Feed Other Than Coal, Oil Shale Or Wood Patents (Class 201/25)
  • Patent number: 10329491
    Abstract: A method and retort vessel for enabling continuous thermal or thermo-catalytic degradation of mixed waste plastic feedstock. The method includes receiving the feedstock into a rotary retort vessel. The feedstock is heated in the retort vessel, such that the resultant reaction products ultimately exit the retort vessel either as gaseous vapor or as solid residue, wherein the gaseous vapor exits the retort vessel at a temperature exceeding 400° C. Further, the retort vessel is configured such that the resultant reaction products exit an output end of the retort vessel. The retort vessel is configured to provide a degradation time chosen between 0.5 minutes and 50 minutes, wherein the degradation time is defined as the ratio of available volume inside the retort vessel to the volumetric flow rate of gaseous vapor at the output end of the retort vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Inventor: Amit Tandon
  • Patent number: 10208253
    Abstract: A pyrolysis reactor system includes a reactor and a contactor mounted above the reactor. The reactor has a shell, an inlet and an outlet. A central shaft runs along its axis and supports agitation blades in a counter-helical arrangement, and an auger. Rotation of the auger in one direction feeds feedstock into the vessel, and in the opposite direction removes char at the end of a batch. The contactor includes four elements with a frusto-conical part supported on vertical support arms, and being connected to a disc by legs. The contactor elements allow short chains to pass through apertures while long chains condense on their surfaces or on the vessel wall surface. There is dynamic tuning of carbon number of gases flowing downstream by active temperature and pressure control at the contactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2019
    Assignee: Plastic Energy Limited
    Inventors: David McNamara, Michael Murray
  • Patent number: 10138425
    Abstract: Systems and methods for reducing atmospheric emission of hydrocarbon vapors by flashing off hydrocarbon vapors in an overflow drum where the pressure is ultimately reduced to 0 psig and then flashing off any remaining hydrocarbon vapors in an overflow tank wherein the pressure in the overflow tank is reduced to 0 psig by an overflow ejector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2018
    Assignee: Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Ward, Richard Heniford, Scott Alexander
  • Patent number: 10094280
    Abstract: A process for treating a waste feedstock using a gasifier and the gasifier for same. Hot exhaust from an engine travels through a series of hollow heating plates stacked vertically within a gasifier reactor with spaces between each set of successive heating plates forming reaction zones. Each reaction zone is divided into an upper treatment area and a lower treatment area by a rotating disk. Waste material travels from an outer feed spot along the top surface of the rotating disk radially inwardly to a drop area located at the radially innermost portion where it drops to the top surface of the hollow heating plate below. The waste material is then conveyed radially outward to a chute to the next reaction zone or once fully processed to an exit from the reactor. Vapors from the waste material are drawn off each reaction zone through an outlet for further processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2018
    Inventors: Darrell Ford, Ken Davison
  • Patent number: 10087837
    Abstract: A process for treating a waste feedstock using a gasifier and the gasifier for same. Hot exhaust from an engine travels through a series of hollow heating plates stacked vertically within a gasifier reactor with spaces between each set of successive heating plates forming reaction zones. Each reaction zone is divided into an upper treatment area and a lower treatment area by a rotating disk. Waste material travels from an outer feed spot along the top surface of the rotating disk radially inwardly to a drop area located at the radially innermost portion where it drops to the top surface of the hollow heating plate below. The waste material is then conveyed radially outward to a chute to the next reaction zone or once fully processed to an exit from the reactor. Vapors from the waste material are drawn off each reaction zone through an outlet for further processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2018
    Inventors: Darrell Ford, Ken Davison
  • Patent number: 10073416
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a holographic optical element by providing a recording stack comprising at least one recording element laminated on at least one supporting element, irradiating at least a part of the recording stack with at least one recording beam in an irradiating step, wherein during the irradiating step, the recording stack bends, providing a bending deviation threshold for the recording stack, and adjusting at least one first process parameter such that an expected maximum bending deviation of the recording stack does not exceed the bending deviation threshold, wherein the at least one first process parameter influences the bending behavior of the recording stack during the irradiating step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2018
    Assignees: LG Display Co., Ltd., Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Hyungseok Bang, Heejin Im, Guensik Lee, Friedrich-Karl Bruder, Thomas Peter Facke, Marc-Stephan Weiser, Rainer Hagen, Thomas Rolle, Horst Berneth, Dennis Honel, Günther Walze
  • Patent number: 10023805
    Abstract: Systems and methods for processing pyrolyzable materials in order to recover one or more usable end products are provided. Pyrolysis methods and systems according to various aspects of the present invention are able to thermally decompose carbon-containing materials, including, for example, tires and other rubber-containing materials, in order recover hydrocarbon-containing products including synthesis gas, pyrolysis oil, and carbon black. Systems and methods according to aspects of the present invention may be successful on a commercial scale, and may be suitable for processing a variety of feedstocks, including, but not limited to, used tires and other types of industrial, agricultural, and consumer waste materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Inventor: Chuck Schneider
  • Patent number: 9909724
    Abstract: A lighting device (1) is provided comprising at least one light source (3), a wavelength converting element (8) adapted to convert a wavelength of light emitted by the at least one light source, at least one support (7) arranged to support the wavelength converting element remote from the at least one light source, and an envelope (2) adapted to enclose the wavelength converting element and at least a portion of the at least one support. The at least one support is arranged to be able to pivot relative to the wavelength converting element. The present lighting device enables using a rigid wavelength converting element and an at least partially rigid support, as these two components may be moved relative to each other for facilitating insertion of the unit in the envelope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: PHILIPS LIGHTING HOLDING B.V.
