Agitating Patents (Class 201/33)
  • Patent number: 9650254
    Abstract: A method of production of active carbon by pyrolysis of organic materials, includes pyrolysis unit, reforming unit, drying unit, purification unit, gas storage unit and high temperature regenerative combustion unit. Organic materials are subjected to pyrolysis reaction in pyrolysis unit to produce combustible gas, tar and char. Combustible gas is reformed through reforming unit then enters into the drying unit for drying organic materials. One part of the purified combustible gas is combusted in the direction of combustion channel in the high temperature regenerative combustion unit, and the combustion heat is produced. At the same time, another part of combustible gas exchanges heat in the direction of heat exchanger channel in the regenerative combustion unit. Then it is used as pyrolysis activation medium entering into the pyrolysis unit in process of pyrolysis and activation reaction. The char is activated by the combustible gas in the pyrolysis unit then forms activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2017
    Assignee: DALIAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Aimin Li, Ningbo Gao, Liaoyuan Mao
  • Patent number: 9605210
    Abstract: A pyrolysis apparatus reduces feedstock to gaseous energy sources and recyclable solids by moving feedstock through a processing unit via a feedstock transport mechanism that has sections that move the feedstock at respectively different rates through a retort within the processing unit. The feedstock transport mechanism may be an auger with a variable flighting pitch along its shaft. The pyrolysis apparatus may be modular in that processing units may be added and subtracted as necessary for any given installation. A restriction device squeezes ambient air out of the feedstock prior to entry into the pyrolysis apparatus retort.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignees: Pike Enterprises, LLC
    Inventors: Jerry Tucker, Nathan Robert Tucker
  • Patent number: 9017521
    Abstract: A process for heat treatment of a solid, with a coolant solid, in which a stage for mixing the solid with the pre-heated coolant solid is carried out, with the coolant solid being a solid hydrocarbon. The solid hydrocarbon is ground, before the mixing stage with the solid, to obtain a solid hydrocarbon powder with a grain size of between 20 ?m and 300 ?m. The solid is ground, before the mixing stage with the coolant solid, to obtain solid pellets with a thickness of between 1 mm and 30 mm, a width of between 1 mm and 40 mm, and a length of between 1 mm and 100 mm. The mixing is carried out at a temperature of between 80° C. and 700° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Elena Garcia Sanz, Matthieu Rolland
  • Publication number: 20140262727
    Abstract: A system for the production of carbonized biomass that includes an infeed for accepting biomass feed material and an associated twin screw extruder. A water heater is connected with respect to at least one inlet along a length of the twin screw extruder and a pressure sustaining valve is connected at an outlet of the twin screw extruder.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 17, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Larry G. Felix, William E. Farthing, James H. Irvin, Todd R. Snyder, Wei Yan
  • Patent number: 8581015
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for restoring plastics to oil, thereby efficiently recycling waste plastics, comprises a decomposer, an oil reduction body, a cooling tank, and a filter and emission part. The decomposer comprises a decomposition space comprising an opening to receive the plastic, a heating coil inside the decomposer to heat the decomposition space to pyrolyze the plastic, and a pyrolyzing gas exhaust pipe to exhaust pyrolyzing gas produced in pyrolyzing the plastic. The oil reduction body is divided into a cooling space and a oil catchment space by a partition. The cooling tank provides cooling water to the cooling space to cool and reduce the pyrolyzing gas to oil, which is collected in the oil catchment space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Eco Creation International, Inc.
