Sequentially Removing, Treating And Recycling A Product Patents (Class 201/28)
  • Patent number: 10023820
    Abstract: A device includes a gasifier to produce a gaseous compound from a biomass. The gasifier includes inlets for the biomass and for an oxidizing agent and an outlet for the gaseous compound including carbon monoxide. A first methanation unit to methanate the carbon monoxide to produce a substitute natural gas exiting the gasifier. The first methanation unit includes at least one inlet for water and an inlet for the gaseous compound coming from the gasifier. A second methanation unit to methanate the carbon dioxide to produce the substitute natural gas. The second methanation unit includes at least one inlet for water and one inlet for the carbon dioxide from the first methanation unit. A dihydrogen producing unit to produce dihydrogen from water and electric current. The dihydrogen producing unit includes an electrical power supply, an inlet for water and an outlet for dihydrogen supplying the second methanation unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: GDF SUEZ
    Inventors: Yilmaz Kara, Bernard Marchand, Sandra Capela
  • Patent number: 9371487
    Abstract: A method for producing char and fuel gas includes degasifying a carbonaceous material with oxygen-containing gases in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature of more than about 1000° C. and at a pressure of from about 1 bar to about 40 bar. A supply of oxygen within the fluidized bed reactor is adjusted so as to recover more than 60% of fixed carbon in the carbonaceous material in a char product, and an oxygen availability in a lower or bottom region of the fluidized bed reactor is less than 80% of an oxygen availability in an upper region of the fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2016
    Assignee: OUTOTEC OYJ
    Inventor: Andreas Orth
  • Patent number: 8952210
    Abstract: A green process and system are disclosed for utilizing a biomass filter aid in the filtration of a bio-oil. The process comprises filtering a bio-oil containing residual solids from a conversion reaction in the presence of the biomass filter aid to produce a filtered bio-oil. The biomass filter aid facilitates efficient removal of residual solids from the bio-oil. The spent biomass filter aid containing the residual solids may be recycled as a conversion feedstock or used as a combustion heat source in the biomass conversion system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronny W. Lin
  • Patent number: 8853475
    Abstract: A process for producing a renewable hydrocarbon fuel. The process can include providing a feed including a lignocellulosic material to a pyrolysis zone to produce a stream including a pyrolysis oil, providing the pyrolysis oil stream to a refining zone producing a refined stream, providing at least a portion of the refined stream to a reforming zone producing a stream including hydrogen, providing at least a portion of the hydrogen stream to the refining zone; and recovering the renewable hydrocarbon fuel from the refined stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventor: Tom N. Kalnes
  • Patent number: 8828191
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for pyrolytic destruction of polymer products including whole vehicle vulcanised rubber tires is disclosed. The apparatus 111 has a reaction chamber 153 into which a tire can be placed, and immersed for pyrolytic decomposition in a molten alloy of zinc with a minor proportion of aluminium. The apparatus 111 has a heated reservoir 155 in which the alloy is maintained in a molten state, and from where it can be transferred to the reaction chamber 153 to immerse the tire. Fluid hydrocarbon byproducts are drawn off for condensation and recovery, and solid zinc sulphides are also recovered. Where steel belted tires are processed, carbon and steel residues are also recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Inventor: Michael John Shaw
  • Patent number: 8772559
    Abstract: A biochar generator may include a pyrolysis chamber, a heater connected to the pyrolysis chamber and a biochar collection chamber in communication with the pyrolysis chamber. A biochar collection chamber sensor may sense a composition of the biochar collected in the biochar collection chamber to define a sensed composition of the biochar. A controller in electrical communication with the biochar collection chamber sensor may utilize the sensed composition of the biochar to dynamically alter conditions in the pyrolysis chamber to alter the composition of the biochar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Data Flow Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Thomas F. Smaidris
  • Patent number: 8691053