    Inventors: Antonius Adrianus Maria Marinus, Vincent Stefan David Gielen, Wiebe Wagemans
  • Patent number: 9890081
    Abstract: Brine sludge is an industrial waste generated in chloral alkali industry. The generated brine sludge waste is dumped into landfills and contains barium sulphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide, sodium chloride, clay, and toxic elements like chromium, zinc, copper, and vanadium, therefore posing an environmental threat. Consequently, there is an urgent need to convert toxic brine sludge waste into its non-toxic form. The present invention thus aims to achieve total utilization of this brine sludge for making functionalized brine sludge material useful for a broad application spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2018
    Assignee: COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
    Inventors: Sudhir Sitaram Amritphale, Sarika Verma, Satyabrata Das
  • Patent number: 9828726
    Abstract: The invention provides a method and a system for separating lignin from a lignin containing liquid medium, such as pulp mill black liquor, and treating the separated lignin. The method comprises at least the following steps: a) a precipitation stage (1), wherein a pH lowering agent (A) is added to the lignin containing slurry for precipitating lignin, b) followed by a first separation stage (2), wherein the precipitated lignin is separated as a lignin cake from the remaining liquid phase of the lignin containing slurry, c) a suspending stage (3), wherein the lignin cake is suspended for obtaining a lignin suspension, d) a hydrothermal carbonization stage (4), wherein the lignin suspension is treated for obtaining a slurry of carbon containing material, and e) a second separation stage (5), wherein the carbon containing material is separated from the slurry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignee: VALMET TECHNOLOGIES OY
    Inventor: Seppo Hiljanen
  • Patent number: 9732412
    Abstract: A gas lance unit configured for a reactive deposition process with a plurality of spaced apart crucibles, wherein spaces are provided between the crucibles, is described. The gas lance unit includes a gas guiding tube having one or more outlets for providing a gas for the reactive deposition process, and a condensate guiding element for guiding a condensate, particularly an aluminum condensate, to one or more positions above the spaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2017
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Gerd Hoffmann, Alexander Wolff
  • Patent number: 9200207
    Abstract: A method of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for solid waste plastic by reacting the waste plastic with a metal hydride and a supported catalyst which is mixed and then gasified to produce liquid hydrocarbons is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2015
    Assignee: University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Cunping Huang, Amit Gujar, Marianne Rodgers
  • Patent number: 9006505
    Abstract: A method for processing plastic waste, in particular polyolefins, and a device for processing plastic waste, in particular polyolefins, are used especially in the industrial utilization of plastic waste. The method consists in that a primarily refined charge after being fed into a reactor (6) is fluidized and cracked during forced progressive-rotational movement coinciding with heating. A gas-steam fraction obtained during a utilization process is continuously guided out to a cooling system whereas impurities are periodically guided out from the reactor (6) to a waste tank (22).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Przedsiebiorstwo EKONAKS Sp. z o. o.
