In A Moving Bed Patents (Class 201/32)
  • Patent number: 10364393
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus and method for the production of densified charcoal from organic material that can be used for example as chemical reagents, fuels, or absorbents. The reaction vessel defines a flow path extending from the input to the vessel, through to the output from the vessel, in which the thermal decomposition of the organic material progresses as the organic material passes through the reaction vessel. The vessel includes a reaction zone for autogenous reaction of organic material in a reaction bed of the organic material. Pressure can be applied to the bed of organic material to increase the density of the resultant charcoal. Acoustic emitters may also be used to enhance the densification process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2019
    Assignee: COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION
    Inventor: Alexandre Vladimirovich Deev
  • Patent number: 9828553
    Abstract: The process is for thermally treating a feed material. The process comprises at least one step performed in a rotating kiln operating under positive pressure with a pressure control system and wherein in the process a sweep gas, that is an inert gas or a substantially non-reactive gas, is injected into the rotating kiln or in the feed stream entering the rotating operating kiln; or at least one step performed in a rotating kiln operating under positive pressure managing system; or at least one step performed in a rotating kiln wherein a sweep gas is injected in the rotating kiln or in the feed stream entering the rotating operating kiln. In step a), or in b) or in step c), the conditions of the thermal treatment are managed in order that the exit stream, after cooling, result in at least one liquid phase that is preferably essentially an oily liquid phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignee: ENVIROLLEA INC.
    Inventor: Lucie B. Wheeler
  • Patent number: 9681667
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a composition of granulated or pelletized endomycorrhizal fungi spores coated with a covering of mineral clays and binders with calcium sulphate monohydrate and the production and use thereof in agriculture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2017
    Inventor: José Luis Miranda Valencia
  • Patent number: 9017521
    Abstract: A process for heat treatment of a solid, with a coolant solid, in which a stage for mixing the solid with the pre-heated coolant solid is carried out, with the coolant solid being a solid hydrocarbon. The solid hydrocarbon is ground, before the mixing stage with the solid, to obtain a solid hydrocarbon powder with a grain size of between 20 ?m and 300 ?m. The solid is ground, before the mixing stage with the coolant solid, to obtain solid pellets with a thickness of between 1 mm and 30 mm, a width of between 1 mm and 40 mm, and a length of between 1 mm and 100 mm. The mixing is carried out at a temperature of between 80° C. and 700° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Elena Garcia Sanz, Matthieu Rolland
  • Patent number: 9005402
    Abstract: The present technology describes apparatus, systems, and methods for the thermal decomposition of carbonaceous feedstocks through continuous pyrolysis. A reciprocating reactor is described that includes an inner reactor pipe and an outer reactor pipe. The outer reactor pipe has a first portion that surrounds the inner reactor pipe forming an annulus space, and a second portion that extends beyond the inner reactor pipe and forms a turnaround zone. The inner reactor pipe defines an inner reactor zone that produces partially reacted carbonaceous feedstock, and the annulus space defines an outer reactor zone that produces product gases and solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Interra Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas R. Del Monte, Eren K. Yar
  • Patent number: 8986507
    Abstract: Methods, devices and systems for continuously converting biomass are described herein. A device has a feed section for holding a moving bed of biomass, namely wood, having a drying section, a flame zone for degassing, and a, smolder zone for carbonizing the biomass into a solid converted product, namely charcoal. The device includes a tank for collecting the solid converted product arranged below a grate and coupled with the feed section in a gas-tight manner. The system comprising the device, a biogas plant and/or a combined heat and power plant conveys the liquid converted product, namely pyroligneous acid or acetic acid, to the biogas plant and/or the solid converted product, namely charcoal, to the combined heat and power plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: European Charcoal AG
    Inventor: Bernd Schottdorf
  • Patent number: 8969638
    Abstract: A styrene monomer reclamation process and system is described. The styrene monomer reclamation process includes providing a waste plastic. The waste plastic includes styrenic polymers. The waste plastic is formed into polymer particles. At least a portion of the polymer particles are dissolved in a solvent to form a polymer stream. The dissolved polymer particles are depolymerized to form a styrene monomer stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: Fina Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Jon Tippet, James R. Butler, James Assef, John Ashbaugh, Jason Clark, Michel Duc, Jean-Bernard Cary
  • Patent number: 8888961
    Abstract: A pyrolysis device and process to convert a carbonaceous feedstock to a carbon solid and pyrolysis gas, and processes for refining the resulting carbon solid and pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis process may include introducing a carbonaceous feedstock into a pyrolysis processor having a vertical rotary tray processor, heating the feedstock to a temperature above about 790° F., removing a carbon material from a bottom of the pyrolysis processor, and removing a pyrolysis gas from a top of the pyrolysis processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Reklaim, Inc.