    Inventor: Ki Jeong Jeon
  • Publication number: 20130256114
    Abstract: An apparatus for controlled pyrolysis of waste material includes an elongate, perforated rotary drum lined with refractory material, having a longitudinal axis of rotation, and forming a chamber to receive and decompose the waste material. The drum includes a cylindrical metal exterior which has numerous apertures distributed over its cylindrical surface provided for passage of a limited amount of process air into the chamber. A mechanism is provided for supporting the drum for rotation about the longitudinal axis. An external shell encloses the rotary drum and prevents external ambient air from flowing through the apertures and into the chamber. Air distribution housings are distributed along the length of the rotary drum and form air distribution chambers each of which is enclosed except on an inner side of the chamber. This inner side is open for delivery of process air through a selected portion of apertures in the metal exterior.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Publication date: October 3, 2013
    Inventor: Andrew MARSZAL
  • Patent number: 8524959
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for small-scale operation of biomass catalytic cracking. The process is suitable for lab scale and pilot plant operation, as well as for small-scale commercial operation. The process is suitable for simulating a continuous biomass catalytic cracking (BCC) process. The process comprises a biomass conversion cycle and a catalyst regeneration cycle. A fluid bed reactor and a reaction feed fluidizer suitable for use in the process are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul O'Connor, Henrique Soares Cerqueira, Robert Bartek, Steve Yanik
  • Publication number: 20130220790
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus for the processing of a particulate material, the apparatus comprising: a processing chamber having one or more inlets for admitting particulate material to be processed and one or more outlets for processed particulate material; the processing chamber comprising an annular treatment zone and a plurality of processing fluid inlets arranged in a base of said annular treatment zone and configured so that, in use, jets of processing fluid pass into the annular treatment zone through the plurality of processing fluid inlets to establish a spiral flow of particulate material in the annular processing zone; wherein said one or more outlets for processed particulate material are located in the base of said annular treatment zone and surrounded by said plurality of processing fluid inlets so that the spiral flow of particulate material circulates around said one or more outlets; the processing chamber further comprising means for deflecting a portion of the spiral flow o
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Publication date: August 29, 2013
    Applicant: MORTIMER TECHNOLOGY HOLDINGS LIMITED
    Inventor: Christopher Dodson
  • Publication number: 20130192971
    Abstract: A biomass fractionator and method are described for inputting ground biomass and outputting several vapor streams of bio-intermediate compounds along with syngas and biochar. One such biomass fractionate comprises: means for receiving ground biomass into the system; and a plurality of biomass processing stations including means for heating the biomass and subjecting the biomass to biofractioning, and means for collecting residual carbon and biochar.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2013
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Inventor: Michael C. Cheiky
  • Publication number: 20130189182
    Abstract: A system and method of converting tires or other solid carbon based material is disclosed, including providing a chamber, feeding the solid carbon based material into the chamber, rotating the chamber, heating and reducing the material in the chamber, collecting solid residue from the chamber, collecting vapor from the chamber, and converting vapor collected from the chamber to a liquid. In an embodiment, the material includes a whole tire. The tire is heated in the chamber causing the tire to collapse and liquefy, exposing the metal in the tire which aids in grinding the carbon material in the tire as it tumbles, collecting solid residue, for example tire carbons, and collecting vapor, for example vaporized oil, and benzene and methane gas from the chamber and converting the oil. The chamber may be heated to a temperature from about 350° F. to about 1100° F. using gases reclaimed from the material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 10, 2013
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Inventor: Fredrick Taylor
  • Patent number: 8466332
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is provided for the continuous microwave depolymerization of high molecular weight organic feedstock material, such as waste plastics and includes intermittent or continuous feeding of the processing material on the surface or into the bulk of the sensitized hot bed located under microwave irradiation. As a result of the interaction of electromagnetic field with processed materials, sensitizer is heated by microwave energy and feedstock material undergoes the depolymerization reactions. The reaction zone can be localized on the surface of the hot bed or distributed in the bulk of the reaction mass depending on the agitation conditions of the reaction mass, such as stirring, or other agitation means, for example by recirculated gas. Products of the reactions are vaporized and transported to the collection system, which may include a combination of a scrubber, a condenser and a settler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2013