    Inventor: Wojciech Najman
  • Patent number: 9005401
    Abstract: A system for tire distillation including an upper chamber, a first conveyor configured to transport a tire through the upper chamber, a lower chamber located beneath the upper chamber, the lower chamber that includes an ultrasonic purge chamber configured to radiate the tire with ultrasonic radiation, a microwave radiation chamber configured to radiate the tire with microwave radiation, and a second conveyor configured to transport the tire from the ultrasonic purge chamber to the microwave radiation chamber. The system further includes a vacuum system configured to maintain an atmosphere in the ultrasonic purge chamber and the microwave radiation chamber under a vacuum wherein the tire is preheated during conveyance through the upper chamber from heat produced in the lower chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Infinite Earth, Inc.
    Inventor: James C. Johnson
  • Publication number: 20150090580
    Abstract: A process for treating a human remains comprises the steps of subjecting the remains to pyrolysis in a pyrolysis chamber under conditions that convert the particulate material to biochar remains.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2013
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Inventors: Damian Tinsley, Joe Ennis
  • Patent number: 8969638
    Abstract: A styrene monomer reclamation process and system is described. The styrene monomer reclamation process includes providing a waste plastic. The waste plastic includes styrenic polymers. The waste plastic is formed into polymer particles. At least a portion of the polymer particles are dissolved in a solvent to form a polymer stream. The dissolved polymer particles are depolymerized to form a styrene monomer stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: Fina Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Jon Tippet, James R. Butler, James Assef, John Ashbaugh, Jason Clark, Michel Duc, Jean-Bernard Cary
  • Publication number: 20150033812
    Abstract: Methods and systems for converting a biomass and biogenic wastes to hydrogen with integrated carbon dioxide capture and storage are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include the following: mixing at least one of a dry solid or liquid or liquid hydroxide and catalysts with a biomass to form a biomass mixture; heating the biomass mixture until the hydroxide and the biomass react to produce hydrogen, carbonate, biochar, and potentially fertilizer; calcining the carbonate or performing double replacement reactions of the carbonate to produce sequestration-ready carbon dioxide and a hydroxide; storing the carbon dioxide produced; transferring the hydrogen produced to a fuel cell; and generating electricity with the fuel cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2012
    Publication date: February 5, 2015
    Inventors: Ah-Hyung Alissa Park, Thomas E. Ferguson
  • Publication number: 20150013570
    Abstract: In a method of processing paint sludge, measured portions of the sludge are supplied into a heating chamber for pyrolysis at about 1500° F. to disintegrate into organic and inorganic portions, the organic portion in the form of syngas is then drawn out, cooled, and pressurized to be used in kilns or combustion chambers, whereas the inorganic portion in the form of ash is directed to a calciner, where it is heated at about 1500° F. in a controlled presence of oxygen and cooled to have it ready for the reuse in paint manufacturing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 25, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventor: Jeffrey J. Bittner
  • Patent number: 8927797
    Abstract: The method produces a hydrocarbonaceous fluid (a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, or in other words a mixture of hydrocarbons which is liquid at ambient room temperature and atmospheric pressure), which functionally is a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, from a feed of waste plastic. The method can comprise the steps of: (step 1) melting a feed of substantially solid waste plastic in an aerobic atmosphere (for instance, air) whereby a waste-plastic melt is produced; (step 2) distilling at least a portion of the waste-plastic melt whereby a hydrocarbonaceous distillate is produced; and (step 3) collecting the hydrocarbonaceous distillate. That distillate is generally referred to above as a condensate. The method can include the step of comminuting the feed of substantially solid waste plastic into pieces substantially no greater than about 1.5 cm2 prior to step 1. The method can also include the step of adding an effective amount of a cracking catalyst to the waste plastic prior to step 2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: Natural State Research, Inc.
    Inventor: Moinuddin Sarker
  • Publication number: 20150001061
    Abstract: A system and process for converting plastics and other heavy hydrocarbon solids into retail petroleum products are provided. The plastics are processed by melting, pyrolysis, vapourization, and selective condensation, whereby final in-spec petroleum products are produced. The system provides a reactor for subjecting the plastics to pyrolysis and cracking hydrocarbons in the plastics to produce a plastics vapour comprising hydrocarbon substituents; one or more separation vessels for separating the plastics vapour into hydrocarbon substituents based on boiling points of the hydrocarbon substituents; one or more condensers for condensing the hydrocarbon substituents into one or more petroleum products; and means for collecting the one or more petroleum products. Fuels generated during the process can be recycled for use upstream in the process.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 5, 2011
    Publication date: January 1, 2015
    Applicant: JBI INC.
