Removing And Treating Vapor Patents (Class 201/29)
  • Patent number: 9879193
    Abstract: A continuous biomass-to-energy system and method used for production of high-energy fuel, liquids and gases from municipal wastes and organic wastes, where the municipal wastes and organic wastes is processed through a controlled pyrolysis process and a controlled gas separation process to extract products gases from a distillation tower system of the system. The biomass-to-energy system also discharges byproducts that are removed to offsite facilities and a combustible gas stream that can be utilized to generate electricity. By controlling the temperature and pressure, the biomass-to-energy system is able to provide a fully contained process that reduces environmental emission and unnecessary byproducts while accelerating the anaerobic cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2018
    Inventors: Stanley M. Siegel, Mark Albert Sokalski
  • Patent number: 9534174
    Abstract: This invention relates to improvements in the fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this invention, a portion of the products from a pyrolysis reactor are condensed in the liquid phase and at least a portion of the recovered liquid is recycled to the pyrolysis reactor for further conversion to valuable, useful products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2017
    Assignee: Anellotech, Inc.
    Inventors: Terry Mazanec, Jeff Whiting
  • Patent number: 9434885
    Abstract: Methods for producing bio-oil from a feedstock (e.g., lignocellulosic) involving (1) pyrolyzing the feedstock in an inert atmosphere in a reactor to produce bio-oil, bio-char and non-condensable gases; (2) recycling 50 to about 85% of the non-condensable gases to the reactor to produce deoxygenated bio-oil; wherein the method is conducted in the absence of oxygen and wherein the method does not utilize externally added catalysts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2016
    Assignee: The United States of America, as Represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Charles A. Mullen, Akwasi A. Boateng, Neil M. Goldberg
  • Publication number: 20150136580
    Abstract: A process for pyrolyzing coal using a recycled hydrogen donor includes introducing a coal feed to a pyrolysis zone and heating the coal feed to a temperature of about 300° C. in the absence of hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent is introduced to the pyrolysis zone after the coal feed is heated to about 300° C., and the temperature of the coal feed and the hydrogen donor solvent is increased to about 475° C., while increasing a pressure in the pyrolysis zone to at or above a vapor pressure of the hydrogen donor solvent. At least an aromatic hydrocarbon rich fraction is separated from the coal tar stream and hydrogenated. The hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbon rich fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis zone as the hydrogen donor solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 26, 2014
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Inventors: Peter K. Coughlin, John Q. Chen, Stanley J. Frey, James A. Johnson, Vasant P. Thakkar
  • Publication number: 20150107150
    Abstract: A system is described that includes a pyrolyzer and a primary condenser. The primary condenser is coupled to the pyrolyzer and configured to receive pyrolytic vapors from the pyrolyzer. The primary condenser is further configured to condense the pyrolytic vapors by contacting the pyrolytic vapors with a condensing liquid, to form a bio-oil component mixture having multiple separated phases. At least a portion of the condensing liquid includes a component that is extracted as a separated stable phase from a second bio-oil component mixture resulting from a prior pyrolysis cycle.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 12, 2014
    Publication date: April 23, 2015
    Inventors: Raymond Bélanger, Christopher Churchill
  • Patent number: 8997376
    Abstract: A process of drying moisture containing material having a tendency to create dust when dried, said process including the steps of providing said material in a heated chamber having a steam containing atmosphere at a temperature above the dewpoint of the steam, recirculating a hot gas including a portion of the steam through said chamber in order to evaporate moisture from the material to a predetermined level of dryness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Pacific Edge Holdings Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Roderick Howard Carnegie, Brendon Gerrard Cooper, William John Stevens
  • Patent number: 8968520
    Abstract: A method of treating untreated low calorific coal containing moisture and organic volatiles includes feeding untreated coal to a dryer, and drying the coal. The dried coal is subjected to a pyrolyzing step where oxygen-deficient gases are brought into contact with the coal, thereby lowering the volatile content of the coal and producing a stream of pyrolysis effluent gases. The pyrolysis effluent gases are subjected to a separation process to separate lean fuel gases from liquids and tars, wherein the separation process removes less than about 20 percent of the pyrolysis effluent gases as the liquids and tars, with the remainder being the lean fuel gases. The lean fuel gases are returned to the dryer combustor, the pyrolyzer combustor, or the pyrolyzer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: National Institute of Clean and Low-Carbon Energy (NICE)
