Gravitating Patents (Class 201/34)
  • Patent number: 10174267
    Abstract: This invention provides processes and systems for converting biomass into high carbon biogenic reagents that are suitable for a variety of commercial applications. Some embodiments employ pyrolysis in the presence of an inert gas to generate hot pyrolyzed solids, condensable vapors, and non-condensable gases, followed by separation of vapors and gases, and cooling of the hot pyrolyzed solids in the presence of the inert gas. Additives may be introduced during processing or combined with the reagent, or both. The biogenic reagent may include at least 70 wt %, 80 wt %, 90 wt %, 95 wt %, or more total carbon on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may have an energy content of at least 12,000 Btu/lb, 13,000 Btu/lb, 14,000 Btu/lb, or 14,500 Btu/lb on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may be formed into fine powders, or structural objects. The structural objects may have a structure and/or strength that derive from the feedstock, heat rate, and additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2019
    Assignee: Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC
    Inventors: James A. Mennell, Daniel J. Despen
  • Patent number: 9752090
    Abstract: This invention provides processes and systems for converting biomass into high-carbon biogenic reagents that are suitable for a variety of commercial applications. Some embodiments employ pyrolysis in the presence of an inert gas to generate hot pyrolyzed solids, condensable vapors, and non-condensable gases, followed by separation of vapors and gases, and cooling of the hot pyrolyzed solids in the presence of the inert gas. Additives may be introduced during processing or combined with the reagent, or both. The biogenic reagent may include at least 70 wt %, 80 wt %, 90 wt %, 95 wt %, or more total carbon on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may have an energy content of at least 12,000 Btu/lb, 13,000 Btu/lb, 14,000 Btu/lb, or 14,500 Btu/lb on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may be formed into fine powders, or structural objects. The structural objects may have a structure and/or strength that derive from the feedstock, heat rate, and additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2017
    Assignee: Carbon Technology Holdings, LLC
    Inventors: Daniel J. Despen, James A. Mennell, Steve Filips
  • Patent number: 9677017
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a reactor (1) for the gasification of organic material included in composite raw material and the separation of gasified organic material from inorganic material included in the composite raw material, the reactor comprising at least one reaction chamber (2) and at least one rotor (3), said reaction chamber (2) comprising at least one housing (6, 6a, 6b) that is sealed in relation to the surroundings and has at least one inlet opening (8a, 8b, 8c) and at least one outlet opening (9a, 9b) and said rotor (3) comprising at least one shaft (5). Said housing (6, 6a, 6b) is in heat exchanging contact with at least one channel (20) intended to convey gas for heat exchange between the gas and said housing (6, 6a, 6b).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: Cassandra Oil Technology AB
    Inventor: Anders Olsson
  • Patent number: 9631553
    Abstract: A coal gasification process is provided based on the grading conversion of carbon hydrogen components of coal, wherein the coal gasification process comprises a carbonization process, a carbon monoxide-producing process and a shift reaction process. By blending the coke-oven gas, carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced in the above processes in different ratios, coal gasification syngases with various carbon hydrogen ratios can be obtained. Further, the coal gasification process does not need pure oxygen to take part in the reactions, and has several advantages, such as high gasification efficiency, low equipment investment costs, less limitation on the types of coal and flexible adjustment of the gasification products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Inventors: Hongguang Jin, Xiaosong Zhang
  • Patent number: 9404042
    Abstract: A thermal reactor for the continuous thermolytic recycling of granules of scrap tires, vulcanization residues and waste plastics, and of similar products features a feed portion, a central heating-zone portion and a discharge portion arranged vertically one below the other. An extraction pipe is located centrally in the central heating-zone portion of the thermal reactor, the lateral surface of the extraction pipe featuring numerous holes and/or slits for withdrawal of the vaporized short-chain hydrocarbon compounds being formed, and the extraction pipe having conical bells pushed onto it one above the other. A device withdraws the vaporized hydrocarbon compounds from the extraction pipe. Radially arranged heating plates are provided on the lateral surface of the reactor in its central heating-zone portion, the heating plates being arranged at the heating levels, which lie one above the other, such that the plates are mutually offset.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2016
    Assignee: Pyrum Innovations International S.A.
