And Refining Char, E.g., Desulfurizing Coke Patents (Class 201/17)
  • Patent number: 10988700
    Abstract: Disclosed is a desulfurization system using a catalyst for desulfurization, including a coal feed unit for conveying a combustible substance, a spray unit for spraying a catalyst for desulfurization, a coal pulverization unit for pulverizing the combustible substance conveyed from the coal feed unit, and a combustion unit for combusting the pulverized combustible substance, wherein during transfer of the combustible substance from the coal feed unit to the coal pulverization unit, the catalyst for desulfurization is sprayed using the spray unit and is mixed with the combustible substance. The desulfurization system of the invention can be simply and easily applied to various combustion facilities because, during the transfer of the combustible substance from the coal feed unit to the coal pulverization unit, the catalyst for desulfurization is sprayed and is mixed with the combustible substance, thereby efficiently reducing sulfur oxide (SOx) emission due to combustion of fossil fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2021
    Assignee: LOWCARBON CO., LTD
    Inventor: Cheol Lee
  • Patent number: 10941346
    Abstract: A process of conversion of fuel grade coke produced through thermal cracking of heavy petroleum residue to anode grade coke. The process employs high sulfur fuel grade coke as the feedstock to produce low sulfur coke, which can be used to manufacture electrodes for use in the aluminum industry. A related system is adapted to remove metal content from coke and convert fuel grade coke to anode grade coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2021
    Assignee: INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED
    Inventors: Ponoly Ramachandran Pradeep, Prantik Mondal, Terapalli Hari Venkata Devi Prasad, Satyen Kumar Das, Madhusudan Sau, Sanjiv Kumar Mazumdar, Sankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar
  • Patent number: 10781390
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method for the removal of inorganic components such as potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur, phosphorus and heavy metals, from biomass of rural or forest or urban origin or even mixture of different origin biomasses, from low quality coals such as peat, lignite and sub-bituminous/bituminous coals, from urban/industrial origin residues/wastes, which are possible to include as much organic—>5% weight—as inorganic—<95% weight—charge and from sewage treatment plant sludges. The desired goal is achieved with the physicochemical treatment of the raw material. The method can also include the thermal treatment, which can precede or follow the physicochemical one. The application of the thermal treatment depends on the nature and the particular characteristics of each raw material as well as on the feasibility analysis of the whole process in order to determine the optimization point in each case.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2020
    Assignee: Thermorefinery Technologies Inc.
    Inventor: Emmanouil Koukios
  • Patent number: 10479951
    Abstract: Disclosed is a catalyst for desulfurization, including (a) an oxide selected from among SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O3, (b) a metal selected from among Li, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Cd and Pb, and (c) a liquid compound selected from among sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7.10H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The catalyst of the invention has a 2:1 type layered structure in which one octahedral layer is interposed between two tetrahedral layers and which has a net negative charge due to occupation of only two of three positively charged sites in the octahedral layer, and the catalyst for desulfurization is provided in the form of a metal chelate compound through chelation with a metal ion, whereby sulfur oxide (SOx) can be adsorbed and removed at high efficiency upon combustion of a combustible substance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2019
    Inventor: Cheol Lee
  • Patent number: 10335755
    Abstract: A reaction apparatus includes a hollow chamber with a stirring shaft. The chamber is maintained at a predetermined pressure and accepts at least two reactants from two storage tanks. The stirring shaft rotates around an axis and creates a reaction product. Taylor vortexes are created while the pressure minimizes the volume possession of the gas phase. The reaction product of micron and sub-micron particles is removed from the chamber and depressurized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2019
    Assignee: U.S. Department of Energy
    Inventors: Youngho Shin, Ozgenur Kahvecioglu Feridun, Gregory K. Krumdick
  • Patent number: 10202557
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods of producing calcined coke from bio-oil from a biomass feedstock. Also disclosed are calcined cokes produced by such methods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2019
    Assignee: The United States of America, as Represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Yaseen M. Elkasabi, Akwasi A. Boateng, Charles A. Mullen
  • Patent number: 10071908
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a burner for a reduction reactor, the reduction reactor has a reaction space formed therein, wherein each burner has a fuel feeding hole and multiple oxygen feeding holes formed therein, wherein each burner has an elongate combustion space formed at one end of a head portion thereof, the combustion space fluid-communicating with the reaction space of the reactor, wherein the elongate combustion space has a length such that oxygen supplied from the oxygen feeding holes thereto is completely consumed via oxidation or combustion with fuels supplied from the fuel feeding hole thereto only in the elongate combustion space upon igniting the burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2018