    Inventors: Dennis W. Coolidge, Deane A. Horne, Ronn G. Smith
  • Patent number: 8945348
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of manufacturing charcoal. It is characterized in that: first hot gases are generated by at least one heating means; its first gases are mixed with second gases in order to form a gas mixture; this mixture is sent into a charge of wood in order to generate therein a pyrolysis front; an overpressure is created between the upstream end and the downstream end of the charge so as to force this front to pass through it in one direction, namely from the upstream end to the downstream end; and third gases are recovered downstream of the charge, at least a first portion of said third gases, in the form of a stream of said second gases, is conveyed by a conveying means. The invention also relates to a device for implementing this method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Carbonex Societe A Responsabilite Limitee
    Inventors: Arnaud Loiseau, Philippe Soler-My, Pierre Soler-My
  • Patent number: 8900416
    Abstract: The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: Roger Norris Hilten, Keshav Das, James R. Kastner, Brian P. Bibens
  • Patent number: 8853475
    Abstract: A process for producing a renewable hydrocarbon fuel. The process can include providing a feed including a lignocellulosic material to a pyrolysis zone to produce a stream including a pyrolysis oil, providing the pyrolysis oil stream to a refining zone producing a refined stream, providing at least a portion of the refined stream to a reforming zone producing a stream including hydrogen, providing at least a portion of the hydrogen stream to the refining zone; and recovering the renewable hydrocarbon fuel from the refined stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventor: Tom N. Kalnes
  • Publication number: 20140284197
    Abstract: M&C PB 143543WO 22 31524653-1-abhimani ABSTRACT An apparatus and method for processing organic materials is provided comprising an elongate process tube (22) having an inlet for receiving the material and an outlet for processed material. A gas conveying system fluidically conveys the material through the processing tube, The gas conveying system comprises a supply of conveying gas which is a hot pressurised inert gas, connected to the processing tube (22) at its inlet end. A control system is configured to control the supply of the pressurised inert gas to the processing tube (22) so as to convey a batch of material through the tube (22) whilst simultaneously heating said it to cause the organic matter therein to gasify to produce process. The processing tube (22) has a plurality of sections, each separated by a closure (44), and the gas conveying means conveys the material from one section to the next.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 12, 2012
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Applicant: Chinook End-Stage Recycling Limited
    Inventors: Rifat Al Chalabi, Ophneil Henry Perry, John Turner
  • Patent number: 8828191
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for pyrolytic destruction of polymer products including whole vehicle vulcanised rubber tires is disclosed. The apparatus 111 has a reaction chamber 153 into which a tire can be placed, and immersed for pyrolytic decomposition in a molten alloy of zinc with a minor proportion of aluminium. The apparatus 111 has a heated reservoir 155 in which the alloy is maintained in a molten state, and from where it can be transferred to the reaction chamber 153 to immerse the tire. Fluid hydrocarbon byproducts are drawn off for condensation and recovery, and solid zinc sulphides are also recovered. Where steel belted tires are processed, carbon and steel residues are also recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Inventor: Michael John Shaw
  • Patent number: 8802906
    Abstract: Described is an apparatus and method for recovery of energy and by-products from automobile and truck tires. The tires are heated in an oxygen poor environment, and the off gases are condensed to recover a liquid oil product and compressible natural gas. The tires are reduces to ash and steel, both of which can be feed streams for other processes. The apparatus includes a condenser with cooled plates, and oil recovery structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Inventor: David Brent Thompson
  • Patent number: 8795475