    Inventor: Klaus-Peter Schulz
  • Patent number: 9388355
    Abstract: This invention provides processes and systems for converting biomass into high-carbon biogenic reagents that are suitable for a variety of commercial applications. Some embodiments employ pyrolysis in the presence of an inert gas to generate hot pyrolyzed solids, condensable vapors, and non-condensable gases, followed by separation of vapors and gases, and cooling of the hot pyrolyzed solids in the presence of the inert gas. Additives may be introduced during processing or combined with the reagent, or both. The biogenic reagent may include at least 70 wt %, 80 wt %, 90 wt %, 95 wt %, or more total carbon on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may have an energy content of at least 12,000 Btu/lb, 13,000 Btu/lb, 14,000 Btu/lb, or 14,500 Btu/lb on a dry basis. The biogenic reagent may be formed into fine powders, or structural objects. The structural objects may have a structure and/or strength that derive from the feedstock, heat rate, and additives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2016
    Assignee: Biogenic Reagents Ventures, LLC
    Inventors: James A. Mennell, Daniel J. Despen
  • Patent number: 9017521
    Abstract: A process for heat treatment of a solid, with a coolant solid, in which a stage for mixing the solid with the pre-heated coolant solid is carried out, with the coolant solid being a solid hydrocarbon. The solid hydrocarbon is ground, before the mixing stage with the solid, to obtain a solid hydrocarbon powder with a grain size of between 20 ?m and 300 ?m. The solid is ground, before the mixing stage with the coolant solid, to obtain solid pellets with a thickness of between 1 mm and 30 mm, a width of between 1 mm and 40 mm, and a length of between 1 mm and 100 mm. The mixing is carried out at a temperature of between 80° C. and 700° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Elena Garcia Sanz, Matthieu Rolland
  • Publication number: 20150096879
    Abstract: A fast pyrolizer includes an elongated tubular housing having a feed inlet to receive material, an outlet, and a flow path. The flow path has an internal contact surface extending from the inlet to the outlet. The inlet is to be oriented to a non-vertical relative elevation with respect to the outlet. At least a portion of the internal contact surface directly contacts the material. A heater heats the internal contact surface such that the material is heated via direct thermal transfer from the internal contact surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 4, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Applicant: Tolero Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Raymond Belanger, Christopher Churchill
  • Publication number: 20130098751
    Abstract: A method for torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass comprising: continuously feeding the biomass to an upper inlet to the torrefaction reactor vessel such that the biomass material is deposited on an upper tray assembly of tray assemblies stacked vertically within the reactor; as the biomass moves over each tray assembly, heating and drying the biomass material with a non-oxidizing gas under a pressure of at least 3 bar gauge and at a temperature of at least 200° C.; cascading the biomass down through the trays by passing the biomass through an opening in each of the trays to deposit the biomass on the tray of the next lower tray assembly; discharging torrefied biomass from a lower outlet of the torrefaction reactor, and circulating gas extracted from the reactor vessel back to the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2012
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: ANDRITZ INC.