    Inventors: Joel Horn, Daniel F. Kapral, William J. Langley, Jr., Thomas A. Reynolds
  • Patent number: 8869420
    Abstract: This invention presents a versatile and continuous drying technology that utilizes controlled heat combined with forced air supply for drying a feedstock. The dryer virtually divided top-down into different zones, each having definite heated air distribution rate to secure desired condition for drying of the feedstock. The heat source of the dryer is waste heat, either provided by the feedstock itself through exothermic heat generated by the feedstock or reclaimed waste heat or solar heat. The discharge system of the dryer is a fail-safe discharge system, which ensures equal residence time for the feedstock through all the zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Inventor: Mousa Mohammad Nazhad
  • Publication number: 20140311883
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for pyrolysing a solid organic feed material are disclosed. Solid organic material is moved through a reaction chamber and exposed to a temperature profile within the chamber that dries and pyrolyses the organic material and releases water vapour and a volatile products gas phase. The water vapour phase and the volatile products gas phase are moved counter-current to the solid organic material so that the water vapour phase and condensable components of the volatile products gas phase condense in cooler upstream sections of the chamber and form a liquid water product and a separate liquid oil product. The liquid water product is discharged via an outlet along the length of the chamber and a dried and pyrolysed solid product is discharged from a downstream outlet in the chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 30, 2014
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Inventors: Lazar Strezov, Steven Robert Osborn, Joseph George Herbertson, Gary Kenneth Ellem
  • Patent number: 8821692
    Abstract: Method for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose including: mechanically comminuting the lignocellulose to lignocellulose particles; at least one of completely drying and preheating the lignocellulose particles; mixing the lignocellulose particles with heat transfer particles so as to provide a mixture; heating the heat transfer particles, prior to the mixing, to a temperature between 500° C. and 650° C.; and heating, in a pyrolysis reactor with oxygen excluded, the lignocellulose particles using the heat transfer particles so as to establish a temperature between 400° C. and 600° C. for 1 to 50 seconds and so as to react the lignocellulose particles so as to provide pyrolysis coke, pyrolysis condensate, and pyrolysis gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie
    Inventors: Edmund Henrich, Friedhelm Weirich, Eckhard Dinjus
  • Patent number: 8795475
    Abstract: There is described a system and method for recycling carbon-containing material, in particular tires and plastics materials. The system includes a heating arrangement for anaerobically heating carbon containing material to produce carbon-containing gases. A condensing arrangement is also used to condense a proportion of the carbon-containing gases to provide condensed gases and non-condensed gases. In addition, a recirculating arrangement is provided for recirculating the non-condensed gases into the heating arrangement. Further systems and methods for pre- and post-processing of the carbon-containing material are also disclosed and products of the systems and methods are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Used Tyre Distillation Research Limited
    Inventors: Richard Hutchins, Michael Walker, Paul Archer
  • Patent number: 8784616