    Inventors: Yeon Chang, Sang Won Kim
  • Patent number: 9943860
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for collecting mineral particles in the tailings is disclosed. The apparatus may take the form of a filter, a conveyor belt, a collection plate or an impeller configured to contact with tailings of a flotation process, before and/or after the tailings are discharged into a pond. The filter, conveyor belt, collection plate or impeller has a collection area or surface made of, or coated with, a synthetic material having a functional group, e.g., having an ionizing bond to attract the mineral particles of interest. Alternatively, the synthetic material has hydrophobic molecules to render the collection area hydrophobic. When the mineral particles of interest in the tailings are combined with collector molecules, the mineral particles of interest may also become hydrophobic. The hydrophobic mineral particles of interest are attracted to the hydrophobic collection area or surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2018
    Assignee: CiDRA Corporate Services Inc.
    Inventors: Paul J. Rothman, Mark R. Fernald, Francis K. Didden, Christian V. O'Keefe, Alan D. Kersey, Douglas H. Adamson
  • Patent number: 9852389
    Abstract: A system for analyzing a coking system comprises a coking system comprising a first coke drum and a second coke drum, and a user device communicatively coupled to a hardware implemented analysis engine. The coking system configured to collect and transmit coke drum data to the hardware implemented analysis engine. The hardware implemented analysis engine is configured to: receive an estimation of an altered life span of the first coke drum relative to a design life span of the first coke drum, analyze an effect of adding an additional coke drum to the coking system based on the altered life span, and provide a result item related to the analysis to the user device. The estimation of the altered life span is based on the coke drum data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: Fluor Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Leslie P. Antalffy, Kenneth D. Kirkpatrick, George Miller, Barry Millet, Charles Maitland
  • Patent number: 9708235
    Abstract: In one aspect, the present invention provides a method for recycling natural gas during a reformer startup in a methanol plant. The method comprises recycling natural gas from a point before entry into the natural gas saturator where the natural gas is recycled until the natural gas reaches a desired temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2017
    Assignee: SAUDI BASIC INDUSTRIES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shezada Khurram, Ali Essa Al-Hammad
  • Patent number: 9512376
    Abstract: The invention relates to a material and/or fuel which is produced from biomass. The material and/or fuel can be produced according to a method, wherein the biomass is treated at a temperature of over 100 degrees centigrade and a pressure of over 5 bar for a treatment duration of at least 1 hour.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignee: Antacor, Ltd
    Inventor: Dominik Peus
  • Patent number: 9255224
    Abstract: Provided is a method of amplification of coke oven gas (COG) through reacting high-temperature carbon with carbon dioxide and/or water using waste heat generated in a coke oven. More particularly, a method of amplification of COG including providing a gasification agent including carbon dioxide, water, or a mixture thereof to a COG stream in a carburization chamber of a coke oven and gasifying carbon by allowing the gasification agent to react with carbon in the carburization chamber, and a coke oven apparatus suitable for the method are provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2016
    Assignee: Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology
    Inventors: Joo-Hyoung Park, Hee-Dong Chun, Je-Young Kim, Heung-Soo Park, Min-Young Yi, Kun-Woo Han, Chang-Houn Rhee, Sung-Uk Ryu
  • Patent number: 9200224
    Abstract: The present application provides a slurry concentration system for concentrating a flow of slurry. The slurry concentration system may include a boiler for producing a flow of steam, a first evaporator for concentrating the flow of slurry with the flow of steam and creating a first flow of water vapor, and a second evaporator positioned downstream of the first evaporator for further concentrating the flow of slurry with the first flow of water vapor and creating a second flow of water vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2015
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Siva Kumar Kota, Annavarapu Vijay Bharat Sastri, Vijayalakshmi Shah
  • Publication number: 20150090580
    Abstract: A process for treating a human remains comprises the steps of subjecting the remains to pyrolysis in a pyrolysis chamber under conditions that convert the particulate material to biochar remains.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2013
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Inventors: Damian Tinsley, Joe Ennis
  • Publication number: 20140353137
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a dust removing and coding method for an active coke regeneration apparatus. When the active coke regeneration apparatus is operating, the method includes the following: generating two negative pressure regions respectively at a discharge end and a feeding end; sucking out leaked vapour and dust by means of the negative regions; and cooling down the active coke regeneration apparatus by using gas flow generated by the negative pressure. Moreover, the present invention provides a device for implementing the method as described above.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 14, 2012
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Applicants: MISSISSIPPI INTERNATIONAL WATER INC.