    Inventors: Andrew EYER, Bertil STROMBERG, Joseph Monroe RAWLS, Brian F. GREENWOOD
  • Patent number: 8202400
    Abstract: Apparatus for the manufacture of charcoal, comprising a unit having walls defining a primary combustion chamber, and a material inlet for allowing a feed of wood chips though said material inlet into said apparatus. A trough is located at a lower height than said material inlet such that material passing through said material inlet is able to fall into the trough. An air inlet is located below the material inlet such that, when wood chips are located within the trough piled up to said material inlet, air passing from said air inlet passes through said wood-chips and into the primary combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2012
    Inventor: Andrew Mark Elliott
  • Patent number: 8002972
    Abstract: A system for producing petroleum products from oil shale includes one or plural kiln lines made up of plural series-connected, indirect-fired, inclined rotary kilns. Plural kiln lines are operated for parallel processing. Oil shale is advanced through kilns in succession and exhausted from each kiln line substantially free of hydrocarbons. Successive kilns along the advancement of oil shale are maintained at successively higher temperatures. A fuel distinct from hydrocarbons in oil shale, such as syngas from a gasifier or hydrogen gas from a separator, drives pyrolysis to extract hydrocarbons. A refining unit located proximate to the kiln lines upgrades extracted hydrocarbons into petroleum products and separates the petroleum products by criteria. A heat extraction unit recovers heat from exhausted oil shale for reuse in kilns. A method involves drying oil shale followed by heating dry oil shale in successively hotter pyrolysis environments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2011
    Assignee: EnShale, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert D. Morris, Jr., Robert D. Morris, III
  • Patent number: 7785447
    Abstract: Closed apparatus and processes by which carbon feedstock is composed of a mixture of non-coking coal fines and another carbonaceous material, such as waste coke fines, are described. The coal and coke fines are mixed together and may be formed into solid pieces. The mixture alone or as solid pieces is fired through pyrolyzation into solid pieces of coke, with solid and gaseous by-products of pyrolyzation being recycled for use within the coke-producing closed system, thereby reducing or eliminating release of undesirable substances to the environment. A char-forming binder may or may not be added to the carbon mixture prior to pyrolyzation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Combustion Resources, LLC
    Inventors: Craig N. Eatough, Jon S. Heaton, Steven R. Eatough
  • Publication number: 20100175981
    Abstract: A retort heating apparatus for processing a feed material includes a heating chamber bounded at least in part by a side wall. A plurality of baffles are at least partially disposed within the heating chamber. Each baffle includes an elongated body having a top surface, at least a portion of the top surface being arched. The plurality of baffles are vertically and horizontally spaced apart so that substantially all of the feed material that vertically passes through the heating chamber is horizontally displaced as the feed material passes by the baffles. Systems are also provided for heating the feed material within the heating chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 19, 2010
    Publication date: July 15, 2010
    Applicant: AMBRE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY, LLC
    Inventors: Byron G. Merrell, Michael R. Keller, Roger K. Noble
  • Publication number: 20090294270
    Abstract: Apparatus for the pyrolysis of solid waste material includes a thermal reactor including an elongate hollow housing with a reaction chamber disposed within the housing. The thermal reactor is vertically oriented in order to cause solid waste material fed thereinto to pass through said reaction chamber by the force of gravity and a plurality of vanes are disposed for both conducting heat into said reactor chamber and for tumbling said solid waste material as said solid waste material passes through said reaction chamber. Inlets and outlets are provided for passing oxygen transversely through the reaction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Publication date: December 3, 2009
    Inventors: BRUCE SHUMAN, JERRY MOFFATT, BRUCE ATWELL, ROBERT J. ROMACLY, GLENN A. ROMACLY
  • Patent number: 5584970
    Abstract: The biomass, particularly lump wood, is supplied to a shaft reactor at its top and is initially preheated to temperatures of about 150.degree. to 280.degree. C. and dried by a counterflowing hot gas. This is followed by a treatment in an underlying carbonizing zone, the upper portion of which is supplied with hot purging gas at a temperature of 250.degree. to 600.degree. C. The hot purging gas flows downwardly through the carbonizing zone co-currently with the wood. A gas mixture which contains purging gas and gas produced by carbonization is withdrawn from the lower portion of the carbonizing zone and is at least in part combusted outside the shaft reactor to produce a combustion gas, which is used at least in part as hot purging gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jorg Schmalfeld, Hans J. Eichwald, Udo Zentner