    Abstract: There is described a system and method for recycling carbon-containing material, in particular tires and plastics materials. The system includes a heating arrangement for anaerobically heating carbon containing material to produce carbon-containing gases. A condensing arrangement is also used to condense a proportion of the carbon-containing gases to provide condensed gases and non-condensed gases. In addition, a recirculating arrangement is provided for recirculating the non-condensed gases into the heating arrangement. Further systems and methods for pre- and post-processing of the carbon-containing material are also disclosed and products of the systems and methods are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Used Tyre Distillation Research Limited
    Inventors: Richard Hutchins, Michael Walker, Paul Archer
  • Patent number: 8568569
    Abstract: A system for regenerating or manufacturing activated carbon wherein exhaust gases and vapors for various lower sections of the furnace are recycled in up-flow fashion to higher sections of the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Chavond-Barry Engineering
    Inventors: Louis T. Barry, Christopher M. Doelling
  • Patent number: 8535516
    Abstract: An efficient delayed coking process improvement for producing heavy coker gas oil of sufficient quality to be used as hydrocracker feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2013
    Assignee: Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Ward, Lisa M. Strassle, Kevin Sitton
  • Patent number: 8496805
    Abstract: Petroleum cokes derived from extra-heavy crude sources can be made more amenable to quenching by adding water or a water/light oil mixture to the coker feed downstream of the furnace. The coke product resulting from this addition of normally volatile liquids to the hot coker feed is still relatively dense but is more friable and usually is in a compact, relatively free-flowing, granular form. The coke is more amenable to uniform quenching in the drum and so can be cut and discharged with a reduced risk of eruptions and a reduced risk of fires in the coke pit or when the coke is subsequently handled and transported.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Craig Y. Sabottke, Fritz A. Bernatz, Eric W. Fryatt, Christopher P. Eppig, Jordan K. Lambert
  • Patent number: 8470134
    Abstract: A process for treating coal includes introducing coal into a chamber and passing an oxygen deficient sweep gas into contact with the coal, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of the coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The proportion of heat supplied to the coal by the sweep gas is less than 40% of the total heat supplied to the coal. The sweep gas is then removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of the coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Publication number: 20130075244
    Abstract: A method for torrefaction of biomass using a torrefaction reactor vessel having stacked trays including: feeding the biomass to an upper inlet of the vessel; cascading the biomass down through the trays by passing the biomass through an opening in each of the trays to deposit the biomass on a lower tray; heating the biomass material with an oxygen deprived gas; extracting moisture from below each of the upper trays; as the biomass undergoes torrefaction in the lower trays retaining the gas with the biomass until the biomass falls from the stacked trays to a pile of biomass in the reactor vessel; exhausting gases containing organic compounds through a gas outlet at an elevation between the stacked trays and the pile of biomass, and discharging torrefied biomass from the torrefaction reactor vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2012
    Publication date: March 28, 2013
    Inventors: Andrew EYER, Bertil STROMBERG, Brian F. GREENWOOD, Jacob Hendrik Arnold KIEL, Robin Willem Rudolf ZWART, Ferdinand VERHOEFF, Michael SESTRICH, Nachiketa NANDY, Robert DIAZ, Jay MIELE
  • Patent number: 8404909
    Abstract: A method of biomass pyrolysis is described which includes chemical looping of combustion char so that carbon dioxide can be captured from the combustion of the char as well as producing useable compounds from pyrolyzing biomass in a pyrolysis reactor including a metal oxide carrier particles which is in operative cooperation with a char combustor and oxidation reactor and separator for separating carbon dioxide from the flue gas produced by the char combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: Raja A Jadhav
  • Publication number: 20130068605
    Abstract: A system including a pyrolysis unit for pyrolyzing organic material to produce at least pyrolysis oil and coke, a regenerator unit to combust the coke and produce a regenerator flue gas, and a mixer connected to the regenerator unit to mix the regenerator flue gas with air to produce a cooled flue gas. The system may further include at least one heat exchanger connected to the mixer to extract heat from the cooled flue gas, and a conveyer belt in thermal communication with the at least one heat exchanger and operably connected to the pyrolysis unit. The conveyer belt conveys a organic material in need of drying past the at least one exchanger to produce organic material suitable for use as a feed to the pyrolysis unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 20, 2012
    Publication date: March 21, 2013
    Applicant: CHEVRON USA, INC.