    Abstract: The invention relates to waste processing and to producing hydrocarbons from domestic and industrial organic waste by pyrolysis. The inventive waste processing method involves carrying out the first and second pyrolysis stages, fractionating pyrolysis products and processing each fraction for producing useful products. The second pyrolysis stage is carried out simultaneously with the electromagnetic action produced on the pyrolysis products. The device for carrying out said method comprises a two-sectional pyrolysis reactor. An electromagnetic source is arranged on the second section of the reactor. The output of the second section is connected to a system for dividing the vaporous pyrolysis products. The technical result consists in increasing the waste processing effectiveness and producing solid, liquid and vaporous fuel components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignee: Zakrytoe Aktsionernoye Obschestvo Finansovo-Promyshlennaya Gruppa “Tezaurum”
    Inventor: Sergei G. Gaga
  • Patent number: 8604259
    Abstract: Useful byproducts are recovered through the pyrolytic processing of biomass material such as vegetation, paper, or worn tires. The process is conducted in a sealed enclosure under vacuum or other controlled atmosphere. The biomass material is ablated and burned by crunching between counter-rotating rollers rotated at different speeds whose inner walls have been exposed to a highly heated fluid. The biomass material is preheated by injecting into the feeding duct super-heated dry steam. A condenser within the enclosure reduces resulting vapors into oils that can be drained from the enclosure pan. Solid combustion residue is abstracted from the enclosure by an Archimedes screw.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Inventor: Vincent H Noto
  • Patent number: 8558044
    Abstract: A biochar generator to be carried by a vehicle may comprise a pyrolysis chamber, an auger, a heater, and a vapor condenser each connected to the pyrolysis chamber. The biochar generator may also include a synthesis gas collection chamber to collect synthesis gas, and a bio oil collection chamber to collect bio oil, each in communication with the vapor condenser. A biochar collection chamber may be included to collect biochar dispensed from the pyrolysis chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 15, 2013
    Inventor: Thomas F Smaidris
  • Patent number: 8496805
    Abstract: Petroleum cokes derived from extra-heavy crude sources can be made more amenable to quenching by adding water or a water/light oil mixture to the coker feed downstream of the furnace. The coke product resulting from this addition of normally volatile liquids to the hot coker feed is still relatively dense but is more friable and usually is in a compact, relatively free-flowing, granular form. The coke is more amenable to uniform quenching in the drum and so can be cut and discharged with a reduced risk of eruptions and a reduced risk of fires in the coke pit or when the coke is subsequently handled and transported.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Craig Y. Sabottke, Fritz A. Bernatz, Eric W. Fryatt, Christopher P. Eppig, Jordan K. Lambert
  • Patent number: 8377264
    Abstract: Disclosed is an organic material disposal method comprising a step for thermally decomposing a raw organic material and a gas treatment step for treating a gas generated in the preceding step, wherein the thermal decomposition step comprises a substep of decomposing the raw organic material into a carbide and a gaseous component, and the gas treatment step comprises the following substeps (1) to (5): (1) catalytically oxidizing the gaseous component produced in the thermal decomposition step; (2) neutralizing/washing the oxidized gas; (3) subjecting a waste water produced in the neutralization/washing step to the solid-liquid separation; (4) further thermally decomposing a solid component separated in the solid-liquid separation step together with the raw organic material in the thermal decomposition step; and (5) re-using a liquid component separated in the solid-liquid separation step in the solid-liquid separation step and/or the neutralization/washing step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Assignee: N.M.G. Environmental Development Co., Ltd
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Toshiaki Okauchi
  • Patent number: 8350104
    Abstract: To provide a method for catalytically cracking waste plastics wherein the efficiency in decomposition is high; even polyethylene composed of linear chain molecules difficult in decomposition is decomposable at a low temperature and decomposed residue is hardly produced; the process is simple since dechlorination can be achieved at the same time with catalytically cracking waste plastics in one reaction vessel; and oil fractions can be recovered at 50% or more on a net yield basis. The method for catalytically cracking waste plastics of the present invention has a constitution in which waste plastics are loaded as a raw material into a granular FCC catalyst heated to a temperature range from 350° C. to 500° C. inside a reaction vessel, thereby decomposing and gasifying the waste plastics in contact with the FCC catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: Kitakyushu Foundation for the Advancement of Industry, Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kaoru Fujimoto, Xiaohong Li
  • Patent number: 8323456