  • Patent number: 5525196
    Abstract: An improved process for producing a formed activated coke for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification, which includes passing a ground coal through a tubular or cylindrical carbonization retort by using a hot gas stream, to subject the coal to preliminary carbonization to obtain a semi-coke, adding a caking agent to the semi-coke and forming the mixture, subjecting the formed material to carbonization to obtain a formed coke, and transferring the formed coke from the top to the bottom of a vertical multi-tubular retort of indirect heating and cooling (cooling is optional) type that includes a distribution section, a heating section, an activation section and a cooling section (the distribution section and the cooling section are optional) arranged in this order (the distribution section is at the top), to activate the formed coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Mitsui Mining Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshihisa Yuda, Masahiro Matsuoka, Kazuhiko Hanashita, Fumiaki Furusawa, Mitsuhiro Takada
  • Patent number: 5435890
    Abstract: A preferred embodiment of the apparatus 10 for recycling used automobile rubber tires is described in which small pieces of rubber tires are progressively fed into a vertical reactor 14 of the counter-flow type in which the material progressively descends downward through the reactor 14 with process gases passing upward through the downwardly descending material to decompose and volatilize the rubber material. Oxygen-bearing gas is injected into the reactor to burn a portion of the rubber carbon to generate hot combustion gases that ascend upwardly to pyrolitically decompose the rubber pieces, and to volatilize such material. The amount of oxygen is controlled in an oxygen-deficient manner to maintain the temperature in the combustion zone at a temperature of less than 500.degree. F. The gases and volatilized rubber materials and oils are removed from the reactor at a temperature of approximately 350.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1995
    Inventor: Joseph H. Munger
  • Patent number: 5240565
    Abstract: Apparatus for the production of charcoal by the comingling of a source of wood and ground sludge where the sludge is received from a paper making plant as wet sludge, grinding the wet sludge to a desired reduction, feeding the ground sludge into a furnace where it is comingled with wood, and circulating the furnace hot gas exhaust back through the grinding of the wet sludge to initiate the drying thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1993
    Inventor: Robert M. Williams
  • Patent number: 5106390
    Abstract: An improve gasification system, in which synthesis gas is produced through the operation of a fuel gas production bed comprising an upper layer (66) of organic input material, typically in the form of pellets or briquettes of substantially uniform size and configuration which in one embodiment includes toxic waste material, two intermediate layers, one intermediate layer (70) for carbonizing the input material, and the other intermediate layer (72) for partially oxidizing and substantially completely pyrolyzing the input material and a lower layer (68) of tar-free charcoal. The length of the gas production bed from the top of the upper intermediate layer to the point where gas exits from the gas production bed is approximately at least 1.5 times the diameter of the bed, but not less than 7 feet. The residence time of the input material in the intermediate layers and the lower layers is such that activated carbon may be produced and/or the toxic waste input destroyed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1992
    Assignee: American Power and Waste Management Ltd.
    Inventors: Frederick P. Beierle, Mounir Mazzawi
  • Patent number: 5068010
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing oil, gas and by-products from pyrobituminous shale impregnated with hydrocarbons utilizes a vertically disposed reactor having a top portion, a middle portion and a bottom portion. As shale is introduced into the top portion of the reactor through a rotary seal mechanism, hot gasses are introduced into the middle portion of the reactor through hollow, parallel tubes having a hexagonal configuration with gas introducing holes disposed in the side walls which are protected by overhanging portions of the top walls. Relatively cool gasses are introduced into the bottom portion of the reactor through horizontally disposed circumferentially spaced pipes having downwardly and outwardly chamfered inner ends to prevent clogging of the pipes. The hot effluent gasses from the top portion of the reactor are passed through the cyclone, a heat regenerator for reducing the temperature of the gaseous stream and an electrostatic precipitator prior to being compressed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1991
    Assignee: Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. - Petrobras
    Inventors: Rene Mundstock, Kuniyuki Terabe, Antonio R. Lamprecht, Joao C. Teixeira, Altair R. D. Batista, Edson d. Dias, Luiz D. Santos, Osvaldo Amorim, Joel Rezende, Jorge H. Filho, Joao C. Gobbo, Romeu Machado
  • Patent number: 5034021