    Inventor: Dawei Zhang
  • Patent number: 8445547
    Abstract: Liquefied petroleum coke (LPC) comprises diesel engine fuel grade petroleum coke that is produced by subjecting crude oil refinery feedstock to de-salting, coking, micronization, de-ashing, and slurrification processes to reduce impurities such as metallic components and make the LPC suitable for use in internal combustion engines, such as diesel engine systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Inventors: Alfred Jorgensen, Roger J. Swenson
  • Patent number: 8404909
    Abstract: A method of biomass pyrolysis is described which includes chemical looping of combustion char so that carbon dioxide can be captured from the combustion of the char as well as producing useable compounds from pyrolyzing biomass in a pyrolysis reactor including a metal oxide carrier particles which is in operative cooperation with a char combustor and oxidation reactor and separator for separating carbon dioxide from the flue gas produced by the char combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: Raja A Jadhav
  • Patent number: 8394240
    Abstract: A process for treating bituminous coal includes providing dried, pulverized coal, and treating the pulverized coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form oxides on surface of coal particles. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. Some of the oxides are converted into paramagnetic mineral components, which are removed from coal to form a coal char having reduced ash and sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8366882
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes providing dried, pulverized, agglomerating coal, and treating the coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form at least some oxides on surface of coal particles, wherein the oxides are sufficient to convert coal into substantially non-agglomerating coal. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The sweep gas is removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2013
    Assignee: C20 Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Publication number: 20120266529
    Abstract: A fast pyrolysis system includes an auger housing having an inlet, an outlet, and an inner wall. A rotatable auger is mounted in the housing. The auger has surfaces defining at least one spiral channel. The spiral channel is tapered from a first depth adjacent the housing inlet to a second lesser depth adjacent the housing outlet. The auger is rotatable to propel particulate materials from the housing inlet toward the housing outlet to heat the particulate material to a first temperature sufficient to convert at least a portion of the particulate material into a vapor. A heat exchanger transfers a heat of vaporization from a heated medium to the auger housing inner wall. A filter assembly is connected downstream to the housing outlet in order to filter char fines from the vapor. A condenser is connected downstream to the filter assembly and is adapted to condense the vapor stream into bio-oil.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2011
    Publication date: October 25, 2012
    Inventor: John Scahill
  • Patent number: 8221510
    Abstract: A method of processing coal to remove sulfur and other contaminants by mixing coal in a solution of aqueous ammonia having a selected concentration range (preferred range of 3%-5%) of ammonia to water in a reaction vessel. The mixing causes the solution to be brought into contact with the surfaces and pores of the coal. The process is monitored to detect when the concentration of aqueous ammonia in the reaction vessel has fallen below the selected range, and aqueous ammonia with an ammonia concentration in or above the selected range is fed into the reaction vessel to return the solution to within the selected range. The cleaned coal may be rinsed and dried, or dried without rinsing to form an ammonia coating on the coal surfaces and pores. Several plant layouts to practice the method are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2012
    Inventor: Bruce L. Bruso
  • Publication number: 20120160659
    Abstract: A methodology for the removal of the harmful components of ash from urban/industrial wastes and sludges from the sewage treatment plants is invented. The harmful components are alkaline metals, chlorine, sulphur, zinc, lead, and chromium. They are removed before the thermochemical conversion and therefore the corrosion problems, scaling/deposition, ash agglomeration, dioxin and furan emissions, alkaline metal, chlorine, sulphur emissions are minimized if not diminished. The emissions of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, copper, and chromium are reduced. The removal is achieved with prepyrolysis/pregasification at 250-320° C. for 5 min to 2 h of urban/industrial wastes and sludges from the sewage treatment plants. Then the prepyrolysed/pregasified sample is washed with a 0.5%-5% weight basis aqueous calcium acetate and/or magnesium acetate and/or aluminum acetate solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2010