    Inventor: John William Bordynuik
  • Patent number: 8920609
    Abstract: The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Inventors: Philip H. Steele, Fei Yu, Qi Li, Brian Mitchell
  • Patent number: 8900416
    Abstract: The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Roger Norris Hilten, Keshav Das, James R. Kastner, Brian P. Bibens
  • Patent number: 8888961
    Abstract: A pyrolysis device and process to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a carbon solid and pyrolysis gas, and processes for refining the resulting carbon solid and pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis process may include introducing a carbonaceous feedstock into a pyrolysis processor having a vertical rotary tray processor, heating the feedstock to a temperature above about 790° F., removing a carbon material from a bottom of the pyrolysis processor, and removing a pyrolysis gas from a top of the pyrolysis processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Reklaim, Inc.
    Inventors: Joel Horn, Daniel F. Kapral, William J. Langley, Jr., Thomas A. Reynolds
  • Patent number: 8877015
    Abstract: A process and system is disclosed for optimizing a key parameter of a biomass feedstock that enhances bio-oil production. The process and system involves optimizing the values of the key parameter in multiple biomass feedstocks by regulating their feed rates and blending those feedstocks to produce a cumulative biomass feedstock with an optimal value for the key parameter. The key parameter in the biomass feedstocks is measured and the feed rates of the multiple biomass feedstocks are adjusted in order to produce a cumulative biomass feedstock exhibiting optimal values for the desired key parameter. The key parameters can include compositional properties, such as lignin content or mineral content, and/or fluidization properties of the biomass materials, such as density, particle cohesion force, or particle size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Bartek, Steve Yanik
  • Patent number: 8808508
    Abstract: This invention relates to a system for obtaining hydrocarbons from organic or inorganic solid waste, wherein said system comprises: an inlet chamber, within which is a mixer assembly which mixes and conveys the waste through said chamber, which is also at ambient temperature, thus avoiding any thermal shock to the solid waste for processing; a dehydration chamber with a mixing assembly therein, and the upper part of this chamber contains an expansion chamber for promoting more efficient molecular breakdown; the thermal breakdown is carried out in two reactors which are operated at different temperatures, the first thermal disassociation reactor which has inside a mixer unit, and which in its upper part houses an expansion chamber, the second thermal breakdown reactor, therein has a mixer unit, and in the upper portion thereof houses an expansion chamber and at the top end thereof a vertical expansion tower; wherein the thermolytic steam is homogenized, a separator of heavy hydrocarbons, which does not require
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Inventors: Jesus Eduardo Rodriguez Hernandez, Antonio Gomez Rivera, Jose de Jesus Mansilla, Mario Gomez Rivera
  • Patent number: 8802906
    Abstract: Described is an apparatus and method for recovery of energy and by-products from automobile and truck tires. The tires are heated in an oxygen poor environment, and the off gases are condensed to recover a liquid oil product and compressible natural gas. The tires are reduces to ash and steel, both of which can be feed streams for other processes. The apparatus includes a condenser with cooled plates, and oil recovery structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Inventor: David Brent Thompson
  • Patent number: 8795475
    Abstract: There is described a system and method for recycling carbon-containing material, in particular tires and plastics materials. The system includes a heating arrangement for anaerobically heating carbon containing material to produce carbon-containing gases. A condensing arrangement is also used to condense a proportion of the carbon-containing gases to provide condensed gases and non-condensed gases. In addition, a recirculating arrangement is provided for recirculating the non-condensed gases into the heating arrangement. Further systems and methods for pre- and post-processing of the carbon-containing material are also disclosed and products of the systems and methods are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Used Tyre Distillation Research Limited
    Inventors: Richard Hutchins, Michael Walker, Paul Archer
  • Patent number: 8784616
    Abstract: A process for the controlled gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock includes pyrolizing the feedstock by conveying the feedstock through a retort surrounded by a plurality of successive heating chambers each comprising an axially adjustable chamber separation wall and each operated at a predetermined temperature, wherein a predetermined dwell time of the feedstock in each of the plurality of successive heating chambers is controlled by a conveyance rate of the feedstock through the retort and a position of each of the axially adjustable chamber separation walls to produce a gas product and a solid product. The gas product includes methane and noxious chemicals and the solid product includes carbon, and the pyrolizing step is controlled using feedback related to constituents of the gas product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Tucker Engineering Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard D. Tucker