    Abstract: A process for the controlled gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock includes pyrolizing the feedstock by conveying the feedstock through a retort surrounded by a plurality of successive heating chambers each comprising an axially adjustable chamber separation wall and each operated at a predetermined temperature, wherein a predetermined dwell time of the feedstock in each of the plurality of successive heating chambers is controlled by a conveyance rate of the feedstock through the retort and a position of each of the axially adjustable chamber separation walls to produce a gas product and a solid product. The gas product includes methane and noxious chemicals and the solid product includes carbon, and the pyrolizing step is controlled using feedback related to constituents of the gas product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Tucker Engineering Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard D. Tucker
  • Patent number: 8741108
    Abstract: A reactor (9) for the pyrolysis of carbon-containing waste material such as rubber chips includes a cylindrical air-tight reactor vessel (10) which has an inlet through which rubber chips (4) are introduced into the reactor vessel and an outlet (60) through which oil distillate can be discharged therefrom. The reactor vessel has a cooling jacket through which cooling water flows for cooling an inner shell (40) of the vessel. The chips (4) are deposited onto a support tray (70) and displaced towards a rear end of the reactor vessel by a chain conveyer (89). The chips (4) are heated on the tray (40) causing decomposition of the chips into a vapor and amorphous carbon. The vapor condenses when it contacts the inner shell (40) and runs down the sides of the vessel (10) towards a lower side thereof before being discharged through the outlet (60).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2014
    Assignee: Gecco Group (Proprietary) Limited
    Inventor: John Lindsay Dinnematin
  • Publication number: 20130341175
    Abstract: A improved solar biochar reactor, system including the reactor, and methods of forming and using the reactors and systems are disclosed. The methods and system as described herein provide sufficient solar energy to a biochar reactor to convert animal waste or other biomass to biochar in a relatively cost-effective manner.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of Colorado, a body corporate
    Inventors: Karl G. Linden, Alan W. Weimer, R. Scott Summers, Allan Lewandowski
  • Publication number: 20130240344
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus may permit the generation of consistent output synthesis gas from highly variable input feedstock solids carbonaceous materials. A stoichiometric objectivistic chemic environment may be established to stoichiometrically control carbon content in a solid carbonaceous materials gasifier system. Processing of carbonaceous materials may include dominative pyrolytic decomposition and multiple coil carbonaceous reformation. Dynamically adjustable process determinative parameters may be utilized to refine processing, including process utilization of negatively electrostatically enhanced water species, process utilization of flue gas, and adjustment of process flow rate characteristics. Recycling may be employed for internal reuse of process materials, including recycled negatively electrostatically enhanced water species, recycled flue gas, and recycled contaminants.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: September 19, 2013
    Applicant: THERMO TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
    Inventors: Dennis E.J. Johnson, Grigori A. Abramov, Richard A. Kleinke, Marcus A. Wiley
  • Publication number: 20130228445
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is described for the efficient conversion of carbonaceous feedstock including municipal solid waste into a product gas through gasification. More specifically, a horizontally-oriented gasifier having one or more lateral transfer system for moving material through the gasifier is provided thereby allowing for the horizontal expansion of the gasification process such that there is sequential promotion of feedstock drying, volatization and char-to-ash conversions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2013
    Publication date: September 5, 2013
    Applicant: PLASCO ENERGY GROUP INC.