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Inventor: Emmanouil Koukios
  • Publication number: 20120043195
    Abstract: A process for regenerating coked particles, which process comprises contacting a hydrocarbon feedstock with solid particles in a reaction zone to produce coked particles, which coked particles are transferred to a regeneration zone in which they are contacted with steam to produce hydrogen and at least one or more oxides of carbon, wherein the solid particles comprise one or more of the following components: (i) an aluminosilicate zeolite comprising one or more of Mn, Ti and Zn; (ii) a Ce-containing aluminosilicate zeolite with a Ce loading of at least 0.05 wt % and/or a molar ratio of total other rare earth elements:Ce in the range of from 0:1 to 5:1; (iii) a magnesium and aluminium-containing anionic clay; (iv) a material with the Perovskite structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 20, 2009
    Publication date: February 23, 2012
    Applicants: BO CORPORATION NORTH AMERICA INC., BP OIL INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Avelino Corma Canos, Douglas Rundell, Laurent Louis Andre Sauvanaud, George Yaluris
  • Publication number: 20110253521
    Abstract: A method for cyclical operation of a coke oven facility which includes an even number of coke oven banks which in turn include an even number of coke oven chambers is shown. Located downstream of the coke oven banks are boiler facilities which drive turbines with the hot waste gases from the coke oven banks. Energy is recovered in this manner. The coke oven chambers are pushed and charged in an exactly determined cycle so that the production of hot waste gas over the temporal mean can be homogenized.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 18, 2009
    Publication date: October 20, 2011
    Applicant: UHDE GMBH
    Inventor: Ronald Kim
  • Publication number: 20110011719
    Abstract: A process for treating bituminous coal includes providing dried, pulverized coal, and treating the pulverized coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form oxides on surface of coal particles. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. Some of the oxides are converted into paramagnetic mineral components, which are removed from coal to form a coal char having reduced ash and sulfur.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Publication date: January 20, 2011
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 7731821
    Abstract: A method of reducing sulfur-containing gases during conversion of a coal slab into metallurgical coke is disclosed. A sulfur-reducing agent is added to a coal slab, which may contain compacted coal aggregate. The coal slab, including the sulfur-reducing agent, is heated to produce metallurgical coke, which results in a reduced amount of sulfur-containing gases relative to an amount of sulfur-containing gases that would be produced by converting the coal slab into metallurgical coke without adding the sulfur-reducing agent to the coal slab before the coal slab is heated. The sulfur-reducing agent may be applied as a coating to the coal slab. The sulfur-reducing agent may include at least one of calcium carbonate, limestone, lime, magnesium carbonate, magnesium oxide, and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2010
    Assignee: Sesa Goa Limited
    Inventors: Harshrai Krishnarao Chati, Gokuldas P. Kamat, Peter Francis Xavier D'Lima, Yong-Wu Kim
  • Publication number: 20100115961
    Abstract: A process for the treatment of waste, the process comprising either a gasification step or a pyrolysis step to produce an offgas and a non-airborne, solid char material; followed by a plasma treatment step. An associated apparatus having a plasma treatment unit which is separate from the gasification unit or pyrolysis unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 19, 2010
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Applicant: TETRONICS LIMITED
    Inventors: Chris Chapman, David Ovens, David Deegan, Saeed Ismail
  • Patent number: 7645362