    Inventor: CHEVRON USA, INC.
  • Publication number: 20130062186
    Abstract: A process for treating agglomerating coal includes drying coal in a drying step, and treating the dried coal in an oxidizing step to form oxides sufficient to convert the coal into a substantially non-agglomerating coal. The oxidized coal is pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis step to form coal char, and the coal char is cooled. At least one of the drying, oxidizing, and pyrolyzing steps is a dual zone step, with the dual zone step having a first zone and a second zone, with the temperature of the second zone being higher than that of the first zone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2011
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Publication number: 20130020189
    Abstract: A method for liquefaction of coal or other solid carbonaceous material includes passing the material through a reformer having a temperature gradient therein, the temperature gradient generally increasing as the material flows down through the reformer. The more valuable volatile components of the material exit the material at their respective vaporization temperatures, and pass out of the reformer for processing in condensers. Some of each fraction of the volatile material flow is re-heated and recycled through the reformer to supply heat to maintain the temperature gradient, the recycling injection occurring at a level below that where the fraction exited the reformer so that the recycled fraction will again pass out of the reformer to be condensed. At the bottom of the reformer, the non-volatile portion of the carbonaceous material is removed from the reformer for further processing or sale.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 8, 2011
    Publication date: January 24, 2013
    Inventor: Joseph A. Witherspoon
  • Patent number: 8287696
    Abstract: A new approach to the production of coke. In this process multiple optimized value streams are produced from a coke facility located at mine mouth or locally at an existing plant. As part of the process, lower cost Indiana/Illinois Basin-type coals are blended with conventional metallurgical coals. The blending process is optimized to meet coke quality requirements and simultaneously to obtain a pyrolysis gas composition suitable for production of ancillary products including liquid transportation fuels, fertilizer, hydrogen, and electricity. By using lower cost Indiana/Illinois Basin coal it is possible to reduce net coal costs. This process provides a new direction and approach for the production of coke in the future that optimizes value over multiple product streams while reducing both business and technological risk.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2012
    Assignee: Purdue Research Foundation
    Inventors: Robert A. Kramer, Libbie S. W. Pelter, Harvey Abramowitz, Hardarshan S. Valia, Allen Ellis
  • Patent number: 8226798
    Abstract: A method of forming a pyrolysed biocarbon from a pyrolyzable organic material is delineated. The method involves the conversion of pyrolyzable organic materials to biocarbon for subsequent use. A carbonization circuit is employed with individual feedstock segments being advanced through the circuit. The method facilitates user manipulation of rate of advancement of the feedstock through the circuit, selective collation of volatiles from pyrolyzing feedstock, selective exposure of predetermined feedstock segments to collated volatiles as well as thermal recovery and redistribution as desired by the user. This results in the capacity for a customizable biocarbon product, the latter being an auxiliary feature of the methodology.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2012
    Assignee: Alterna Energy Inc.