    Abstract: A process and system for removing bound water from bio-oil by azeotropic distillation. The process includes combining a bound-water-containing bio-oil with an azeotrope agent and subjecting the resulting treated bio-oil to azeotropic distillation under reduced pressure. The azeotropic distillation removes a substantial portion of the bound water from the bio-oil, thus producing a water-depleted bio-oil that is less corrosive, more stable, and more readily miscible with hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronny W. Lin, Robert Bartek
  • Patent number: 8293958
    Abstract: A biomass fractionator and method are described for inputting ground biomass and outputting several vapor streams of bio-intermediate compounds along with syngas and biochar. In particular, a method for biomass fractioning, comprises dispensing biomass into thin sheets of ground biomass; subjecting the thin sheets to ramps of temperature; and selectively collecting various groups of compounds as they are released from the thin sheets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Cool Planet Biofuels, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael C. Cheiky
  • Patent number: 8226798
    Abstract: A method of forming a pyrolysed biocarbon from a pyrolyzable organic material is delineated. The method involves the conversion of pyrolyzable organic materials to biocarbon for subsequent use. A carbonization circuit is employed with individual feedstock segments being advanced through the circuit. The method facilitates user manipulation of rate of advancement of the feedstock through the circuit, selective collation of volatiles from pyrolyzing feedstock, selective exposure of predetermined feedstock segments to collated volatiles as well as thermal recovery and redistribution as desired by the user. This results in the capacity for a customizable biocarbon product, the latter being an auxiliary feature of the methodology.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: Alterna Energy Inc.
    Inventors: Hendrik van Aardt, Phil Marsh, Hugh McLaughlin
  • Patent number: 8217212
    Abstract: A method and related apparatus for torrefaction of associated biomass which includes providing an enclosed chamber having a body and a door having an open position allowing passage into and out of the enclosed chamber and a closed position in which the door is disposed in sealing engagement with the body, providing the enclosed chamber with walls capable of sustaining both a negative pressure and a positive pressure within the enclosed chamber; moving the door to an open position; depositing a liquid heat transfer fluid within the enclosed chamber at a temperature sufficient to achieve torrefication of the biomass and a first quantity of biomass material in the enclosed chamber that is substantially totally immersed in the liquid heat transfer fluid whereby heat transfer occurs between the liquid heat transfer fluid and the biomass immersed therein; moving the door to a closed position in sealing engagement with the body; and allowing the pressure within the enclosed chamber to rise to a pressure above the va
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2012
    Inventors: John A. Paoluccio, John J. Paoluccio
  • Publication number: 20120125758
    Abstract: A process for the pyrolysis of at least one material includes: introducing the material into a pressurized rotary retort system, heating the material in the pressurized rotary retort system within a desired temperature range and within a desired pressure range for a desired period of time; and, advancing the heated and pressurized material from a first end to a second end of the pressurized rotary retort by rotating the pressurized retort about its longitudinal axis; where at least a quantity of the material is converted into one or more end products. Also the system generally includes: a pressurized rotary retort system configured for producing at least one gaseous product from pyrolysis of material, and having a pressurized furnace vessel and a retort positioned within the pressurized furnace vessel; and; a solids reactor system operatively connected to the rotary retort for receiving material from the pressurized rotary retort system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Applicants: RED LION BIO-ENERGY, LLC, SURFACE COMBUSTION
    Inventors: Max Hoetzl, Douglas S. Struble, Noureen Faizee
  • Publication number: 20120012451
    Abstract: A green process and system are disclosed for utilizing a biomass filter aid in the filtration of a bio-oil. The process comprises filtering a bio-oil containing residual solids from a conversion reaction in the presence of the biomass filter aid to produce a filtered bio-oil. The biomass filter aid facilitates efficient removal of residual solids from the bio-oil. The spent biomass filter aid containing the residual solids may be recycled as a conversion feedstock or used as a combustion heat source in the biomass conversion system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 13, 2010
    Publication date: January 19, 2012
    Applicant: KIOR, INC.