    Assignee: Climax Global Energy
    Inventors: John Hemmings, Thomas Pinto, Viktor Sharivker
  • Patent number: 8378161
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is provided for the continuous microwave depolymerization of high molecular weight organic feedstock material, such as waste plastics and includes intermittent or continuous feeding of the processing material on the surface or into the bulk of the sensitized hot bed located under microwave irradiation. As a result of the interaction of electromagnetic field with processed materials, sensitizer is heated by microwave energy and feedstock material undergoes the depolymerization reactions. The reaction zone can be localized on the surface of the hot bed or distributed in the bulk of the reaction mass depending on the agitation conditions of the reaction mass, such as stirring, or other agitation means, for example by re-circulated gas. Products of the reactions are vaporized and transported to the collection system, which may include a combination of a scrubber, a condenser and a settler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2013
    Assignee: Climax Global Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: John Hemmings, Thomas Pinto, Viktor Sharivker
  • Patent number: 8350104
    Abstract: To provide a method for catalytically cracking waste plastics wherein the efficiency in decomposition is high; even polyethylene composed of linear chain molecules difficult in decomposition is decomposable at a low temperature and decomposed residue is hardly produced; the process is simple since dechlorination can be achieved at the same time with catalytically cracking waste plastics in one reaction vessel; and oil fractions can be recovered at 50% or more on a net yield basis. The method for catalytically cracking waste plastics of the present invention has a constitution in which waste plastics are loaded as a raw material into a granular FCC catalyst heated to a temperature range from 350° C. to 500° C. inside a reaction vessel, thereby decomposing and gasifying the waste plastics in contact with the FCC catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: Kitakyushu Foundation for the Advancement of Industry, Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kaoru Fujimoto, Xiaohong Li
  • Patent number: 8317980
    Abstract: A reactor having a shaft protruding through one end, a fuel output tube protruding through a second end, shovels housed inside, and a discharge tube, is provided. A first end of the discharge tube is inside of the reactor and the second end protrudes out of the fuel output tube. A helix thruster can be inside the discharge tube and have a driver shaft with a first gear inside of the reactor. The reactor can also include a residue collector and a fork. The fork can be disposed on a driven shaft including a second gear, which engages the first gear of the helix thruster. A system for feeding materials into the reactor is also disclosed as well as methods of converting waste plastic or rubber into fuel using the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Nantong Tianyi Environment and Energy Technology Limited Corporation
    Inventors: Jianguo Li, Xurong Zhao
  • Patent number: 8308911
    Abstract: This invention relates to systems and methods for converting biomass into highly inert carbon. Specifically, some embodiments densify the carbon into anthracite-style carbon aggregations and store it in geologically stable underground deposits. The use of certain embodiments yield a net effect of removing atmospheric carbon via the process of photosynthesis and converting it into hard coal, which can be stored in underground beds that mimic existing coal deposits which are known to be stable for thousands of years.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: Cool Planet Biofuels, LLC
    Inventor: Michael C. Cheiky
  • Publication number: 20120125758
    Abstract: A process for the pyrolysis of at least one material includes: introducing the material into a pressurized rotary retort system, heating the material in the pressurized rotary retort system within a desired temperature range and within a desired pressure range for a desired period of time; and, advancing the heated and pressurized material from a first end to a second end of the pressurized rotary retort by rotating the pressurized retort about its longitudinal axis; where at least a quantity of the material is converted into one or more end products. Also the system generally includes: a pressurized rotary retort system configured for producing at least one gaseous product from pyrolysis of material, and having a pressurized furnace vessel and a retort positioned within the pressurized furnace vessel; and; a solids reactor system operatively connected to the rotary retort for receiving material from the pressurized rotary retort system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 17, 2010
    Publication date: May 24, 2012
    Applicants: RED LION BIO-ENERGY, LLC, SURFACE COMBUSTION
    Inventors: Max Hoetzl, Douglas S. Struble, Noureen Faizee
  • Patent number: 8137508
    Abstract: A pyrolysis process and reactor converts various hydrocarbons such as waste materials, for example, scrap polymers, tires, etc., into various chemical components or amounts thereof, not otherwise produced by conventional pyrolytic processes. A large reactor size is utilized in association with a low heat input per unit weight of charge. A thick pyrolyzate/“char” layer is formed during pyrolysis. The product or various components thereof can be utilized as a fuel or octane additive.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: Charlie Holding Intellectual Property, Inc.