    Abstract: Methods for pretreating and improving coking coal quality for producing blast-furnace coke by: (a) rapid-heating the coal charge in a fluidized-bed to a temperature range between not lower than 300° C. and not higher than the temperature at which the coal charge begins to soften, at a rate of 30 to 103 ° C./min., (b) classifying the rapid-heated coal charge to fine- and coarse-size coal, and then (c-1) briquetting the fine-size coal or (c-2) rapid-heating the fine- and coarse-size coal individually in a pneumatic preheater to a temperature range between not lower than 300° C. and not higher than the temperature at which the coal charge begins to soften, at a rate of 103 to 105 ° C./min., and (d) forming the fine-size coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2010
    Assignee: The Japan Iron and Steel Federation
    Inventors: Kenji Kato, Yukihiro Kubota, Takashi Arima, Masaki Sasaki, Makoto Matsuura, Hiroki Nakai
  • Patent number: 7497929
    Abstract: A char containing less than 5% volatile matter is produced by pryolyzing shredded scrap vehicle tires and other rubber scrap material in an externally heated retort until the rubber is completely decomposed and until the temperature of the gases produced by the pyrolysis process reaches at least 500° C. The char is then subjected to resonance disintegration of an intensity sufficient to produce an unltrafine, particulate carbon product. In a preferred embodiment, essentially 100% of the individual carbon product particles are smaller than about 8 microns, and that product displays a dispersion coefficient in rubber of greater than 87%. The surface properties of the carbon product particles may be further modified by reacting or coating the carbon with chemical compounds or coating agents during or immediately after the resonance disintegration to tailor the properties of the carbon product to its use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2009
    Inventors: Timothy P. Karpetsky, R. William Mengel
  • Patent number: 7347052
    Abstract: Methods and systems for processing uncalcined coke are provided. The methods and systems provide for combusting effluent gas from a refinery unit and a stream of uncalcined coke. The refinery unit effluent gas may be the offgas from a rotary kiln calciner. The refinery unit effluent gas and the uncalcined coke stream are combusted in an integrated gas/solids incinerator. Heat released during the combustion of these streams may be used to generate steam or electricity. The methods and systems disclosed provide low cost energy production at calciner effluent gas incinerator locations where uncalcined coke is available.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2008
    Assignee: Conocophillips Company
    Inventors: Todd W. Dixon, Dennis A. Smith, Carl L. Williams, Eric Booth
  • Patent number: 5827403
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing a delayed coker drum as used in a refining process to receive coke feedstock as a hot liquid and in which the coke feedstock is cooled and quenched to produce solid coke, the hot liquid causing the drum to initially expand circumferentially and laterally and upon quenching to shrink due to thermal contraction, the circumferential shrinking serving to crush solidified coke and the lateral shrinking causing interface frictional contact between the solidified coke and the vessel sidewall that must be overcome, inducing high level stresses in the drum, including the steps of selecting a plurality of metal plates configured for assembling the drum, and welding the plates together creating welded seams and in which the metal plates are selected to have metallurgical characteristics and thicknesses such that their elastic limits exceed the stress introduced in the plates during the quenching process and employing welding materials and techniques such that the elastic limits of the welded se
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Citgo Petroleum Corporation
    Inventors: Richard S. Boswell, Thomas D. Farraro
  • Patent number: 5728196
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process and system for thermal waste treatment. The method according to the invention comprises subjecting the waste to thermolysis in a furnace to produce from the waste thermolysis gases and carbon containing solids; purifying the carbon containing solids into purified carbon containing solids which contain pollutants; using part of the thermolysis gases as fuel which is burned to heat the waste in the furnace; burning in a cyclone furnace at least part of the purified carbon containing solids containing pollutants to produce hot gases and to immobilize the pollutants present in the purified carbon containing solids into solids containing the pollutants; and providing the hot gases to an energy recovery device and using the energy recovery device to recover energy from the hot gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1998