    Inventors: Andreas Tsangaris, Kenneth Craig Campbell, Douglas Michael Feasby, Mao Pei Cui, Zhiyuan Shen, Geoffrey Dobbs
  • Publication number: 20130168223
    Abstract: The object of the invention is a method and an apparatus relating to the dry distillation of raw biomaterial and to the recovery of different compounds as a continuous process. In the method according to the invention, raw material is dry distilled in at least two separate dry distillation zones maintained in pressures and/or temperatures different from each other. A multi-layer dry distiller pertaining to the apparatus according to the invention consists of at least two separate dry distillation tubes maintained in different pressures and/or temperatures from each other to implement different dry distillation zones.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2011
    Publication date: July 4, 2013
    Inventor: Juha Huttunen
  • Patent number: 8470134
    Abstract: A process for treating coal includes introducing coal into a chamber and passing an oxygen deficient sweep gas into contact with the coal, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of the coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The proportion of heat supplied to the coal by the sweep gas is less than 40% of the total heat supplied to the coal. The sweep gas is then removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of the coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8444828
    Abstract: A pyrolyzer and method is provided for devolatizing coal and other volatile materials. The pyrolyzer has a pyrolyzer furnace housing having at least two screws laterally positioned adjacent and overlapping rotatably mounted within the furnace for moving volatile material through the pyrolyzer furnace housing. The screws have hollow drive shafts with a diverter inside for converging heated fluid to heat the volatile material moving through the pyrolyzer furnace housing. A combustion chamber combusts fuel to create heated exhaust gas for directing through the hollow drive shafts to heat the volatile material. The pyrolyzer furnace housing may have a double wall with a cavity between, capable of receiving heated fluid for further heating of volatile material moving through the pyrolyzer furnace housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Nucor Corporation
    Inventor: Richard A. Wolfe
  • Patent number: 8414743
    Abstract: A method and a device for the thermal decomposition of an initial material, in particular, for the decomposition of meat and bone meal, oil sludges, for example, from cleaning tankers, autofluff (also called autofluffy), basic glycerin, for example, from biodiesel production, paint sludges from paint shops, contaminated soils, coated wood, and plastics such as plexiglass. According to the present method, organic initial materials are thermally decomposed very completely in nearly all cases. The very complete decomposition is achieved by adding foreign particles such as metal spheres to the initial material which is being thermally decomposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Gebr. Lodige Maschinebau GmbH
    Inventors: Alfons Schmidt, Hans-Jürgen Sickelmann, Armin Grob
  • Patent number: 8394240
    Abstract: A process for treating bituminous coal includes providing dried, pulverized coal, and treating the pulverized coal in a vessel with a gas stream having an oxygen content sufficient to form oxides on surface of coal particles. The treated coal is transferred into a pyrolyzing chamber and passed into contact with an oxygen deficient sweep gas, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. Some of the oxides are converted into paramagnetic mineral components, which are removed from coal to form a coal char having reduced ash and sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: C2O Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 8354005
    Abstract: Apparatus for the destructive reclamation of materials and energy from municipal wastes and other raw materials through the use of Microwave induced Gasification and Pyrolysis, where the waste or raw material may be circulated once or several times through the process thus enabling the programming of different processes to differing materials and desired end products. The form employed being linear, circulating conveyors or rotating carousels that may carry trays or crucibles, some of which may be equipped with linings that absorb microwaves to enable the early charring of materials that do not initially absorb microwaves and thus will not heat up on their own.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Inventor: Kjell Ivar Kasin
  • Publication number: 20120285814
    Abstract: The present technology discloses apparatus, systems, and methods for the thermal decomposition of carbonaceous feedstocks through continuous pyrolysis. A reciprocating reactor is disclosed that includes an inner reactor pipe and an outer reactor pipe. The outer reactor pipe has a first portion that surrounds the inner reactor pipe forming an annulus space, and a second portion that extends beyond the inner reactor pipe and forms a turnaround zone. The inner reactor pipe defines an inner reactor zone that produces partially reacted carbonaceous feedstock, and the annulus space defines an outer reactor zone that produces product gases and solids.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2012