    Abstract: Apparatus is described for the pyrolysis of coal comprising a pyrolysis tower through which crushed coal and hot gas are counter-currently passed. The tower enables a controlled temperature profile to be maintained in the tower, and contains inner appurtenances which define cascading passageways to promote heat exchange and mixing of the coal with the hot gas. The coal volatiles are carried out of the top of the tower by the gas. The pyrolysis tower may be conjoined with a gasifier so as to most directly utilize the char residuals remaining after pyrolysis of the coal while they are still hot to more efficiently produce a hot synthesis gas, to be used to perform thermal pyrolysis in the tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1991
    Inventor: Reginald D. Richardson
  • Patent number: 5007987
    Abstract: The friability of green needle coke is reduced by heating the green needle coke to a temperature between about 875.degree. F. and about 1,200.degree. F. for a time sufficient to reduce the friability of the green needle coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1991
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Michael J. Block, Arnold E. Kelley, Milan Skripek
  • Patent number: 4935099
    Abstract: Lump wood is carbonized in a shaft retort, which is flown through by hot rinse gas. The wood is charged to the retort at its top. Wood charcoal is withdrawn from the lower portion of the retort. An exhaust gas which contains gases and vapors produced by carbonization is withdrawn from the top end of the shaft retort and is directly fed to a combustion chamber. In a first section of the combustion chamber, the exhaust gas is combusted with air at an understoichiometric to stoichiometric rate at temperatures from 800.degree. to 1250.degree. C. Part of the combustion gas is withdrawn from that first section of the combustion chamber and is cooled to temperatures from about 450.degree. to 900.degree. C. and is fed as a rinse gas to the shaft retort. In a second section of the combustion chamber, the exhaust gas is completely combusted with air supplied at an overstoichiometric rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1990
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hans-Jurgen Weiss, Jorg Schmalfeld, Ingo Dreher, Johannes Arnhold
  • Patent number: 4883499
    Abstract: An improved gasification system, in which synthesis gas is produced through the operation of a fuel gas production bed comprising an upper layer (66) of organic input material, typically in the form of pellets or briquettes of substantially uniform size and configuration, two intermediate layers, one intermediate layer (70) for carbonizing the input material, and the other intermediate layer (72) for partially oxidizing and substantially completely pyrolyzing the input material and a lower layer (68) of tar-free charcoal. The length of the gas production bed from the top of the upper intermediate layer to the point where gas exits from the gas production bed is approximately at least 1.5 times the diameter of the bed, but not less than 7 feet. The removal of charcoal from the gas production bed is controlled and the operation of the bed otherwise controlled such that the charcoal produced during the process is activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 28, 1989
    Inventors: Frederick P. Beierle, Mounir Mazzawi
  • Patent number: 4867848
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for producing coke in a vertical furnace having an upper part for preheating and devolitalizing raw ovoids of coal, an electrically heated median part for carbonizing and coking the ovoids and a lower part for partially cooling the coked ovoids by counter current flow of recycled product gases recovered from the upper part of the furnace. A cooling chamber is connected to the lower part of the furnace for further cooling the coked ovoids by countercurrent flow of a portion of the recycled product gases which are withdrawn after flowing through the partially cooled coked ovoids and introduced into the upper part of the furnace to prevent condensation of condensibles contained in the product gases. The median part of the furnace may be electrically heated by electrodes, induction coils or a combination of electrodes and induction coils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1989
    Assignee: Usinor Aciers
    Inventors: Jean A. G. Cordier, Bernard E. A. Dussart, Pierre H. Rollot
  • Patent number: 4752359
    Abstract: Active form coke is made from coal by passing the coal granulate downwardly through a preheating and pyrolysis zone, a heating zone, an aftertreatment zone and a cooling zone by moving respective grate bars of grates in each zone so that a bed of granules on one grate trickles uniformly onto the next lower grate. In the preheating, heating and aftertreatment zone CO.sub.2 or steam are passed through the beds by laterally introducing the gas at one side and withdrawing the gas on the opposite side of a respective bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1986
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1988
    Assignee: Perfluktiv Technik AG
    Inventors: Erich Sundermann, Hanno Laurien, Hans Reye
  • Patent number: 4718984