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Gerard Martin, Eric Marty
  • Patent number: 5635147
    Abstract: In addition to ash and coke, the gasification residue contains alkaline earth metal sulfide and alkaline earth metal oxide because desulfuring agents have been supplied to the gasifier. At temperatures from 5.degree. to 80.degree. C. the gasification residue is mixed with an acid-containing aqueous solution so that a gas which is rich in H.sub.2 S is produced. Ash, coke, and alkaline earth metal salt are supplied to a flotation zone, in which coke is separated. A solid residue which contains ash and alkaline earth metal salt is withdrawn from the flotation zone. Carbonic acid or dilute sulfuric acid is preferably used as an acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1997
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Herbert, Rainer Reimert, Michael Stroder
  • Patent number: 5478442
    Abstract: A rotary hearth calciner for treating petroleum cokes with a puffing inhibitor has a horizontal or inwardly sloping hearth floor rotatable around a vertical axis for receiving particles of coke to be calcined and a central opening in the hearth floor for discharging the coke into a soaking pit. A water cooled, refractory covered feed pipe extending downward into the calciner interior has an inlet for connection to a source of petroleum coke puffing inhibitor and an outlet near the edge of the hearth central floor opening for adding the puffing inhibitor to the coke as the coke is discharged from said hearth floor. The feed pipe outlet is approximately at or below the level of the hearth floor to reduce loss of inhibitor in gas flow above the hearth floor. A puffing inhibitor such as sodium carbonate is supplied by a screw feed mechanism to the feed pipe to add the puffing inhibitor at a desired rate for reaction with the coke. The coke is normally maintained in the soaking pit for about 30 minutes at 1200.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1995
    Assignee: UCAR Carbon Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas H. Orac
  • Patent number: 5464876
    Abstract: Heating of polyvinyl chloride, in particular plasticizer-containing polyvinyl chloride, to a temperature of from 250.degree. to 500.degree. C. in the absence of oxygen gives a low-chlorine, carbon-containing residue, plasticizer and hydrogen chloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunther Lyding, Maria Pille, Helmold von Plessen, Joachim Semel
  • Patent number: 5393311
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for desulfurizing coal is provided. The method involves combining non-pulverized sulfur containing coal with an adsorbent material, such as aluminum oxide, in a vessel, irradiating the coal/adsorbent combination with microwave energy sufficient to subject the coal/adsorbent combination to a temperature of between about 250.degree. F. and about 650.degree. F. for a period of time sufficient to cause the release of sulfur from the coal as a gas. A magnetic field may be provided around the vessel to concentrate the microwave energy being introduced into the vessel within the vicinity of the magnetic field to enhance the release of the sulfur from the coal. The adsorbent is admixed with the coal during and after the heating step to adsorb some of the gaseous sulfur liberated from the coal. The apparatus capable of performing this method includes a heating section, a mixing section, a screening section and a gas treatment section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1995
    Inventor: Frank D. Marhanka
  • Patent number: 5350431
    Abstract: A process for chemical desulfurization of coal, in which coal is brought into contact with a desulfurizing agent after or while the coal is irradiated with ultraviolet light, thereby to give remarkably high desulfurization ratios and remarkably high yields of low sulfur coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignee: Idemitsu Kosan Company Limited
    Inventor: Toru Yamashita
  • Patent number: 5302254