    Inventor: Ronny W. Lin
  • Publication number: 20110253521
    Abstract: A method for cyclical operation of a coke oven facility which includes an even number of coke oven banks which in turn include an even number of coke oven chambers is shown. Located downstream of the coke oven banks are boiler facilities which drive turbines with the hot waste gases from the coke oven banks. Energy is recovered in this manner. The coke oven chambers are pushed and charged in an exactly determined cycle so that the production of hot waste gas over the temporal mean can be homogenized.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 18, 2009
    Publication date: October 20, 2011
    Applicant: UHDE GMBH
    Inventor: Ronald Kim
  • Patent number: 7998315
    Abstract: A process for pyrolyzing biomass is provided. The process comprises providing biomass to a pyrolysis reactor to produce a vapor product and condensing said vapor product to produce a condensed product, wherein a phase separation suppression agent is added during said process so as to promote the formation of a single phase condensed product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2011
    Assignee: Aston University
    Inventors: Anthony Bridgwater, Heiko Gerhauser, Astrid Effendi
  • Publication number: 20110132737
    Abstract: A system and method for biomass pyrolysis utilizing chemical looping combustion of a produced char to capture carbon dioxide is disclosed. The system includes a biomass pyrolysis reactor, a char combustor, and oxidation reactor and a separator for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas produced by the char combustion. The pyrolysis reactor pyrolyzes biomass in the presence of reduced metal oxide sorbents producing char and pyrolysis oil vapor. The char is separated and combusted in the char combustor, in the presence of oxidized metal oxide sorbents, into a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The carbon dioxide and water are separated so that a stream of carbon dioxide may be captured. The oxidation reactor oxidizes, in the presence of air, a portion of reduced metal oxide sorbents into oxidized metal oxide sorbents that are looped back to the char combustor to provide oxygen for combustion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 9, 2009
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Inventor: Raja A. Jadhav
  • Patent number: 7932424
    Abstract: To provide a method for catalytically cracking waste plastics wherein the efficiency in decomposition is high; even polyethylene composed of linear chain molecules difficult in decomposition is decomposable at a low temperature and decomposed residue is hardly produced; the process is simple since dechlorination can be achieved at the same time with catalytically cracking waste plastics in one reaction vessel; and oil fractions can be recovered at 50% or more on a net yield basis. The method for catalytically cracking waste plastics of the present invention has a constitution in which waste plastics are loaded as a raw material into a granular FCC catalyst heated to a temperature range from 350° C. to 500° C. inside a reaction vessel, thereby decomposing and gasifying the waste plastics in contact with the FCC catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2011
    Assignee: Kitakyushu Foundation for the Advancement of Industry, Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kaoru Fujimoto, Xiaohong Li
  • Patent number: 7922871
    Abstract: A method of recycling composite material comprising carbon fibers and a resin, the method comprising: providing a furnace comprising at least a heating portion; providing a transporter for transporting the composite material through the furnace; loading the composite material on the transporter and transporting the composite material through the furnace; detecting a percentage of oxygen in an atmosphere in the heating portion when the composite material has entered this portion; and removing resin from the composite material, as it travels through the heating portion of the furnace on the transporter, by means of chemical decomposition at a first temperature, with the resultant generation of fumes; wherein the generated fumes are removed from the heating portion in a controlled manner, such that the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere in the heating portion is controlled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignee: Recycled Carbon Fibre Limited
    Inventors: Roy Price, John Davidson
  • Patent number: 7857943