    Abstract: An internally-fired vertical shaft kiln for calcining coke wherein a downwardly moving coke bed has a co-current preheat gas stream in the upper portion of the kiln and a counter-current combustion gas stream in the lower portion of the kiln. Both gases are removed at the midportion of the kiln. Combustion air is introduced to the kiln through an inclined grate at the bottom of the kiln which retains a layer of coke thereon for internal combustion. The calcined coke moves over the combusting coke layer on the grate and then through a passage to a cooling chamber where a gas stream is passed through the calcined coke for cooling. The gas stream heated in the cooling chamber can be used as the co-current gas preheat stream in the upper section of the kiln.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1988
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: James R. McConaghy, Jr., Charles J. Swartz
  • Patent number: 4663145
    Abstract: A device for and method of working up etching and pickling liquids consisting of a vertical furnace having one or more vertical reaction spaces through which balls move at a maximum packing density.The furnace has a temperature gradient from the bottom (high) to the top (low). The reaction space and the balls consist of a material which is inert with respect to the liquid to be worked up. The liquid is introduced into the upper side of the furnace so that a film is formed in the heated surface of the balls. The salt dissolved in the liquid decomposes pyrolytically. The metal oxide is deposited on the surface of the balls and is removed therefrom after leaving the reaction space. The acid residue vapours are drained at the top and recovered in a separate absorber to the original pickling or etching acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1987
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Peter J. T. Van den Berk, Berend Knol, Franciscus J. M. Dubois
  • Patent number: 4652342
    Abstract: A process for the destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous solids in a retort, wherein a viscous bridging zone comprising viscous liquids in intimate contact with solids, which tends to impede the flow of vaporized hydrocarbons and the flow of solid particles, is agitated by reciprocating mechanical means actuated by a rotatable crankshaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1987
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Richard D. Kuerston
  • Patent number: 4650546
    Abstract: Slugs (4) of products dehydrated by compression are thrust into the tube (11) up to the hearth (15). The hot gases from the hearth passing round the tube (11) heat it up in order to release the gases and carbonize the solids which burn in the form of coke in the bottom (16) of the hearth. Household refuse may thus be eliminated not only without expense but with recovery of energy from it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1987
    Inventor: Gwenole J. Le Jeune
  • Patent number: 4601811
    Abstract: A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Arthur E. Lewis, Robert L. Braun, Richard G. Mallon, Otis R. Walton
  • Patent number: 4599161
    Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide issuing from an oil shale retort is captured in an absorbent bed. When the bed is regenerated as with oxygen containing gas, the sulfur dioxide liberated is reintroduced into the retort for reaction with the spent shale.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1986
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: James Scinta, Arlo J. Moffat
  • Patent number: 4597852
    Abstract: Oil shale is well mixed and efficiently, effectively, and economically retorted in a special gravity flow retorting process and system which utilizes novel arrangements of internal baffles in a static mixer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1986
    Inventors: Earl D. York, Jay C. Knepper, John M. Forgac
  • Patent number: 4545859
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing needle coke comprising the steps of heating green needle coke at temperatures between about 935.degree. F. and about 1,100.degree. F. for between about 10 minutes and about 24 hours, cooling the coke to below about 250.degree. F., and calcining the coke at calcination temperatures above about 2,000.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1985
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Arnold E. Kelley, Michael J. Block, Milan R. Skripek
  • Patent number: 4534849
    Abstract: An improved retort process in which oil is recovered from crushed oil shale moved by gravity through a passageway of an elongated housing with an inlet for the crushed oil shale at the top end and an outlet for the spent crushed oil shale at the bottom end of the housing, with the rate of movement of the crushed oil shale through the passageway in the housing being controlled. Heat is transferred in sequence to or from the ground oil shale as it moves from the inlet to the outlet by means of heat exchangers which are spaced to define a drying zone, a preheating zone, a cracking and distillation zone. Waste heat recovered from the waste heat recovery zone is passed to the preheating zone. Sufficient heat is delivered to the cracking and distillation zone to raise the temperature of the crushed oil shale moving through the cracking and distillation zone to the critical temperature for separating hydrocarbons in vapor form therefrom by means of an auxiliary heating assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1985