    Inventor: Charles W. Grispin
  • Publication number: 20120024687
    Abstract: A method of separating a high boiling component from a mixture containing organic and/or inorganic boiling components which method involves providing an induction heated screw conveyor having an auger and passing the mixture through the induction heated screw conveyor while inductively heating the auger so as to heat the mixture in the induction heated screw conveyor. The mixture is heated to a temperature that is sufficient to cause the boiling component(s) to separate from the mixture as a vapor and the boiling component is removed from the induction heated screw conveyor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2011
    Publication date: February 2, 2012
    Applicant: HERITAGE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES, LLC
    Inventors: James E. Bratina, David Bowering, Perry Eyster, Thomas Roberts
  • Patent number: 7951270
    Abstract: Recycling a metal/organic laminate continuously involves providing a reactor having a first chamber with a first rotary stirrer, a second chamber with a second rotary stirrer, each chamber containing particulate microwave absorbing material, introducing laminate and additional absorbing material into the first chamber under a reducing or inert atmosphere, stirring and applying microwave energy sufficiently to pyrolyze organic material, transferring a portion of the mixture to the second chamber where it is stirred and microwave energy applied to pyrolyze remaining organic material, delaminate or delaminated metal migrating toward and floating on the upper surface of the mixture, where the second stirrer rotates in a horizontal plane and fluidizes the mixture to give the upper surface of the mixture a radial profile biasing metal floating to migrate radially outwardly, and recovering metal from an exit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2011
    Assignee: Cambridge University Technical Services Limited
    Inventors: Carlos Ludlow-Palafox, Howard A. Chase
  • Patent number: 7947155
    Abstract: This invention involves pyrolysis of feedstock by introducing carbonaceous feedstock, into a hopper and moving it into a reactor tube enclosed in an oven, generating heat within the oven that is in part transferred to the feedstock, heating it to sufficient temperature to pyrolyze the feedstock into useful volatiles and char. A Venturi system produces a negative pressure directing volatiles into a pyro-gas oven producing heat necessary for pyrolysis and generating useful excess heat. The extruded pyrolysis char has uses including charcoal fuel, soil amendments, and activated charcoal while liquids can be produced for processing into fuels. Excess heat may be used to heat water, steam, and air, may be used in air heating and cooling systems, perform mechanical work with a Stirling engine or generate electricity on the order of 100 kW and higher. The system may be operated in a carbon neutral or even carbon negative manner, allowing sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2011
    Assignee: Green Liquid and Gas Technologies
    Inventors: Alex E. S. Green, Bruce A. Green
  • Patent number: 7932424
    Abstract: To provide a method for catalytically cracking waste plastics wherein the efficiency in decomposition is high; even polyethylene composed of linear chain molecules difficult in decomposition is decomposable at a low temperature and decomposed residue is hardly produced; the process is simple since dechlorination can be achieved at the same time with catalytically cracking waste plastics in one reaction vessel; and oil fractions can be recovered at 50% or more on a net yield basis. The method for catalytically cracking waste plastics of the present invention has a constitution in which waste plastics are loaded as a raw material into a granular FCC catalyst heated to a temperature range from 350° C. to 500° C. inside a reaction vessel, thereby decomposing and gasifying the waste plastics in contact with the FCC catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2011
    Assignee: Kitakyushu Foundation for the Advancement of Industry, Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kaoru Fujimoto, Xiaohong Li
  • Patent number: 7918973
    Abstract: A process for treating solid organic materials, especially for recycling treated wood, uses energy provided by hot gases at the bottom of a reactor column to perform a distillation operation which ensures splitting of organic bonds in the material and uses, as the distillation operation progresses, constant control between a first temperature of the hot gases before they are introduced into the lower part of the reactor column and a second temperature of a layer of the material located in an area immediately above the grid of the reactor column. When the first temperature and the second temperature are identical or virtually identical, corresponding to removal of all the organic bonds of the material by evaporation and transport by the hot gases from the bottom to the top of the column, the layer of material at the second temperature is removed in order to collect a material that largely consists of carbon and constitutes a secondary raw material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Thermya
    Inventor: Jean-Sebastien Hery
  • Patent number: 7893307
    Abstract: Apparatus and process for producing hydrocarbon materials from a feed composition, the apparatus including a feed port; a viscous shear apparatus; a thermal decomposition assembly including a ribbonchannel reactor which includes an inner heated hollow cylinder; an outer heated hollow cylinder, one of which is rotatable with respect to the other, both heated hollow cylinders providing heat to the feed composition to convert it to a vapor fraction and a solid residue fraction; low height flighting mounted with respect to the inner and outer heated hollow cylinders to move the feed composition through the thermal decomposition assembly; at least one vapor port for removing the vapor fraction; and at least one solids port for removing the solid fraction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Inventor: David G. Smith
  • Patent number: 7824523
    Abstract: A catalytically activated vacuum distillation system, several novel component parts of said system, a process for producing carbon based products and novel carbon black that is produced from such a system and process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: Earthfirst Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael P Maskarinec, Bart M. Taylor
  • Patent number: 7531703
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of recycling a plastic thereby forming a narrow spectrum of hydrocarbons having from 4 to 14 carbon atoms that can be directly used as gasoline without additional processing or refining. The method includes the step of feeding the plastic, selected from the group of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and combinations thereof, into a heated vessel for melting. The method also includes the step of decomposing the plastic at a temperature of from 400° C. to 500° C. in the presence of a metallocene catalyst and a zeolitic catalyst thereby forming the hydrocarbons having from 4 to 14 carbon atoms. The metallocene catalyst includes dichlorobis(2-methylindenyl)zirconium (IV). The zeolitic catalyst includes ammonium Y zeolite and has a pore size of from 1 to 4 Angstroms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2009
    Assignee: Ecoplastifuel, Inc.