    Abstract: Useful byproducts are recovered through the pyrolytic processing of biomass material such as vegetation, paper, or worn tires. The process is conducted in a sealed enclosure under vacuum or other controlled atmosphere. The biomass material is ablated and burned by crunching between counter-rotating rollers whose inner walls have been exposed to a highly heated fluid. The biomass material is preheated by injecting into the feeding duct super-heated dry steam. A condenser within the enclosure reduces resulting vapors into oils that can be drained from the enclosure pan. Solid combustion residue is abstracted from the enclosure by an Archimedes screw.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2010
    Inventor: Vincent H. Noto
  • Patent number: 7736470
    Abstract: Described herein are methods and mechanisms for laterally dispensing fluid to a coke drum in a predictable and maintainable manner that alleviates thermal stress. In one embodiment, the methods and mechanisms utilize a split piping system to dispense fluid through two or more inlets into a spool that is connected to a coke drum and a coke drum bottom deheader valve. A combination of block valves and clean out ports provides a more effective means to clean the lines and allows fluid to be laterally dispensed in a controllable and predictable manner. The fluid is preferably introduced to the spool in opposing directions toward a central vertical axis of the spool at equal but opposing angles ranging from minus thirty (?30) to thirty (30) degrees relative to a horizontal line laterally bisecting the spool. Alternatively, however, fluid can be introduced to the spool tangentially.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Te-Hung Chen, Christopher P. Eppig, Timothy M. Healy, Scott F. Massenzio, Robert W. Mosley, Rutton D. Patel
  • Publication number: 20100072053
    Abstract: The method according to an example of the invention relates to a method for processing and also recycling sludge which has precipitated from waste in a sediment tank within the scope of the high temperature treatment. This is dried and mixed with preportioned solid plastic materials so that solid conglomerates are formed and returned then to the high temperature treatment of the waste.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 25, 2009
    Publication date: March 25, 2010
    Applicant: Litesso-Anstalt
    Inventor: Gunter Hans Kiss
  • Patent number: 7658838
    Abstract: A delayed coking process for making substantially free-flowing coke, preferably shot coke. A coker feedstock, such as a vacuum residuum, is heated in a heating zone to coking temperatures then conducted to a coking zone wherein volatiles are collected overhead and coke is formed. At least one polymeric additive is added to the feedstock prior to it being heated in the heating zone, prior to its being conducted to the coking zone, or both.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2010
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Ramesh Varadaraj, Michael Siskin, Leo D. Brown
  • Publication number: 20090139851
    Abstract: The present invent provides improved rapid thermal conversion processes for efficiently converting wood, other biomass materials, and other carbonaceous feedstock (including hydrocarbons) into high yields of valuable liquid product, e.g., bio-oil, on a large scale production. In an embodiment, biomass material, e.g., wood, is feed to a conversion system where the biomass material is mixed with an upward stream of hot heat carriers, e.g., sand, that thermally convert the biomass into a hot vapor stream. The hot vapor stream is rapidly quenched with quench media in one or more condensing chambers located downstream of the conversion system. The rapid quenching condenses the vapor stream into liquid product, which is collected from the condensing chambers as a valuable liquid product. In one embodiment, the liquid product itself is used as the quench media.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Publication date: June 4, 2009
    Inventor: Barry Freel
  • Patent number: 7531703
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of recycling a plastic thereby forming a narrow spectrum of hydrocarbons having from 4 to 14 carbon atoms that can be directly used as gasoline without additional processing or refining. The method includes the step of feeding the plastic, selected from the group of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and combinations thereof, into a heated vessel for melting. The method also includes the step of decomposing the plastic at a temperature of from 400° C. to 500° C. in the presence of a metallocene catalyst and a zeolitic catalyst thereby forming the hydrocarbons having from 4 to 14 carbon atoms. The metallocene catalyst includes dichlorobis(2-methylindenyl)zirconium (IV). The zeolitic catalyst includes ammonium Y zeolite and has a pore size of from 1 to 4 Angstroms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2009
    Assignee: Ecoplastifuel, Inc.