    Abstract: A plant for treating industrial and/or urban waste includes a stage for drying of the waste, followed by a stage for effecting thermolysis of the dried waste and a stage for effecting recovery of the solids and gases resulting from the thermolysis. Thermolysis of the waste is effected in a reactor by indirect heat exchange with combustion gases and drying gases for drying of the waste are subsequently treated to remove vapor materials and then recycled to a gas generator for generating the drying gases. Additionally the plant includes a stage for effecting dechlorination of the solids resulting from the thermolysis by washing the solids with an aqueous liquid, as well as a stage of separating the wash solids and the resulting wash liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Institut Francais Du Petrole
    Inventors: Gerard Martin, Robert Gaulard
  • Patent number: 5262577
    Abstract: Method to convert refuse derived fuel (RDF) into a combustible gas, whereby the refuse derived fuel is gasified and the derived gas undergoes a process of catalytic cracking in which at least one alkaline additive or an equivalent product is used, the gas being passed through a cyclone separator to collect the particulate solids and thereafter undergoing a cooling process with recovery of hot air before being passed through sleeve filters, the ashes of the gasification and the particulate solids being sent to a dump for ashes, the ashes of gasification being riddled beforehand to gather the fines, which are mixed with fines coming from the sleeve filters and are employed as further catalysts in the catalytic cracking process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1993
    Assignee: Daneco Danieli Ecologia SpA
    Inventor: Gianfranco Velcich
  • Patent number: 5085764
    Abstract: In a process for reducing the sulfur and ash contents of coal, coal is sequentially contacted with fused alkali metal caustic, wash water, and acid. Contacting the coal with the caustic produces water-soluble compounds. Sufficient wash water is used to reduce the temperature of the caustic treated coal and dissolve the bulk of the water-soluble compounds before the water-soluble compounds convert to water-insoluble compounds that precipitate on the caustic-treated coal. Caustic removed from the coal by the water is recovered as anhydrous caustic for again contacting coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1992
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Robert A. Meyers, Walter D. Hart, Loren C. McClanathan
  • Patent number: 5071515
    Abstract: The density and crush resistance of calcined coke are improved by depositing coker feedstock on green (uncalcined) coke, thereafter subjecting the coke to a heat soak and then calcining the coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1991
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce A. Newman, Lynn J. Whitebay
  • Patent number: 5059307
    Abstract: In a process for reducing the sulfur and ash contents of coal, coal is sequentially contacted with fused alkali metal caustic, water, carbonic acid, and a strong acid. Caustic removed from the coal by the water and the carbonic acid is recovered as anhydrous caustic for again contacting coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignees: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Robert A. Meyers, Walter D. Hart, Leslie J. Van Nice, deceased, Leslie J. Van Nice, heir
  • Patent number: 5007987
    Abstract: The friability of green needle coke is reduced by heating the green needle coke to a temperature between about 875.degree. F. and about 1,200.degree. F. for a time sufficient to reduce the friability of the green needle coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1991
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Michael J. Block, Arnold E. Kelley, Milan Skripek
  • Patent number: 4983187
    Abstract: A method is described for preparing a high-concentration solids suspension, in particular coal or petroleum coke, which can be transported by pipe and be burnt with low emission of harmful substances, comprising crushing the solid to be suspended to a maximum particle size of 6 mm and then grinding it in the presence of additives in aqueous solution to a maximum solid particle size of 300 .mu.m, the method being characterized by adding, either before the crushing or immediately before the grinding, a desulphurizer chosen from CaCo.sub.3, MgCO.sub.3 and dolomite, either alone or in mixture, in a molar ratio to the sulphur contained in the solid of between 1.5 and 3, and adding immediately before or during grinding a desulphurizer also possessing stabilizing and anticorrosive properties and chosen from MgO, Mg(OH).sub.2, CaO and Ca(OH).sub.2, either alone or in mixture, in a quantity of between 0.04 and 0.4% by weight of the final suspension.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1991
    Assignee: Snamprogetti S.p.A.