    Inventors: Swaminathan Ramesh, Joel Sibul
  • Publication number: 20080200738
    Abstract: A pyrolysis process and reactor converts various hydrocarbons such as waste materials, for example, scrap polymers, tires, etc., into various chemical components or amounts thereof, not otherwise produced by conventional pyrolytic processes. A large reactor size is utilized in association with a low heat input per unit weight of charge. A thick pyrolyzate/“char” layer is formed during pyrolysis. The product or various components thereof can be utilized as a fuel or octane additive.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 19, 2008
    Publication date: August 21, 2008
    Applicant: Polyflow Corporation
    Inventor: Charles W. Grispin
  • Patent number: 6881303
    Abstract: A plastic as a material to be treated and an additive such as unsaturated fatty acid oil are mixed, and the mixture is heated in a pyrolysis tank at a temperature of 300° C. to 450° C. by a heating member to thereby thermally decompose the mixture. A gas component produced during the heating process is then removed and a pyrolysate is thus produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: Tokyo Ertec Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoji Inoue, Satoru Aikawa, Norihiro Inagaki, Shigeru Tasaka
  • Patent number: 6226889
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for use in removing at least one volatile contaminant from contaminated material by using a rotary vacuum retort during high temperature and vacuum processing. The loading and unloading are performed in a manner that minimizes the introduction of low boiling point gases. The apparatus employs, in one preferred embodiment, elastomeric pinch valve airlocks to isolate the entire system between the airlocks and a vacuum generator. The apparatus employs, in another preferred embodiment, at least one material transfer element. Furthermore, the contaminated material may be dried in a dryer prior to introduction into the retort. Moreover, the decontaminated material can be cooled through a heat exchanger prior to discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: SepraDyne Corporation
    Inventors: Randy A. Aulbaugh, Gregory G. Hawk
  • Patent number: 6105275
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for use in continuously loading material to be treated into a rotary vacuum retort and continuously unloading one or more vapors or similar volatile substances and treated material out of the rotary vacuum retort during high temperature and high vacuum processing. The loading and unloading are performed in a manner that minimizes the introduction of low boiling point gases. The apparatus employs, in one preferred embodiment, elastomeric pinch valve airlocks to isolate the entire system between the airlocks and a vacuum generator. Furthermore, the material being treated may be dried in a dryer prior to introduction into the retort. Moreover, the processed material can be cooled through a heat exchanger to permit the use of a low temperature pinch valve airlock on the discharge end of the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: SepreDyne Corporation
    Inventors: Randy A. Aulbaugh, Gregory G. Hawk
  • Patent number: 5628877
    Abstract: A method for producing a solid fuel from combustible waste includes sorting and grinding the waste, treating the waste by heating in the absence of oxygen in a first pyrolysis reactor and then collecting the waste so treated. Polluting elements in the gases emerging from the pyrolysis are removed while the gases are hot before being directly reused to heat a first pyrolysis reactor so that solids leaving the pyrolysis operation provide a fuel without the pollutants initially contained in the waste. The device for carrying out this method includes a pyrolysis reactor and a unit for supplying an absorbent to a zone wherein the gases generated by pyrolysis are contacted by the absorbent to remove the polluting elements; the absorbent and the decontaminated solids are separated from each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Gerard Martin
  • Patent number: 5597451
    Abstract: A thermal decomposition apparatus for plastics wherein plastics are melted and thermally decomposed, and the resulting decomposition gas is cooled for condensation and recovered in the form of a thermal decomposition oil. The apparatus comprises a thermal decomposition reactor for melting and thermally decomposing the plastics therein, an extraneous matter discharge duct having one end opened in a melt of plastics within the reactor, an extraneous matter collecting container connected to the other end of the discharge duct, and an aspirator for aspirating extraneous matter within the reactor together with the melt through the discharge duct into the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Hitachi Zosen Corporation
    Inventors: Kenichi Nagai, Kenji Yasuda, Toshio Hama, Yoshitoshi Sekiguchi, Toshio Tachibana, Osamu Nakanishi, Tadashi Moriyama
  • Patent number: 5547549