    Inventors: Swaminathan Ramesh, Joel Sibul
  • Publication number: 20090020405
    Abstract: A method of and a plant for combusting carbonaceous fuel, the method including the steps of introducing particulate oxygen selective sorbent, such as a perovskite type material, into an adsorption reactor of the combustion plant to form a first particle bed in the adsorption reactor, fluidizing the first particle bed by an oxygen-containing first fluidizing gas to adsorb oxygen from the fluidizing gas to the sorbent, conveying oxygen-rich sorbent from the adsorption reactor to a combustion reactor of the combustion plant to form a second particle bed in the combustion reactor, fluidizing the second particle bed by an oxygen-deficient second fluidizing gas to desorb oxygen from the sorbent, so as to produce free oxygen gas, and introducing carbonaceous fuel into the combustion reactor to oxidize the fuel with the free oxygen gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2007
    Publication date: January 22, 2009
    Applicant: Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Zhen FAN, Horst Hack, Andrew SELTZER, Archibald Robertson
  • Patent number: 7438786
    Abstract: An apparatus including a coke drum for coking hydrocarbon substances, a valve disposed near the bottom of the coke drum, and a discharge conduit for removing coke from the coke drum, wherein the discharge conduit is connected to the valve such that when the valve is open, the coke may be removed via the discharge conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler USA Corporation
    Inventor: Allen S. Malsbury
  • Patent number: 7438785
    Abstract: A method for the pyrolosis of biomass with the aid of a heating element and a feed for guiding the biomass. During pyrolysis, the heating element and the biomass are pressed against each other at a pressure of 5 bars-80 bars. A device for pyrolysing biomasses, comprises a material supply and a pyrolysing station. The material supply comprises elements for generating a pressure of between 5 bars and 200 bars, pressing the raw material which is to be pyrolysed against the pyrolysing station. The pyrolysing station comprises a heating element which is heated to a temperature of between 300° C. and 1000° C. in an operational state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: Pytec Thermochemische Anlagen GmbH
    Inventors: Dietrich Meier, Hannes Klaubert, Stefan Schöll
  • Patent number: 6953517
    Abstract: In order to make it possible for an inhomogeneous residue generated in a pyrolysis plant to be separated continuously and in as fully graded a way as possible, specially selected components are combined with one anther in an advantageous configuration. An essential element of the plant is the separation of a coarse residue in a coarse screen and the subsequent separation of the remaining residue in a zigzag separator into a light residue and a heavy residue. By use of the plant, in particular, the carbon-containing constituents are separated from the remaining residue. The individual components are mostly configured to be self-cleaning for fault-free operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2005
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Joachim Boretzky, Anton Ebert, Leonhard Teschers, Winfried Von Rhein, Helmut Werdinig
  • Patent number: 6666955
    Abstract: An improved method and apparatus is disclosed for reclaiming volatile products and non-volatile residue through the pyrolysis of a polymeric material comprising placing the polymeric material in a reactor and establishing an oxygen deficient atmosphere in a reactor. The polymeric material is simultaneously compressed and heated to a temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the polymeric material to produce volatile products and non-volatile residue. The volatile products and non-volatile residue are subsequently removed from the reactor and collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2003
    Inventor: G. Thomas Bissell
  • Patent number: 6589395
    Abstract: The distillation plant comprises a column (1) and a heat pump (4, 5) which operates between a sump vaporizer (3) and an exhaust vapor compressor (2) of the column. The heat pump is substitutable by devices (6, 7) which can be switched to the sump vaporizer and the exhaust vapor compressor when required. These substituting devices comprise devices (6 and 7 respectively) for the production of vapor or the provision of a coolant respectively as well as connection means (63, 63′, 72, 72′). The coolants can be liquids (water) or gases (air).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Assignee: Sulzer Chemtech AG
    Inventor: Albert Meili
  • Publication number: 20030000822
    Abstract: In the method for thermal biomass processing, comprising charging the material in a converter, pyrolyzing said material at a temperature ranging between 650 and 950° C. in the medium of a reducing gas, feeding of steam after the pyrolysis reaction has been completed, and isolating the resultant solid residue, reducing gas is prepared by combusting a hydrocarbon fuel at an air consumption factor &agr; ranging from 0.85 to 1.1, and by mixing the resultant combustion products together with the biomass pyrolysis gases, the ratio between said gases and said combustion products being (1-3):1.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 16, 2002
    Publication date: January 2, 2003
    Inventors: Vladimir Fedorich Antonenko, Sergei Alexandrovich Anischenko
  • Patent number: 6387221
    Abstract: Garbage and waste of all types that includes or comprises organic matter, particularly including medical waste, plastics, paper, food waste, animal by-products, and the like, can be economically recycled into petroleum products, including oil. Machinery performs a method that mimics natural processes but accomplishes the task in minutes, at rates of about 15 tons per day in a typical processing machine, rather than taking hundreds of thousands of years in nature. The process and apparatus of the invention may chop the waste into small pieces, under negative pressure if appropriate, and then pass the waste into first and then second augers for compression and heating. Destructive distillation occurs, in which large molecular weight hydrocarbons and petrochemicals are heated by hot oil passing through the hollow shaft and by circulating hot, dense, hard material, such as steel balls or fragments or hard rock pieces and such, under pressure with steam, to produce low molecular weight hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2002
    Inventor: James D. Schoenhard
  • Patent number: 6365038
    Abstract: Asphaltene and oil shale are pyrolyzed at substantially atmospheric pressure for producing combustible products and carbonaceous material. A combustor combusts the carbonaceous material and produces flue gases which are supplied to a utilization device, and hot ash which is fed back to the pyrolyzer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignee: Ormat Industries Ltd.