    Inventors: Hendrik van Aardt, Phil Marsh, Hugh McLaughlin
  • Patent number: 8168043
    Abstract: A retort apparatus includes a primary rotating pipe within a second rotating pipe within a fixed pipe (27). The interior area of the primary rotating pipe is bounded by a heated pipe. A first annulus is formed between the primary and second rotating pipes. A second annulus is formed between the second rotating pipe and the heated pipe. A third annulus is formed between the primary rotating pipe and the fixed pipe. A heater is positioned within the interior area of said primary rotating pipe. In one embodiment, an inlet gate is provided for introducing a liquid and solid mixture into the first annulus proximate the second end thereof. A first conveyor is provided to move the mixture toward the hot end of the primary rotating pipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2012
    Assignee: Eau-Viron Incorporated
    Inventor: James Titmas
  • Patent number: 7998315
    Abstract: A process for pyrolyzing biomass is provided. The process comprises providing biomass to a pyrolysis reactor to produce a vapor product and condensing said vapor product to produce a condensed product, wherein a phase separation suppression agent is added during said process so as to promote the formation of a single phase condensed product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2011
    Assignee: Aston University
    Inventors: Anthony Bridgwater, Heiko Gerhauser, Astrid Effendi
  • Patent number: 7935227
    Abstract: A method for collecting biomass, such as straw, and for producing a pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, from the biomass, includes the step of collecting the biomass from a growth site, e.g. a field, by means of a mobile unit. The biomass is continuously fed into a pyrolysis apparatus accommodated by the mobile unit, as the mobile unit is moved across the growth site. While the biomass is processed in the pyrolysis apparatus, further biomass is simultaneously being collected. The pyrolysis apparatus may be a flash pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis apparatus relying on centrifugal forces for forcing biomass towards a reactive surface in a pyrolysis reactor. The mobile unit may be self-propelled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2011
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Kim Dam-Johansen, Niels Bech
  • Patent number: 7931783
    Abstract: A fast pyrolysis apparatus (200) for producing pyrolysis liquid, such as oil or tar, char and pyrolysis gas from biomass, such as straw, comprises a centrifuge chamber (204) and a rotor (210) arranged to impart rotation on the biomass in the centrifuge chamber to force the biomass outwardly under the action of centrifugal forces. A furnace (206) arranged coaxially around the centrifuge chamber (204) maintains the temperature at an outer reactive wall of the centrifuge chamber at an elevated temperature to effect the pyrolysis process at or near the reactive wall. The apparatus comprises a condenser (218) arranged coaxially with and surrounded by the centrifuge chamber (204). The apparatus may be accommodated by a mobile unit for simultaneously collecting biomass from a field and processing the biomass in the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2011
    Assignee: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet
    Inventors: Kim Dam-Johansen, Niels Bech, Peter A. Jensen
  • Patent number: 7789999
    Abstract: Described is a thermal decomposition treatment system and method of using the thermal decomposition treatment system wherein flammable waste is inputted into a trash burner which is shielded from air or gas and the waste is thermally decomposed and carbonized. The thermal decomposition treatment chamber includes a plurality of heating tubes wherein the flammable waste is inputted into the chambers while hot air is passed through the heating tubes which indirectly heats the flammable waste in an anaerobic environment the resulting gases are purified, recovered and reused.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Inventor: Jong Ho Lee
  • Patent number: 7176341
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for recovering pure naphthalene from hot crude coke oven gas. The hot crude coke oven gas is directly cooled by means of sprinkling water directly thereon, and the naphthalene is recovered by subsequent filtering out of tar and other impurities, followed by cooling to obtain crystalline pure naphthalene. More specifically, after direct cooling of the hot crude coke oven gas, the gas is then guided through an electrofilter to be subsequently cooled in such a manner that the naphthalene contained in the crude coke oven gas is separated from the gaseous phase and is obtained in the form of pure naphthalene crystals without any required additional treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2007
    Assignee: Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH
    Inventors: Frank Rossa, Hans-Josef Giertz, Horst Schröder
  • Patent number: 7029635