    Publication date: November 15, 2012
    Inventors: Thomas R. Del Monte, Eren K. Yar
  • Patent number: 8298406
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2012
    Assignee: Coates Engineering, LLC
    Inventors: Ralph L. Coates, L. Douglas Smoot, Kent E. Hatfield
  • Patent number: 8168043
    Abstract: A retort apparatus includes a primary rotating pipe within a second rotating pipe within a fixed pipe (27). The interior area of the primary rotating pipe is bounded by a heated pipe. A first annulus is formed between the primary and second rotating pipes. A second annulus is formed between the second rotating pipe and the heated pipe. A third annulus is formed between the primary rotating pipe and the fixed pipe. A heater is positioned within the interior area of said primary rotating pipe. In one embodiment, an inlet gate is provided for introducing a liquid and solid mixture into the first annulus proximate the second end thereof. A first conveyor is provided to move the mixture toward the hot end of the primary rotating pipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2012
    Assignee: Eau-Viron Incorporated
    Inventor: James Titmas
  • Publication number: 20120047975
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for continuously carbonizing materials while co-producing gases in a coking chamber closed to the atmosphere, having a charger at one end comprising a pushing ram surrounding a mandrel that surrounds an air or oxygen injection lance. The other end of the coking chamber collects and separates coke from gases, with coke directed to a closed quenching chamber and gases directed to a cleanup. Thermal energy for converting coal into coke derives from combusting some metallurgical coal by said lance.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 1, 2010
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Inventors: Albert Calderon, Terry James Laubis
  • Publication number: 20110067991
    Abstract: A biomass pyrolysis process is provided in which biomass feedstock is mixed with a heat carrier. The heat carrier at least partly comprises char. The ratio by weight of biomass to char is in the range 1:1 to 1:20. The process may be carried out by in a screw/auger pyrolysis reactor in which the solid feedstock components are conveyed along the reactor by a first screw. A second screw conveys at least a portion of the solid products of the biomass pyrolysis back to a heat transfer medium input port. Thus, the heat transfer medium includes char from the biomass pyrolysis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 14, 2009
    Publication date: March 24, 2011
    Inventors: Andreas Hornung, Andreas Apfelbacher
  • Publication number: 20110011722
    Abstract: A process for treating coal includes introducing coal into a chamber and passing an oxygen deficient sweep gas into contact with the coal, the sweep gas being at a higher temperature than the temperature of the coal so that heat is supplied to the coal. The process further includes providing additional heat to the coal indirectly by heating the chamber, wherein the heating of the coal by the sweep gas and by the indirect heating from the chamber causes condensable volatile components to be released into the sweep gas. The proportion of heat supplied to the coal by the sweep gas is less than 40% of the total heat supplied to the coal. The sweep gas is then removed from the chamber and treated to remove condensable components of the coal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2009
    Publication date: January 20, 2011
    Inventor: Franklin G. Rinker
  • Patent number: 7824523
    Abstract: A catalytically activated vacuum distillation system, several novel component parts of said system, a process for producing carbon based products and novel carbon black that is produced from such a system and process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2010
    Assignee: Earthfirst Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael P Maskarinec, Bart M. Taylor
  • Publication number: 20100140074
    Abstract: Combustible material is supplied to the reaction zone, continuously or in pulses, which the reaction zone is separated from the surrounding atmosphere, and combustible material gradually moves through the reaction zone to the reaction zone outlet, in the same direction as released gases leave the combustible material. The reaction zone is heated to the temperature, the value of which is increasing in the direction to the reaction zone outlet, however, to 12000 C as a maximum. Then, released gases are draught off separately from non-gasified residue. As an advantage, steam and/or water is supplied to combustible material and the combustible material previously charged into the reaction zone moves by acting of subsequently supplied combustible material, where the combustible material is being compressed. The equipment for pyrolytic conversion comprises one filling device (1), reactor (2) comprising the reaction zone (5), at least one heater (3, 13), and hopper (4) for non-gasified residue (8).