  • Patent number: 8741108
    Abstract: A reactor (9) for the pyrolysis of carbon-containing waste material such as rubber chips includes a cylindrical air-tight reactor vessel (10) which has an inlet through which rubber chips (4) are introduced into the reactor vessel and an outlet (60) through which oil distillate can be discharged therefrom. The reactor vessel has a cooling jacket through which cooling water flows for cooling an inner shell (40) of the vessel. The chips (4) are deposited onto a support tray (70) and displaced towards a rear end of the reactor vessel by a chain conveyer (89). The chips (4) are heated on the tray (40) causing decomposition of the chips into a vapor and amorphous carbon. The vapor condenses when it contacts the inner shell (40) and runs down the sides of the vessel (10) towards a lower side thereof before being discharged through the outlet (60).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2014
    Assignee: Gecco Group (Proprietary) Limited
    Inventor: John Lindsay Dinnematin
  • Patent number: 8722948
    Abstract: In a method for thermal processing of slurry, slurry is combined with a bio-mass to produce a mixture. The mixture is subjected in a heated mixer pump to a cracking temperature, thereby allowing the mixture to catalytically undergo a cracking reaction to produce a reaction mixture which is directly outgased in the mixer pump to produce an outgased portion and a solid portion. The outgased portion and the solid portion are separately discharged from the mixer pump; with the low boiling fraction of the outgased portion allowed to cool down for further processing, and the solid portion collected in a residual matter container for further processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Inventor: Jürgen Buchert
  • Patent number: 8697025
    Abstract: In the raw coke composition of the invention, as the starting material for a negative electrode material of a lithium ion secondary battery, the ratio of the crystallite size Lc(002) and lattice constant co(002) (Lc(002)/co(002)) on the 002 plane is no greater than 180, and the ratio of the crystallite size La(110) and the lattice constant ao(110) (La(110)/ao(110)) on the 110 plane is no greater than 1500, as determined by X-ray diffraction upon graphitizing in an inert gas atmosphere at a temperature of 2800° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Tamotsu Tano, Takashi Oyama, Hiromitsu Hashisaka, Akio Sakamoto
  • Patent number: 8691053
    Abstract: The invention relates to waste processing and to producing hydrocarbons from domestic and industrial organic waste by pyrolysis. The inventive waste processing method involves carrying out the first and second pyrolysis stages, fractionating pyrolysis products and processing each fraction for producing useful products. The second pyrolysis stage is carried out simultaneously with the electromagnetic action produced on the pyrolysis products. The device for carrying out said method comprises a two-sectional pyrolysis reactor. An electromagnetic source is arranged on the second section of the reactor. The output of the second section is connected to a system for dividing the vaporous pyrolysis products. The technical result consists in increasing the waste processing effectiveness and producing solid, liquid and vaporous fuel components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignee: Zakrytoe Aktsionernoye Obschestvo Finansovo-Promyshlennaya Gruppa “Tezaurum”
    Inventor: Sergei G. Gaga
  • Patent number: 8680349
    Abstract: The invention provides an apparatus and method for thermolysis of waste plastic in which reaction residue and carbonization products are continuously removed. The apparatus includes a feeding system, an extruder, a reactor for thermolysis, a dual agitator housed within the reactor, a trigger system in operative connection with the reactor, a flux heater, and a collecting system in operative connection with the reactor. The reactor for thermolysis has a height at least 1.5 times bigger than a diameter. The trigger system includes a circulation pump and the collecting system has a three-way valve in an external circulation loop. The apparatus is arranged such that the extruder follows the feeding system, the reactor follows the extruder, the trigger system is at a bottom of the reactor, and the flux heater and collecting system follow the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2014
    Assignee: Clariter IP S.A.
    Inventors: Daria Fraczak, Bartlomiej Karbowy, Bartlomiej Samardakiewicz
  • Patent number: 8674154
    Abstract: The invention provides an apparatus for thermolysis of waste plastics, particularly polyolefins. The apparatus includes a feeding system, an extruder, a main thermolysis reactor, a dual propeller/mixer housed within the reactor, and a discharging system. The height of the thermolysis reactor is at least 1.5 times bigger than the diameter. The apparatus is arranged such that the extruder follows the plastic feeding system, the thermolysis reactor follows the extruder, and the discharge system follows the thermolysis reactor. The invention also provides a method for using the apparatus for thermolysis of waste plastics. In this method, reaction feedstock, reaction residuals, and reaction products are removed continuously.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Clariter IP S.A.