    Abstract: A vibrating bed pyrolysis system has a vibrating bed which is supplied with hot solid particles. Dry coal particles are rapidly heated by the hot solid particles to drive off hydrocarbon vapors. The vapors are condensed in a jet condenser, and products are flowed to a header tank. A portion of the liquid product is stored at room temperature for later use. A small portion of the liquid product is pumped from the header tank and cooled to ambient temperature and is sprayed in the jet condenser, which is positioned above the vibrating pyrolysis bed. A dryer bed vibrated by the same vibrating machine which vibrates the pyrolysis bed is supplied with hot solid particles and the crushed coal. Moisture in the coal particles is evaporated, and water vapors entrain coal fines before the coal particles are passed to the pyrolysis bed. The hot solid particles are taken from a fluidized bed combustor and are returned to the combustor with the coal char particles by entrainment into the gas lift system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1996
    Inventor: Arthur P. Fraas
  • Patent number: 5496465
    Abstract: A vibrating bed pyrolysis system has a vibrating bed which is supplied with hot solid particles. Dry coal particles are rapidly heated by the hot solid particles to drive off hydrocarbon vapors. The vapors are condensed in a jet condenser, and products are flowed to a header tank. A portion of the liquid product is stored at room temperature for later use. A small portion of the liquid product is pumped from the header tank and cooled to ambient temperature and is sprayed in the jet condenser, which is positioned above the vibrating pyrolysis bed. A dryer bed vibrated by the same vibrating machine which vibrates the pyrolysis bed is supplied with hot solid particles and the crushed coal. Moisture in the coal particles is evaporated, and water vapors entrain coal fines before the coal particles are passed to the pyrolysis bed. The hot solid particles are taken from a fluidized bed combustor and are returned to the combustor with the coal char particles by entrainment into the gas lift system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1996
    Inventor: Arthur P. Fraas
  • Patent number: 5366595
    Abstract: A loading mechanism places waste material into a porous rotatable cylinder that is mounted for relative rotation within an air-tight housing. Once loaded, the housing is sealed and oxygen is evacuated. A microwave heating device heats the waste material within the cylinder and breaks the waste material down into solid and fluid products. A drive motor simultaneously rotates the cylinder at high speed, creating centrifugal force on the waste material. The fluid products escape outwardly from the porous cylinder and are transferred to a heat exchanger chamber where they are cooled. A fractional distillation system stratifies the fluid products according to weight for purposes of recovery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Inventors: Michael A. Padgett, Douglas B. Kuiper, Steven R. Rehnborg
  • Patent number: 5194069
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for the refinement of organic material is disclosed. Converting and processing organic material is achieved with or without organic and inorganic additions. The base material uses waste material, i.e. forest industry waste and slaughter-house waste. The method and apparatus produce a packeted end product, specifically carbon powder/granulate as full and charcoal for grilling/smoking, as well as active coal and additives for steel production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1993
    Assignee: Productcontrol Limited
    Inventor: George E. Someus
  • Patent number: 5078836
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method are disclosed for the thermal treatment of feed material containing solids and liquids such as solid waste or the like. The apparatus includes one or more coaxial rotatable drums and one or more free rotating spirals advancing the material in the drums. The material flowing through the drums is heated to form solids and vapors. In one or more embodiments of the apparatus, the hot solids and vapors exchange heat with the cold feed material. An extruder for preparing the solids being produced from the apparatus for disposal and a means for rotating the drums are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 5017269
    Abstract: A method of continuously carbonizing a mixture of primarily organic waste material wherein a stream of comminuted waste material with a substantial organic material content is fed to one end of a mixer barrel, the material is compressed to form a barrel filling mass functioning as a first vapor block, and the work energy required to compress it and squeeze out entrapped air is used virtually exclusively to maintain the temperature of the material adiabatically, air and any steam created are vented, the material downstream from the first vapor block is decompressed in a second vent region, the material is recompressed in the absence of air to form another vapor block, while exclusively utilizing the work energy required to compress it to maintain the temperature of the material adiabatically at volatile releasing and carbonizing temperatures, the volatiles are vented, and the product is discharged as a dry, friable particulate char.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1991
    Assignee: APV Chemical Machinery Inc.