    Abstract: A system for treating a treatable material containing a noxious component, which comprises a mixer for mixing a treatment agent containing alkali material with the treatable material to form a mixture, at least one first heat treating furnace for producing a low oxygen concentration atmosphere, a first heating device located outside the first furnace to heat it at a first temperature at which the treatable material is decomposed to generate a substance containing the noxious component, at least one separate second heat treating furnace, and a second heating device located outside the second furnace for heating the treatable material residue at a second temperature at which carbonization of the treatable material residue takes place.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Meidensha
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Kashiwagi, Haruhisa Ishigaki, Nobuyuki Yoshioka
  • Patent number: 6972085
    Abstract: A system for refining hydrocarbon containing materials in a continuous coking mode may provide a pyrolyzer (1) which may be inclined to effect a liquid seal between a liquid conduction environment (6) and a gaseous conduction environment (7). A heat source (9) may heat the material past the coking point and the system may include a screw or auger (10) which can continuously remove the coke while simultaneously outputting refined products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: The University of Wyoming Research Corporation
    Inventors: Lee E. Brecher, Lyle A. Johnson, Jr., Vijay K. Sethi
  • Patent number: 6746497
    Abstract: A waste is dry-distilled in a gasification furnace and generated combustible gas is combusted in a combustion furnace. A temperature in the combustion furnace is set to be substantially constant at a first preset temperature or more. When the temperature in the combustion furnace is greater than the first preset temperature by combustion of other fuels, the combustible gas is introduced. When the temperature in the combustion furnace reaches a second preset temperature or more by the combustion of only the combustible gas, the combustion of the other fuels is finished. When the temperature in the combustion furnace falls below a third preset temperature the combustion of the other fuels is resumed. When the temperature in the gasification furnace falls below a fourth preset temperature, the combustion of the other fuels is finished.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2004
    Assignee: Kinsei Sangyo Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masamoto Kaneko
  • Patent number: 6206941
    Abstract: An apparatus for converting carbonaceous raw materials into a carbonized product and activating the product, includes a device for heating the carbonaceous raw materials to form a carbonized product, and equipment for activating the carbonized product and supplying by-product of the activation to the device to help in the heating. The device heats a column of carbonaceous raw materials to pyrolize it and form a carbonized product and vapors and gases. Upward flow of the gases and vapors is restrained so that they flow, with the carbonized product, out of the bottom of the column where they are burned in a combustion box and the resultant hot gases used to heat the column through a tube defining the column. Descending carbonized materials pass rapidly through the combustion box into the equipment which through electical resistance heating and steam, activates the carbonized materials and passes gas and vapor by-products thereby created up into the combustion box to help fuel the heating of the raw materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2001
    Inventor: Cornelius J. Du Plessis
  • Patent number: 6169211
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for producing 5-cyclohexadecen-1-one continuously from 1,2-divinylcyclododecanol in a short time in an efficient manner without side reactions. In the process, 1,2-divinylcyclododecanol as a starting material is supplied from a raw material container 1 by a dosage pump 2 to a flash unit 3 which is set under a vacuum of 5 mm Hg or less by a vacuum pump 8 and is heated. 1,2-Divinylcyclododecanol which is flashed in the flash unit is supplied to a reactor 4 which is heated to 400 to 650° C. and is set under a vacuum of 5 mm Hg or less whereby 1,2-divinylcyclododecanol is converted into 5-cyclohexadecen-1-one. The reaction product is discharged from the top of the reactor and is cooled to recover the objective 5-cyclohexadecen-1-one in the recovery container 6. The reduction in the pressure of the apparatus is preferably performed by a vacuum pump 8 via a hydrochloric acid trap 7 comprising, for example, sodium methylate/methanol cooled to −78 to −100° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Assignee: Takasago International Corporation
    Inventors: Misao Yagi, Keisuke Itakura, Kenichi Yamamoto, Akira Amano
  • Patent number: 5824194
    Abstract: An improved coker fractionator system which permits withdrawing, from selected ports in the fractionator, streams of selected boiling point ranges for recovery of thermal energy and for altering the liquid vapor loading within the column for more efficient fractionation within the column. The system includes the provision of one or more ports in a fractionation column between the light coker gas oil draw and the heavy coker gas oil draw connected to either a thermal energy recovery pump-around system or a recycle system for returning a stream to the coker furnace feed stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Bechtel Corporation