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 12, 2008
    Publication date: June 10, 2010
    Inventors: Václav Holusa, Petr Vanicek, Ivan Koutnik, Miroslav Kaloc
  • Patent number: 7569121
    Abstract: The present development is a multistage process for converting solid hydrocarbon resources into synthetic oil. The process comprises a raw hydrocarbon material treatment stage, followed by a pyrolysis stage, and then a synthetic liquid upgrading stage. Throughout the process, heat is transferred to the hydrocarbon resources via recyclable ceramic spheres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2009
    Inventor: Clyde Wesley Devore
  • Publication number: 20040167367
    Abstract: The invention provides a process for the production of charcoal, fuel gas, and potassium from a biomass gassifier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 23, 2003
    Publication date: August 26, 2004
    Inventor: Fred P. Beierle
  • Patent number: 6669822
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a waste carbonization method which produces charcoal and/or activated carbon from solid wastes, such as wood waste, and renders produced gas completely harmless. Solid wastes B are exposed to gas generated in pyrolysis gasification of other wastes A in a gasification furnace 1 to produce charcoal and/or activated carbon from the solid wastes B.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2003
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Kazuo Takano, Akira Uchino, Takahiro Ohshita, Tetsuhisa Hirose
  • Patent number: 6613111
    Abstract: A process and method is provided for operating a small-scale high-throughput gasifier. As is known in the art, the exothermic combustion reactions can be separated from the endothermic gasification reactions. The exothermic combustion reactions can take place in or near the combustor while the endothermic gasification reactions take place in the gasifier. Heat from the exothermic zone is transferred to the endothermic reaction zone by circulation of an inert particulate solid such as sand. In order to increase efficiency by reducing heat loss from the gasifier, the gasifier is concentrically-disposed within the endothermic reaction zone of the combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Future Energy Resources Corporation
    Inventor: Mark A. Paisley
  • Patent number: 5725738
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing wood charcoal by pyrolysis of wood products or vegetable biomasses in general, the method including the steps of: loading the wood products, or vegetable biomasses in general, onto transport trolleys; introducing the trolleys, which contain the wood products, in a treatment tunnel wherein a pyrolysis chamber is formed; indirectly heating the wood products inside the pyrolysis chamber until pyrolysis of the wood products is obtained, with continuous extraction, from the pyrolysis chamber, of the gas generated by the pyrolysis process; and extracting the trolleys from the tunnel to unload from the trolleys the charcoal that constitutes the residue of the pyrolysis of the wood products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1998
    Inventors: Osvaldo Brioni, Dario Buizza
  • Patent number: 5705035
    Abstract: A discharge system is used with a tire liquefaction process using a reactor. The system includes a receiver receiving unreacted components, including oil coated metal from the reactor. The unreacted components are moved through a pyrolysis reactor where they are heated to a temperature sufficient to convert the unreacted hydrocarbon components to a liquid and to a gas by way of pyrolysis. The liquid and the majority of gas are drawn off from the pyrolysis reactor. Discharge apparatus connected to the pyrolysis reactor converts the remaining gas to a condensate and discharges the metal. The condensate is also removed for further use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 6, 1998
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Vahan Avetisian, Craig Joseph Castagnoli, Suk-Bae Cha
  • Patent number: 5525196
    Abstract: An improved process for producing a formed activated coke for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, which includes passing a ground coal through a tubular or cylindrical carbonization retort by using a hot gas stream, to subject the coal to preliminary carbonization to obtain a semi-coke, adding a caking agent to the semi-coke and forming the mixture, subjecting the formed material to carbonization to obtain a formed coke, and transferring the formed coke from the top to the bottom of a vertical multi-tubular retort of indirect heating and cooling (cooling is optional) type that includes a distribution section, a heating section, an activation section and a cooling section (the distribution section and the cooling section are optional) arranged in this order (the distribution section is at the top), to activate the formed coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Mitsui Mining Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshihisa Yuda, Masahiro Matsuoka, Kazuhiko Hanashita, Fumiaki Furusawa, Mitsuhiro Takada
  • Patent number: 5478442