    Inventors: Andrzej Podeszfa, Bartlomiej Karbowy, Bartlomiej Samardakiewicz
  • Patent number: 8668810
    Abstract: A process for the pyrolysis of waste material and/or organic material in a pyrolysis reactor is provided. According to the process, the material is placed in the reactor and heated with an induction heater, optionally in the presence of one or more soft magnets. The products of the pyrolysis reaction, such as gases and liquids may be collected in a storage vessel attached to the reactor. A pyrolysis reactor for the pyrolysis of waste and/or organic material is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Amass Energy LLC
    Inventors: Gagik Vardanyan, John Howard Arzoian, Movses Khayoyan
  • Patent number: 8657999
    Abstract: A method for producing a fuel composition from a feedstock which may contain biomass and municipal solid waste is described. The method includes the step of pyrolyzing the feedstock in the presence of a transition metal, using microwave energy, so that the level of oxygen in at least one product of the pyrolysis is reduced. An integrated process is also described, in which the transition metal can be regenerated. Moreover, pyrolysis products such as bio-oils can be upgraded to liquid fuel compositions. Related systems for producing fuel compositions are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Vitali Victor Lissianski, R. George Rizeq, Surinder Prabhjot Singh
  • Patent number: 8641871
    Abstract: Processes for pyrolyzing hydrocarbonaceous material are provided. A process for pyrolyzing hydrocarbonaceous material includes charging a reactor with a feed material comprising hydrocarbonaceous material, heating the feed material, and collecting liquid product from the reactor which is anaerobic in operation. At least 5% of the organic carbon atoms which are not present in an aromatic ring of a compound of the feed material are present in an aromatic ring of a compound in a liquid portion of the product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: RES Polyflow LLC
    Inventor: Charles W. Grispin
  • Publication number: 20140008204
    Abstract: A system for recycling carbon-containing material is provided. The system includes a reactor for heating the carbon-containing material to produce carbon-containing gases. The system further includes a condenser operably connected to the reactor for condensing a portion of the carbon-containing gases to provide condensed gas and non-condensed gas. The system further includes a conduit arrangement operably connected to the reactor and the condenser wherein the non-condensed gas from the condenser is returned to the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 9, 2013
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Inventor: Sergey Dobrynin
  • Patent number: 8623634
    Abstract: A method for producing biomass and sequestering greenhouse gas includes providing a greenhouse gas, providing light energy, and growing algae in a growth container with the greenhouse gas and the light energy. The algae can be processed into a biomass feedstock. The biomass feedstock can be converted into a fuel or specialty chemical. At least a portion of the algae can be used as a fertilizer for a biomass growth source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Steve Yanik, Robert Bartek
  • Publication number: 20130341175
    Abstract: A improved solar biochar reactor, system including the reactor, and methods of forming and using the reactors and systems are disclosed. The methods and system as described herein provide sufficient solar energy to a biochar reactor to convert animal waste or other biomass to biochar in a relatively cost-effective manner.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporate
    Inventors: Karl G. Linden, Alan W. Weimer, R. Scott Summers, Allan Lewandowski
  • Publication number: 20130313100
    Abstract: A method of fragmenting a discrete waste product item or a combination of discrete waste product items, the method comprises the steps of: (e) introducing said discrete waste product item or combination of discrete waste product items into a pressure vessel, (f) subjecting said item or items to an atmosphere of superheated steam in the vessel of at least 0.5 bar above atmospheric pressure, (g) subsequently decompressing the vessel to achieve a pressure reduction of at least 0.5 bar in at most 5 seconds, and (h) repeating steps (b) and (c) to effect fragmentation of said waste product item or combination of waste product items.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2012
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Inventors: John Norris, Peter Norris, Alan Reid, Mark Talbot
  • Patent number: 8585867
    Abstract: A low-energy input process for the pyrolytic conversion of biomass to charcoal or carbonized charcoal is provided. The biomass is sealed in a container, pressurized, then air is introduced at the proximal end of the container and released at the distal end of the container. The biomass is ignited by a heater at the distal end. The operation of the heater is halted after initial ignition and the biomass is allowed to continue to burn in a proximal-to-distal end airflow to finish the conversion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: University of Hawaii
    Inventor: Michael J. Antal, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8541637
