receiving exhalation air from a person for circulating this air which advantageously has been enriched with oxygen and treated to remove carbon dioxide through an inhalation line. The inhalation line is covered with a sheath of material which can be wetted with a liquid so that when the liquid evaporates the inhalation line is cooled.
Abstract: A boiling heat transfer surface for heat transfer between a heat source and a coolant is provided. On the heat transfer surface contacting with a liquid coolant such as fluorinated hydrocarbon type liquid coolants, metallic particles having grain size of 60 mesh pass and 250 mesh nonpass (Japanese Industrial Standard sieve) are piled up and fixed by a metallic film on the heat transfer surface.
Abstract: A high temperature tube and shell vertically positioned heat exchanger including a plurality of tube sheets dividing the interior of the shell into three consecutive chambers. Ceramic tubes are vertically hung from hemispherical seats in an upper tube sheet and extend downwardly through loose fitting porous inserts which line perforations in the lower tube sheets. A hot fluid flows from the bottom chamber upwardly through the ceramic tubes, a cool fluid flows through the upper chamber across the tubes, and a third fluid is injected into the intermediate chamber at a pressure higher than that of the fluid mediums in the upper and lower chambers. The third, high pressure fluid flows through the porous inserts and into the other chambers forming a dynamic seal which also allows unrestricted axial motion of the tubes and limited laterial motion of the bottom of the tubes.
Abstract: A thermal storage structure and process for making the same comprising a base material of a substantially open cell structure, with the pores interconnected and open to the surface. The open cell structure may be a volcanic rock or alternatively may be a synthetically made structure such as foamed glass, foamed concrete or foamed metal. The open cell material is completely saturated with a latent heat storage component such as a salt-hydrate or eutectic salts. In the process of making the latent heat storage structure, the latent heat storage component is melted in a container and the open cell structure is placed therein, whereupon the melt is spontaneously imbibed by the structure, replacing the air in the open cell structure with the liquid latent heat storage component. The structure, after cooling, is packaged or encapsulated with a vapor impermeable material.
Abstract: A method for producing a porous boiling surface with exceptional adhesion qualities and mechanical strength while at the same time maintaining the high degree of open cell porosity required for effective boiling heat transfer wherein a bond coating of pure aluminum is produced using a thermospray gun to melt an aluminum wire and impinge the molten aluminum particles against the metallic substrate in an inert gas stream projected from the gun nozzle located between 2 and 4 inches from the substrate. The bond coating has a porosity of less than 15 percent and a thickness not greater than 4 mils. The nozzle to substrate distance is then increased to 4 to 10 inches and a top coating of pure aluminum is formed having a porosity greater than 18 percent and a thickness of at least four times the thickness of the bond coating.
Abstract: A heat-exchanger composed of a body of ceramic sponge defining randomly located interconnected walls bounding a plurality of randomly located interconnected cavities and a plurality of elongate heat-conductive members embedded in the body and having a surface in heat-exchanging relation with the body and an end zone at the surface of the body and another opposite end zone which is located depthwise in the body, so that, heat may be conducted between the interior of the body and the surface of the body along the heat-conductive members. The heat-conductive members may be of suitable material, such as silicon carbide or metallic glass. In another case a silicon carbide rod is attached to a ceramic plate so as to conduct heat directly from one side of the plate to the other. A method of increasing the efficiency of a tube heat exchanger with sponge baffles is described. A method of resistance heating of an auto catalytic converter is detailed.
Abstract: A high performance heat pipe and the method for constructing it. A unique wick structure of sintered metal is formed directly into the heat pipe casing and contains simultaneously formed tunnels which permit the flow of large quantities of liquid with low pressure loss. A method of constructing a hybrid structure with heat pipe sections at both ends of a section used to transport the internal liquid and vapor over long distances is also included.
Abstract: A metallic porous layer is formed on copper or copper alloy base material by providing a loose coating of copper or steel powder matrix, bonding metal alloy consisting of copper and phosphorous, or copper and antimony and a liquid binder, partially heating to evolve the liquid binder and further heating to 1350.degree.-1550.degree. F. to braze the bonding metal alloy to the base material and matrix.