    Inventors: Vincenzo Lagana, Dario Ercolani, Elio Donati
  • Patent number: 4946658
    Abstract: A pelletized mixture of gypsum, carbonaceous material and pyrite is charged to a travelling grate where the charge is heated under suitable conditions to produce a solid sintered material which has a broad spectrum of applications due to its chemical and physical properties and a gaseous effluent containing sulfur dioxide, sulfur or mixtures thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Assignee: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research
    Inventors: Jerome H. Marten, George M. Lloyd, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4894122
    Abstract: A process for the desulphurization of residuals of petroleum distillation in the form of coke particles having an initial sulphur content greater than about 5% by weight. Desulphurization is effected by means of a continuous electrothermal process based on a plurality of sequentially connected fluidized beds into which the coke particles are successively introduced. The necessary heat generation to desulphurize the coke particles is obtained by using the coke particles as an electrical resistance in each fluidized bed by providing a pair of electrodes that extend into the fluidized coke particles and passing an electrical current through the electrodes and through the fluidized coke particles. A last fluidized bed without electrodes is provided for cooling the desulphurized coke particles after the sulphur level has been reduced to less than about 1% by weight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1990
    Assignee: Instituto Mexicano de Investigaciones Siderurgicas
    Inventors: Arturo Lazcano-Navarro, Andres Geronimo-Torres
  • Patent number: 4888029
    Abstract: A process for desulfurizing carbonaceous material containing inorganic bound sulfur, organic bound sulfur, or conbinations thereof. The process comprises reacting the carbonaceous material at desulfurization conditions with a hydrogen source material in the presence of a reaction accelerator to enhance production and reactivity of atomic hydrogen supplied by the hydrogen source. The reaction is prefereably carried out in the presence of a flowing reaction medium which carries away hydrogen sulfide products and other volatile desulfurization products separating them from the carbonaceous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 19, 1989
    Assignees: The Board of Trustees of Southern Illinois University, The Illinois State Geological Survey
    Inventors: Richard H. Shiley, Randall E. Hughes, John R. Webster, Conrad C. Hinckley, Gerald V. Smith, Tomasz Wiltowski
  • Patent number: 4886522
    Abstract: A desulfurization process for coal ore for the removal of both organic and inorganic (pyritic) sulfurs in coal ore comprises a series of steps including the pulverizing of coal ore; mixing coal particulates with separation reagents, a catalyst and a vehicle; separating the recyclable chemicals and abstracted sulfurs through a select membrane; conditioning the particulates for flotation and sedimentation; clarifying the settleable ash and inorganic sulfurs and the floatable coal from the vehicle; and dewatering the collected coal particulates. The process also provides for regeneration of the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1989
    Assignee: Malin Research Corporation
    Inventors: James G. Davidson, Deborah A. Allard, Philip J. Sawyer, Philip E. Boynton
  • Patent number: 4875979
    Abstract: A process for treating high sulfur petroleum coke to inhibit puffing is disclosed wherein particles of the petroleum coke are contacted, in the absence of a binder, with a compound containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, at an elevated temperature above that at which the alkali or alkaline earth metal compound begins to react with carbon, but below the temperature at which the coke particles would begin to puff in the absence of the compound. The coke particles are maintained at the elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to permit the reaction to proceed and allow products of reaction to penetrate into the particles and form an alkali-or alkaline-earth-metal-containing deposit throughout the mass of the particles; and then cooling the so-treated coke particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas H. Orac, Herbert C. Quandt, David R. Ball
  • Patent number: 4832701
    Abstract: A regenerating process comprises leaching a combustion ash with water so as to dissolve same and form a pregnant leach liquor containing the additive which is separated from the solid residue. The pregnant leach liquor is thereafter adjusted with a base precipitating agent so as to precipitate a compound of the additive which is then recovered by liquid solid separation. The process of the present invention is particularly useful for regenerating said recycling sulfur capturing additives used in hydrocarbon formulations which are burned as fuels, particularly, hydrocarbon in water emulsions formed from viscous hydrocarbon materials characterized by high sulfur and metals contents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1989
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Domingo R. Polanco, Cebers O. Bueno, Ramon Salazar, Felix A. S. Chamorra