    Abstract: A system and method for converting biomass into fluid hydrocarbon products to minimize the use of fossil fuels, provide energy and chemical feedstock security, and sustainable and/or carbon neutral electric power, are disclosed. For example, fast pyrolysis can be performed on biomass to produce pygas and char using a maximum processing temperature of about 650° C. The pygas is provided to an independent reactor without the addition of an oxidizing agent for catalytically converting the pygas to hydrocarbons using a maximum processing temperature of about 650° C. A system comprising fast pyrolysis means producing a pygas and char, independent catalytic conversion means downstream of the fast pyrolysis for converting the pygas to hydrocarbons, and a hydrogen source, external to the system and/or produced by a steam reformer by steam reformation of at least a portion of the hydrocarbons, coupled to catalytic conversion means, also are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2013
    Assignee: G4 Insights Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew L. Babicki, Brian G. Sellars, Bowie G. Keefer, Edson Ng
  • Patent number: 8506658
    Abstract: A process and system for separating a light fraction, a bio-distillate fraction, and a heavy fraction from a bio-oil, and for producing a renewable distillate including at least in part the bio-distillate fraction and a stabilizing additive, is provided. The process comprises separating bio-oil into light, bio-distillate, and heavy fractions based on their boiling points. At least a portion of the bio-distillate fraction and a stabilizing additive are blended with a petroleum-derived-diesel-range stream, without any prior hydrotreatment, to thereby provide a renewable distillate composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Maria Magdalena Ramirez Corredores, Jennifer Sorrells, Changan Zhang
  • Publication number: 20130192973
    Abstract: An apparatus and methods of using the apparatus are described to decompose plastic to form a fuel for use in generating energy such as electricity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 11, 2012
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Applicant: ALL GRADE HOLDINGS LIMITED
    Inventor: All Grade Holdings Limited
  • Publication number: 20130189181
    Abstract: A system and method of converting tires or other solid carbon based material is disclosed, including providing a chamber, feeding the solid carbon based material into the chamber, rotating the chamber, heating and reducing the material in the chamber, collecting solid residue from the chamber, collecting vapor from the chamber, and converting vapor collected from the chamber to a liquid. In an embodiment, the material includes a whole tire. The tire is heated in the chamber causing the tire to collapse and liquefy, exposing the metal in the tire which aids in grinding the carbon material in the tire as it tumbles, collecting solid residue, for example tire carbons, and collecting vapor, for example vaporized oil, and benzene and methane gas from the chamber and converting the oil. The chamber may be heated to a temperature from about 500° F. to about 1000° F. using gases reclaimed from the material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 7, 2013
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Inventor: Fredrick Taylor
  • Publication number: 20130189182
    Abstract: A system and method of converting tires or other solid carbon based material is disclosed, including providing a chamber, feeding the solid carbon based material into the chamber, rotating the chamber, heating and reducing the material in the chamber, collecting solid residue from the chamber, collecting vapor from the chamber, and converting vapor collected from the chamber to a liquid. In an embodiment, the material includes a whole tire. The tire is heated in the chamber causing the tire to collapse and liquefy, exposing the metal in the tire which aids in grinding the carbon material in the tire as it tumbles, collecting solid residue, for example tire carbons, and collecting vapor, for example vaporized oil, and benzene and methane gas from the chamber and converting the oil. The chamber may be heated to a temperature from about 350° F. to about 1100° F. using gases reclaimed from the material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 10, 2013
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Inventor: Fredrick Taylor
  • Patent number: 8487148
    Abstract: Biomass based feeds are processed under hydrothermal treatment conditions, e.g., to produce a hydrocarbon liquid product and a solids portion. The hydrothermal treatment can be performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst particles that can optionally include a catalyst metal or metal salt. The presence of the heterogeneous catalyst can modify the nature of the hydrocarbon products produced from the hydrothermal treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Virginia M. Roberts, Michel Daage, Paul D. Oldenburg, James R. Bielenberg, Paul J. Berlowitz, David C. Long, Halou Oumar-Mahamat
  • Patent number: 8476480
    Abstract: A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100° C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert C. Brown, Samuel T. Jones, Anthony Pollard
  • Patent number: 8465557
    Abstract: A reactive distillation process is disclosed for converting aquatic biomass to a bio-oil. In the process a slurry of aquatic biomass is contacted with a particulate inorganic material. The mixture is heated to or above its boiling point. During the heating step biomass is converted to bio-oil. In a preferred embodiment water vapors emanating from the slurry are collected and condensed. The fresh water obtained may be used for irrigation, in human domestic uses, and for human consumption.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul O'Connor