    Inventors: Bernard A. Loomans, James E. Kowalczyk, Harold A. Lange, Jerry W. Jones
  • Patent number: 4908104
    Abstract: A method of continuously carbonizing a mixture of primarily organic waste material to a high British Thermal Unit char product wherein a stream of comminuted garbage material with a substantial organic material content is fed to one end of a mixer barrel, the material is compressed to form a barrel filling mass functioning as a first vapor block, and the work energy required to compress it and squeeze out entrapped air is used virtually exclusively to raise the temperature of the material adiabatically, air and any steam created are vented, the material downstream from the first vapor block is decompressed in a second vent region, the material is recompressed in the absence of air to form another vapor block, while exclusively utilizing the work energy required to compress it to raise the temperature of the material abiabatically to a volatile releasing temperature in the neighborhood of 400.degree. F. to 600.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1990
    Assignee: APV Chemical Machinery Inc.
    Inventors: Bernard A. Loomans, James E. Kowalczyk, Harold A. Lange, Jerry W. Jones
  • Patent number: 4859284
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a combined process for separating and converting asphaltenes of high molecular weight and high softening point from heavy hydrocarbon material containing asphaltenes by a process that combines a deasphalting method to produce solid asphaltenes and a continuous coking procedure for the solid asphaltenes. The combined process converts the material into more valuable liquid hydrocarbon products of lower molecular weight and coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Intevep, S.A.
    Inventors: Roland Rammler, Hans-Jurgen Weiss, Hans-Adolf Herbertz, Rodolfo B. Solari, Rafael Hidalgo
  • Patent number: 4722768
    Abstract: Untreated coal is activated with steam at temperatures of 600.degree. to 950.degree. C. in a vibrating fluid bed, which is directly heated. The untreated coal is pre-dried by counter-current passage of the waste gases from the reaction either during feeding of the untreated coal or in the first part of the vibrating fluid bed trough. During the activation, secondary air can be passed in through a sparge pipe which is arranged parallel to the vibrating fluid bed trough. It is possible to carry out the heating exclusively with the supply of secondary air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1988
    Assignee: Degussa Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Ruediger Schirrmacher, Gisbert Semmerau
  • Patent number: 4689120
    Abstract: An apparatus for the recovery of oil from shale is disclosed in which the shale travels through processing zones on a moving grate. Among the processing zones are a destructive distillation zone and a carbon combustion zone. A conduit is provided for recirculating gases to the carbon combustion zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1987
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Joseph Kuchinski, Risdon W. Hankinson, Charles J. Rosvold
  • Patent number: 4686008
    Abstract: Apparatus is disclosed for the thermal decomposition or pyrolysis of shredded vehicle tires. Interially of a pyrolysis chamber is mounted a hollow shaft which carries on at least a portion of its outer surface, a conveyor flight and a plurality of partial flights which compact, mix and stir the rubber shreds during the decomposing cycle. Undecomposed rubber, fiberglass, carbon and metal products are collected at the end of the decomposition chamber and the gaseous products of decomposition are separately collected and sent through a fractionator. Externally of the decomposition chamber is a screen type magnetic separator which removes the magnetic susceptible metal particles and the carbon passes through the rotating cylindrical screen. Undecomposed rubber, fiberglass and the like are removed from the screen and separately treated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 1985
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1987
    Inventor: Harry T. Gibson
  • Patent number: 4652342
    Abstract: A process for the destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous solids in a retort, wherein a viscous bridging zone comprising viscous liquids in intimate contact with solids, which tends to impede the flow of vaporized hydrocarbons and the flow of solid particles, is agitated by reciprocating mechanical means actuated by a rotatable crankshaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1987
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Richard D. Kuerston
  • Patent number: 4597772
    Abstract: A tilted, fixed kiln with rotory steam gasifier having a fixed elongated, pressurizable kiln body member with an input end and an output end and with the center axis supported at an angle to the horizontal so as to bring into effect gravitational forces acting on high moisture content biomass material fed into the input end and travelling through the kiln to the output end and having in the kiln body an axially extending rotor and a motor, radially spaced-apart scoop-like blade elements extending along the axial length of the kiln for tumbling the material, means for increasing the temperature from its input to its output end, spaced-apart blades and chains disposed in the rotor kiln cavities for stirring the biomass material as it travels through the kiln to prevent agglomeration, a plurality of parallel, axially extending hot gas counter-flow feedback pipes arranged around the kiln body and along the backsides of the scoop-like blade elements, a metering auger mounted vertically to the input end of the kiln