    Abstract: A rotary hearth calciner for treating petroleum cokes with a puffing inhibitor has a horizontal or inwardly sloping hearth floor rotatable around a vertical axis for receiving particles of coke to be calcined and a central opening in the hearth floor for discharging the coke into a soaking pit. A water cooled, refractory covered feed pipe extending downward into the calciner interior has an inlet for connection to a source of petroleum coke puffing inhibitor and an outlet near the edge of the hearth central floor opening for adding the puffing inhibitor to the coke as the coke is discharged from said hearth floor. The feed pipe outlet is approximately at or below the level of the hearth floor to reduce loss of inhibitor in gas flow above the hearth floor. A puffing inhibitor such as sodium carbonate is supplied by a screw feed mechanism to the feed pipe to add the puffing inhibitor at a desired rate for reaction with the coke. The coke is normally maintained in the soaking pit for about 30 minutes at 1200.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1995
    Assignee: UCAR Carbon Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas H. Orac
  • Patent number: 5464503
    Abstract: A discharge system is used with a tire liquefaction process using a reactor. The system includes a receiver receiving unreacted components, including oil coated metal, from the reactor. The unreacted components are moved through a pyrolysis reactor where they are heated to a temperature sufficient to convert the unreacted hydrocarbon components to a liquid and to gas by way of pyrolysis. The liquid and the majority of gas are drawn off from the pyrolysis reactor. Discharge apparatus connected to the pyrolysis reactor converts the remaining gas to a condensate and discharges the metal. The condensate is also removed for further use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Vahan Avetisian, Craig J. Castagnoli, Suk B. Cha
  • Patent number: 5449438
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for reprocessing crushed organic waste products, such as rubber waste from worn car tires, by pyrolysis, the method including pyrolytically decomposing the crushed waste products in a pyrolysis bath which is one of a bed or a bath, and which has a temperature ranging from 450.degree. to 550.degree. C., into a mixture including volatilized constituents, liquid constituents, and solid constituents; collecting at least a part of the volatilized constituents from a gas space above the pyrolysis bath and transporting the collected volatilized constituents away from the pyrolysis bath for further utilization; and introducing a gas intermittently or continuously into the gas space above the pyrolysis bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Assignee: FORMEX Trading GmbH
    Inventors: Hermann H. W. Jagau, Richard Schimko
  • Patent number: 5423951
    Abstract: Pieces of coke of high density and strength are made continuously from fine particles of bituminous or subbituminous or lignite coals or of mixtures thereof. The particles are generally oxygenated, mixed with water, compressed to squeeze out some of the water to obtain single bodies which are heat processed lying on a traveling grate on which they undergo drying, pyrolyzing, carbonizing and cooling.Modifications include mixing in with the coal material(s) listed above, coke fines or char or anthracite coal; or limestone; or carbon-reducible oxides such as oxidic ores of Fe, Mn, Cr and quartzite in recited important proportions. Such formed coke bodies are useable in a submerged arc furnace or in a blast furnace or in an open hearth to produce desired intermediate or end metallic products. The pieces of coke with incorporated fine limestone burn without developing SO.sub.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1995
    Inventor: Fritz O. Wienert
  • Patent number: 5330623
    Abstract: The organic material (such as waste tire compound) is pyrolysed by pre-heating the organic material (without pyrolysis) in a preheat zone 9 by a hot gas stream; feeding pre-heated material directly to a microwave discharge zone 10 by means of conveyor 8; pyrolysing the pre-heated material in the microwave discharge zone to produce solid fission products containing elemental carbon and gaseous by-products; and recycling at least some of the latter to the hot gas stream which is supplied to the pre-heating zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Inventor: Kenneth M. Holland
  • Patent number: 5318672
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for heating a carbonization drum is especially used for heating a carbonization drum for a low-temperature-carbonization combustion process. Heating gas heated in a heat exchanger is guided in a heating gas loop from the heat exchanger through the carbonization drum. A heat sink is provided for cooling the heating gas. In order to control an energy supply to the carbonization drum, the heating gas is guided back again at least partially and in a controlled fashion through a bypass line, in which the heat sink is disposed, to the heat exchanger, while bypassing the carbonization drum. The heating gas can also be delivered partially and in a controlled fashion through the heat sink to the carbonization drum. A distribution of the heating gas into a maximum of three paths is ensured by a configuration of lines and control devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1994