    Inventor: Charles J. Kruse
  • Patent number: 5711769
    Abstract: A continuous process for treating coal to form stable coal char by passivating the coal and then rehydrating and cooling the product thereof to prevent spontaneous ignition. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the coal to vaporize and remove low end volatile materials and to mobilize high end volatile materials and cooling to demobilize the high end volatile materials within the at least partially collapsed micropores of the coal char to pyrolytically passivate the coal char and form a char having about 14-22 wt % high end volatiles. The pyrolytically passivated coal char is then conveyed to a reaction vessel wherein a process gas having about 3%-21% by volume oxygen flows through the reaction vessel to at least partially fluidize the coal char and oxidatively passivate the coal by chemisorption of oxygen. The passivated coal char is then substantially simultaneously rehydrated and cooled to form a stable coal char having about 5-10 wt % moisture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Tek-Kol Partnership
    Inventors: Franklin George Rinker, Deane Avent Horne, Dennis Wayne Coolidge, Ernest Peter Esztergar
  • Patent number: 5632863
    Abstract: Used batteries and other material for reclamation and recovery or environmentally safe disposal are transferred from a feed bin by an auger into a crusher and then into a pyrolysis chamber. The feed system excludes air or oxygen from passing through the auger and crusher into the pyrolysis chamber. The material from the crusher is transferred by an auger through the pyrolysis chamber which is heated to a decomposition temperature between and F. and is decomposed. The pyrolysis chamber includes a vapor recovery system for removing the vapors and maintaining a vacuum in the pyrolysis chamber. The vapors are withdrawn through a heat exchanger and into the liquid/gas separator where the condensed liquids are removed and the gas is further processed. The residue from the pyrolysis chamber is discharged into a residue recovery system which includes a closed auger for transferring the residue from the pyrolysis chamber into a bin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1997
    Inventor: W. R. Meador
  • Patent number: 5616216
    Abstract: Process for treating industrial and/or urban waste comprising notably a drying stage, a waste thermolysis stage and a dechlorination stage by washing the solids resulting from the thermolysis.According to the invention, said thermolysis is achieved by direct contact of the waste with warm gases having a low oxygen content.The invention further relates to the plant for implementing the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Gerard Martin, Robert Gaulard
  • Patent number: 5607576
    Abstract: Acidic halogens, especially chlorides, are removed from a dry gas stream by contact with dry particles of solid caustic. The solid caustic particles are preferably non-porous, and disposed in a bed with at least a 10% bed interstitial volume. Limiting halogen content in gas, and operating with a bone dry gas, ensures that salts deposit on the surface of the solid caustic without plugging the bed of solid caustic. Efficient halogen removal can be achieved even when treating a bone dry gas, one having less than 10 ppmv water vapor, at ambient temperature, without plugging the bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventor: Tsoung Y. Yan
  • Patent number: 5605551
    Abstract: A high conversion of biomass, such as wood, sawdust, bark, or agricultural wastes, to liquids is obtained bypyrolysis at short reaction tines in a reactor capable of high heat transfer rates; the reactor being of the fluidized bed, circulating fluidized bed or transport type in which the conveying gas contains low and carefully controlled amounts of oxygen, allowing a reaction system with low concentrations of carbon monoxide or flammable gases with a resulting improvement in operating safety and potential improvement in thermal efficiency and capital costs. The oxidation steps may be carried out in one or two stages. The resulting liquid product may be used as an alternative liquid fuel or as a source of high-value chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1997
    Assignee: University of Waterloo
    Inventors: Donald S. Scott, Jan Piskorz, Desmond Radlein, Piotr Majerski
  • Patent number: 5597451
    Abstract: A thermal decomposition apparatus for plastics wherein plastics are melted and thermally decomposed, and the resulting decomposition gas is cooled for condensation and recovered in the form of a thermal decomposition oil. The apparatus comprises a thermal decomposition reactor for melting and thermally decomposing the plastics therein, an extraneous matter discharge duct having one end opened in a melt of plastics within the reactor, an extraneous matter collecting container connected to the other end of the discharge duct, and an aspirator for aspirating extraneous matter within the reactor together with the melt through the discharge duct into the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Hitachi Zosen Corporation
    Inventors: Kenichi Nagai, Kenji Yasuda, Toshio Hama, Yoshitoshi Sekiguchi, Toshio Tachibana, Osamu Nakanishi, Tadashi Moriyama