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1986
    Assignee: Wright-Malta Corporation
    Inventor: John A. Coffman
  • Patent number: 4591362
    Abstract: A process for gasifying carbonaceous solids in a rotating zone is disclosed wherein the gasifying agents are injected into a tumbling bed of the solids through an elongated, rotating tubular flow path (19) positioned and supported so as to remain in the tumbling bed during rotation of the zone. The invention is particularly useful in rotary kilns where coal, lignite, peat, heavy oil residual, and other carbonaceous materials are gasified using injected steam, oxygen or air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1986
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Amos Yudovich, George E. Hays
  • Patent number: 4588429
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for the heat processing of granular materials by the counterflow of the granular material and preheated particulate heat exchange media through a processing drum rotatable about an inclined axis. The hot media is intimately mixed with the granular material internally of the drum to heat the material and to cool the media. Various arrangements are disclosed to recover the heat imparted to the material, or to utilize the media for successive heating operations, or to recover waste heat from other related heat processing operations or to utilize the material as preheated by the media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation
    Inventors: Charles M. Hohman, Mark A. Propster, Stephen Seng
  • Patent number: 4563246
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is disclosed for retorting particulate solid materials, particularly hydrocarbon-containing materials such as oil shale, oil sands, tar sands, coal shale, coal tailings, and the like, for the recovery of a volatile constituent such as oil or gas. A rotary retorting apparatus is employed which consists of a cylindrical drum, or other similar regularly shaped chamber, with a substantially horizontal axis of rotation and having multiple compartments for retorting and combustion and, optionally, spent solids cooling. The apparatus further includes solids transport chutes for forward and backward circulation of solids, arranged for the intercompartmental transfer of solids with the capability of additions at one or more points in each compartment. Employing the method and apparatus, particulate solids feedstock is heated by recycled spent solids material to remove the volatile constituent of the feedstock in the retort section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: PEDCo, Inc.
    Inventors: Leland M. Reed, William A. Reed, Walter C. Saeman
  • Patent number: 4563247
    Abstract: An apparatus for the destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous solids in a retort, wherein a viscous bridging zone comprising viscous liquids in intimate contact with solids, which tends to impede the flow of vaporized hydrocarbons and the flow of solid particles, is agitated by reciprocating mechanical means actuated by a rotatable crankshaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1986
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Richard D. Kuerston
  • Patent number: 4436588
    Abstract: Devolatizable fine-grained material which contains hydrocarbons is devolatilized by means of fine-grained solids which have been heated to temperatures of about 500.degree. to 1000.degree. C. The devolatilizable fine-grained material is mixed with the heated solids and is thus heated to temperatures of about 400.degree. to 900.degree. C. The mixture is passed through a dwell zone, and gaseous and vaporous devolatilization products are withdrawn and cooled. The heated solids are fed to the dwell zone as a loosened stream in a trickling and/or agitated state of motion, and the devolatilizable fine-grained material is introduced into said stream in order to be admixed thereto. The heated solids and the devolatilizable fine-grained material can be mixed in a weight ratio of 3:1 to 12:1. The stream of trickling heated solids can be deflected at least in part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Roland Rammler, Alfons Bussmann
  • Patent number: 4406744
    Abstract: The production of hydrogenated tar and distillates from coal which is passed through successive condensing, hydrogenation, desulfurization and cooling zones of a dense bed while a flue gas is discharged into the lower portion of the desulfurization zone in admixture with steam and hydrogen for countercurrent flow contact with the coal and coke solids. The gases evolved from the desulfurization zone are passed into countercurrent contact with the coal in the preceding hydrogenation zone where the high boiling coal tar fractions evolved from the coal are hydrogenated and pyrolyzed. The total effluent from the hydrogenation zone is then passed into countercurrent contact with the coal in the condensing zone, preheating the coal by direct contact and initiating the pyrolysis of the coal. The preferred method is practiced in a vertical kiln through which the coal is passed as a dense, compact gravitating bed of solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1983
    Inventor: Clyde Berg