    Inventor: Benjamin Doron
  • Patent number: 6005149
    Abstract: The invention provides a practical and efficient method and apparatus for thermally processing organic based raw materials of either primary or secondary (recycled) origin, in order to extract volatile organic vapors and to selectively produce either condensable hydrocarbon gases or, more preferably, non-condensable synthesis gases that are rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide for use as a raw material in chemical processes, or as a fuel. In particular, the invention provides a single rotary reactor having two contiguous hearth reaction areas, i.e., a drying and volatizing area and a reformation area, the areas being separated from each other by a bed-retaining refractory weir. The weir has an aperture for fluidly connecting the two hearth reaction areas of the single reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Engineering, Separation & Recycling, Ltd. Co.
    Inventor: Norman G. Bishop
  • Patent number: 5711769
    Abstract: A continuous process for treating coal to form stable coal char by passivating the coal and then rehydrating and cooling the product thereof to prevent spontaneous ignition. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the coal to vaporize and remove low end volatile materials and to mobilize high end volatile materials and cooling to demobilize the high end volatile materials within the at least partially collapsed micropores of the coal char to pyrolytically passivate the coal char and form a char having about 14-22 wt % high end volatiles. The pyrolytically passivated coal char is then conveyed to a reaction vessel wherein a process gas having about 3%-21% by volume oxygen flows through the reaction vessel to at least partially fluidize the coal char and oxidatively passivate the coal by chemisorption of oxygen. The passivated coal char is then substantially simultaneously rehydrated and cooled to form a stable coal char having about 5-10 wt % moisture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Tek-Kol Partnership
    Inventors: Franklin George Rinker, Deane Avent Horne, Dennis Wayne Coolidge, Ernest Peter Esztergar
  • Patent number: 5632863
    Abstract: Used batteries and other material for reclamation and recovery or environmentally safe disposal are transferred from a feed bin by an auger into a crusher and then into a pyrolysis chamber. The feed system excludes air or oxygen from passing through the auger and crusher into the pyrolysis chamber. The material from the crusher is transferred by an auger through the pyrolysis chamber which is heated to a decomposition temperature between 350.degree. and 650.degree. F. and is decomposed. The pyrolysis chamber includes a vapor recovery system for removing the vapors and maintaining a vacuum in the pyrolysis chamber. The vapors are withdrawn through a heat exchanger and into the liquid/gas separator where the condensed liquids are removed and the gas is further processed. The residue from the pyrolysis chamber is discharged into a residue recovery system which includes a closed auger for transferring the residue from the pyrolysis chamber into a bin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1997
    Inventor: W. R. Meador
  • Patent number: 5605551
    Abstract: A high conversion of biomass, such as wood, sawdust, bark, or agricultural wastes, to liquids is obtained bypyrolysis at short reaction tines in a reactor capable of high heat transfer rates; the reactor being of the fluidized bed, circulating fluidized bed or transport type in which the conveying gas contains low and carefully controlled amounts of oxygen, allowing a reaction system with low concentrations of carbon monoxide or flammable gases with a resulting improvement in operating safety and potential improvement in thermal efficiency and capital costs. The oxidation steps may be carried out in one or two stages. The resulting liquid product may be used as an alternative liquid fuel or as a source of high-value chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1997
    Assignee: University of Waterloo
    Inventors: Donald S. Scott, Jan Piskorz, Desmond Radlein, Piotr Majerski
  • Patent number: 5601692
    Abstract: A continuous process for treating a noncaking coal to form stable char. The process includes the sequential steps of drying the coal to remove moisture therefrom and form a dry coal; pyrolyzing the dry coal by progressively heating substantially all of the coal to a temperature sufficient to vaporize and remove low end volatile materials from the coal to form char and sufficient to mobilize at least a portion of high end volatile materials within the char and at least partially collapse micropores within the char. The char is then cooled to a temperature sufficient to demobilize the volatile materials within the at least partially collapsed micropores of the char to pyrolytically passivate the char. The char is then conveyed to a reaction vessel wherein a process gas having about 3%-21% by volume oxygen flows through the reaction vessel to oxidatively passivate the coal by chemisorption of oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1997