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Georg Losel
  • Patent number: 5212144
    Abstract: An improved apparatus and method for the manufacture of activated carbon wherein a carbonaceous raw material impregnated with a chemical activating agent is treated by controlling the rate of heat transfer to the particles via indirect heating of the activation furnace and simultaneously introducing a flow of independently controlled sweep gas at spaced intervals along the path of travel of the particles through the furnace to more precisely control the activation reaction and the level of densification of the particles during certain stages of treatment. In a more preferred embodiment, the particles are processed in a plurality of treatment stages related to the rate of evolution of water and/or the evolution of water and the chemical activating agent and the rates of heat transfer and the volume flow rate of sweep gas are closely controlled relative to achieving predetermined levels of densification of the particles during each treatment stage and selected levels of activation properties in the end product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1993
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventor: Frank R. Schwartz, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5084141
    Abstract: The organic material (such as waste tire compound) is pyrolyzed by pre-heating the organic material (without pyrolysis) in a preheat zone 9 by a hot gas stream; feeding pre-heated material directly to a microwave discharge zone 10 by means of conveyor 8; pyrolyzing the pre-heated material in the microwave discharge zone to produce solid fission products containing elemental carbon and gaseous by-products; and recycling at least some of the latter to the hot gas stream which is supplied to the pre-heating zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1992
    Inventor: Kenneth M. Holland
  • Patent number: 5082534
    Abstract: A rotary, continuous pyrolytic conversion system converts solid hydrocarbon containing feedstocks into gases, liquid hydrocarbons and char. A converter drum is contained within an outer drum which is in substantially air-tight relationship with an injector for introducing the feedstock in the form of bales and with a discharge chute for the solid products of pyrolysis. A casing around the outer stationary drum defines an oven chamber which is heated by combustion products. A rod extends into the injection end of the converter drum for supporting scrapers against the inner periphery of the converter drum. A crusher bar is carried in the drum at the discharge end thereof and crushes the solid products. A second pyrolysis reactor may receive the solid pyrolysis products and be operative at higher temperature than the first converter to destroy chlorinated hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 21, 1992
    Assignee: Wayne Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Fred A. Breu
  • Patent number: 5078836
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method are disclosed for the thermal treatment of feed material containing solids and liquids such as solid waste or the like. The apparatus includes one or more coaxial rotatable drums and one or more free rotating spirals advancing the material in the drums. The material flowing through the drums is heated to form solids and vapors. In one or more embodiments of the apparatus, the hot solids and vapors exchange heat with the cold feed material. An extruder for preparing the solids being produced from the apparatus for disposal and a means for rotating the drums are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Inventor: Jim S. Hogan
  • Patent number: 4820382
    Abstract: A method for forming a terraced structure in the upper surface of a particulate solid bed, typically oil shale, moving upward through an upflow retort and removing particulate solids from the upper surface, which includes rotating a scraping means comprising a shaft having a plurality of scrapers secured thereto arranged in a vertically spaced-apart relationship and in a radially outwardly-stepped relationship relative to a vertical axis of the shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1989
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventor: Delwin E. Cobb
  • Patent number: 4808286
    Abstract: An apparatus for inducing and accelerating hydrogen dissociation in a cloud generated from feedstock fed into a chamber defined by the apparatus is provided. The apparatus includes a device for thermally stimulating the feedstock to generate the cloud, a device for localizing the cloud within the chamber, a device for electrically stimulating the localized cloud, and a device for photonically stimulating the localized cloud. A method is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1989
    Inventor: J. F. Angelo, II