  • Patent number: 5584970
    Abstract: The biomass, particularly lump wood, is supplied to a shaft reactor at its top and is initially preheated to temperatures of about to C. and dried by a counterflowing hot gas. This is followed by a treatment in an underlying carbonizing zone, the upper portion of which is supplied with hot purging gas at a temperature of to C. The hot purging gas flows downwardly through the carbonizing zone co-currently with the wood. A gas mixture which contains purging gas and gas produced by carbonization is withdrawn from the lower portion of the carbonizing zone and is at least in part combusted outside the shaft reactor to produce a combustion gas, which is used at least in part as hot purging gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jorg Schmalfeld, Hans J. Eichwald, Udo Zentner
  • Patent number: 5547548
    Abstract: A method for reducing the undesirable contaminants in process water produced in pyrolysis of low rank coal. The method uses the process water to quench and rehydrate a char produced by pyrolysis with the contaminants in the waster water being absorbed by the char.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1996
    Assignee: Tek-Kol
    Inventor: Mark A. Siddoway
  • Patent number: 5505822
    Abstract: A process for treating industrial and/or urban waste includes the steps of drying the waste; effecting thermolysis of the dried waste by direct contact with warm gases, and washing solids resulting from the thermolysis with water to effect dechlorination thereof. Thermolysis is effected by direct contact of the waste with warm gases having a low oxygen content and water for washing the solids is obtained from condensation of vapors generated during drying of the waste A plant for treating industrial and/or urban waste includes a drier for drying the waste, a reactor for thermolyzing the waste, washing the solids from the reactor with water, such as from a condenser, to dechlorinate the solids, and a gas generator to generate warm gases, of which a part of the warm gases are used to heat the drier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1996
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Gerard Martin, Robert Gaulard
  • Patent number: 5464876
    Abstract: Heating of polyvinyl chloride, in particular plasticizer-containing polyvinyl chloride, to a temperature of from to C. in the absence of oxygen gives a low-chlorine, carbon-containing residue, plasticizer and hydrogen chloride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gunther Lyding, Maria Pille, Helmold von Plessen, Joachim Semel
  • Patent number: 5449439
    Abstract: Combustible off-gas(es) produced by the process of pyrolysis are superheated; and a pressurized gaseous mixture including oxygen, normally compressed air, is preheated; before, and by, a burning of the combustible off-gas(es) produced by process of pyrolysis in the presence of stoichiometric oxygen. The burning transpires in a large number of relatively small burner cups having bulbously-shaped and exhaust-constricted combustion chambers. The burner cups are both individually, and collectively, adjustable in their uptake of combustible gases by adjusting the flow of compressed air. The combustion in each burner cup is very complete and efficient nonetheless to having increased area contact with the chamber wall, and nonetheless to the rapidly and turbulent flow of gases, because everything contributing to or touching the combustion reaction is optimally hot, and because the shape of the burner cups holds the combustion optimally long.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Inventor: Ronald Heald
  • Patent number: 5449438
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for reprocessing crushed organic waste products, such as rubber waste from worn car tires, by pyrolysis, the method including pyrolytically decomposing the crushed waste products in a pyrolysis bath which is one of a bed or a bath, and which has a temperature ranging from to C., into a mixture including volatilized constituents, liquid constituents, and solid constituents; collecting at least a part of the volatilized constituents from a gas space above the pyrolysis bath and transporting the collected volatilized constituents away from the pyrolysis bath for further utilization; and introducing a gas intermittently or continuously into the gas space above the pyrolysis bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Assignee: FORMEX Trading GmbH
    Inventors: Hermann H. W. Jagau, Richard Schimko
  • Patent number: 5426259
    Abstract: In a method for oil-extracting treatment of wastes for extracting oil by heating wastes contained in a waste containing chamber in a manner to be shut off from air, an inert gas is injected into the waste containing chamber after termination of thermal decomposition of the wastes to force out the combustible gas within said waste containing chamber and said waste containing chamber is then opened, so as to prevent an explosion due to mixing of the residual combustible gas within the waste containing chamber and air after the termination of thermal decomposition of the wastes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Assignee: Hojo Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuharu Hojo, Toshio Koguchi