    Assignee: Tek-Kol Partnership
    Inventors: Franklin G. Rinker, Deane A. Horne, Dennis W. Coolidge, Ernest P. Esztergar
  • Patent number: 5547548
    Abstract: A method for reducing the undesirable contaminants in process water produced in pyrolysis of low rank coal. The method uses the process water to quench and rehydrate a char produced by pyrolysis with the contaminants in the waster water being absorbed by the char.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1996
    Assignee: Tek-Kol
    Inventor: Mark A. Siddoway
  • Patent number: 5464876
    Abstract: Heating of polyvinyl chloride, in particular plasticizer-containing polyvinyl chloride, to a temperature of from 250.degree. to 500.degree. C. in the absence of oxygen gives a low-chlorine, carbon-containing residue, plasticizer and hydrogen chloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunther Lyding, Maria Pille, Helmold von Plessen, Joachim Semel
  • Patent number: 5296102
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for recovering oil from solid hydrocarbonaceous terial, such as oil shale, in particulate form using a combustion chamber and a reaction chamber arranged side-by-side and connected by a first passageway extending between the upper regions of the chambers and a return passageway. The particulate material is fluidized in the chambers and induced to circulate therebetween by the configuration of the chambers and passageways and/or the nature of the fluidization. Residual carbon on the spent hydrocarbonaceous material introduced into the combustion chamber through the return passageway is burnt, heating the material which then circulates through the first passageway to mix with and heat fresh feed material introduced into the reaction chamber giving off effluent vapours which are collected and processed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: Southern Pacific Petroleum NL and Central Pacific Minerals NL
    Inventor: Donald J. Nicklin
  • Patent number: 4994174
    Abstract: A process and system for low-temperature carbonization of oil shale, oil sands and similar oil-bearing solids includes low-temperature carbonization of oil-bearing solids in a high-pressure fluidized bed reactor in the presence of a substance selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and steam at temperatures substantially between 400.degree.and 600.degree. C. for producing low-temperature carbonization gas. The low-temperature carbonization gas is condensed in at least two stages for producing relatively higher boiling and relatively lower boiling oil fractions. The oil-bearing solids are peripherally mashed with the higher boiling oil fraction of the low-temperature carbonization gas, before introducing the oil-bearing solids into the high-pressure fluidized bed reactor. The oil-bearing solids mashed with the higher boiling oil fraction are returned to the high-pressure fluidized bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1991
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Konrad Kunstle, Gerd Brunner, Jurgen Hoffmann, Till Dehrmann
  • Patent number: 4859284
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a combined process for separating and converting asphaltenes of high molecular weight and high softening point from heavy hydrocarbon material containing asphaltenes by a process that combines a deasphalting method to produce solid asphaltenes and a continuous coking procedure for the solid asphaltenes. The combined process converts the material into more valuable liquid hydrocarbon products of lower molecular weight and coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Roland Rammler, Hans-Jurgen Weiss, Hans-Adolf Herbertz, Rodolfo B. Solari, Rafael Hidalgo
  • Patent number: 4689120
    Abstract: An apparatus for the recovery of oil from shale is disclosed in which the shale travels through processing zones on a moving grate. Among the processing zones are a destructive distillation zone and a carbon combustion zone. A conduit is provided for recirculating gases to the carbon combustion zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1987
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Joseph Kuchinski, Risdon W. Hankinson, Charles J. Rosvold
  • Patent number: 4619738
    Abstract: A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Arthur E. Lewis, Robert L. Braun, Richard G. Mallon, Otis R. Walton