    Assignee: Edwards Engineering Corporation
    Inventor: Ray C. Edwards
  • Patent number: 4521278
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing needle coke comprising the steps of heating green needle coke at temperatures between about 875.degree. F. and about 1,200.degree. F. for between about 10 minutes and about 24 hours, and, without first allowing the temperature of the coke to cool below about 250.degree. F., calcining the green needle coke at calcination temperatures above about 2,000.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1985
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Arnold E. Kelley, Michael J. Block, Milan R. Skripek
  • Patent number: 4502920
    Abstract: An improved retort apparatus for recovering oil from crushed oil shale moved by gravity through a passageway of an elongated housing includes a control assembly connected adjacent the outlet end of the housing to control the rate of movement of the crushed oil shale through the passageway. A plurality of heat exchangers are located in the housing for transferring heat in sequence to or from the crushed oil shale. The heat exchangers are spaced to define a drying zone, a preheating zone, a hydrocarbon recovery zone, and a waste heat recovery zone. A pump recirculating circuit is provided for passing waste heat recovered from the waste heat recovery zone to the preheating zone. An auxiliary heating assembly connected to the heat exchangers in the hydrocarbon recovery zone delivers sufficient heat to raise the temperature of the crushed oil shale moving through the hydrocarbon recovery zone to the critical temperature for separating hydrocarbons in vapor form therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1985
    Assignee: Edwards Engineering Corporation
    Inventor: Ray C. Edwards
  • Patent number: 4439307
    Abstract: Hot oil depleted shale from an indirect oil shale retorting process is charged into the top of a vertical shaft furnace together with sufficient oxygen to combust the residual carbon in the shale. Recycle process gas is fed into the bottom of the furnace for direct heating by the spent shale. The heated recycle process gas and combustion gases are withdrawn from the furnace separately to minimize dilution of the high BTU process gas. A selected quantity of coarse, cooled spent shale discharged from the bottom of the furnace is recycled to the top to moderate the temperature of combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1984
    Assignee: Dravo Corporation
    Inventors: Louis H. Jaquay, Albert C. Mengon, deceased
  • Patent number: 4436611
    Abstract: Recycle gas for the indirect retorting of oil shale, is heated after the oil has been recovered from the gas, utilizing the residual carbon in hot oil depleted shale. The hot oil depleted shale is charged into a vertical shaft furnace where it is combusted by the introduction of air into the upper portion of the furnace. The heat so generated is recovered from the lower part of the furnace for heating the recycle gas and cooling the spent shale. A portion of the coarse fraction of the cooled spent shale discharged from the bottom of the furnace is recycled to the top to regulate the temperature of combustion. The recycle gas may be heated directly by countercurrent contact with the hot, spent shale in the lower portion of the furnace or indirectly in a heat exchanger by an inert gas which is circulated through the lower portion of the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: Dravo Corporation
    Inventors: Louis H. Jaquay, Mark Venetti
  • Patent number: 4431483
    Abstract: An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale, which comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communicating with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling c
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1984
    Assignee: Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takeyoshi Shishido, Yoshio Sato
  • Patent number: 4419185
    Abstract: A process and system for continuously pyrolyzing organic feedstock produces a solid carbonaceous residue of controlled volatility, in a manner that is highly energy efficient. The value of the gaseous product and of the pyrolytic oil produced are also optimized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1983
    Assignee: American Carbons, Inc.
    Inventors: Mack D. Bowen, Kenneth R. Purdy
  • Patent number: 4409416
    Abstract: A process for cracking lignin-containing feed materials, such as precipitated from black liquor, to produce hydrocarbon products such as ethylene, utilizing dual fluidized beds of particulate solids in series flow arrangement. In the process, the feedstock is introduced with a diluent gas such as steam into the first or fast fluidized bed for cracking reactions at superficial gas velocity exceeding about 5 ft/sec. A particulate solids carrier material, which can comprise at least partly coke produced in the process, is circulated between the beds, and coke deposited on the carrier in the first or cracking bed at 1000.degree.-1600.degree. F. temperature is burned off in a second or combustion bed maintained at 1400.degree.-2000.degree. F. temperature by an oxygen-containing gas and diluent steam introduced therein. Superficial upward gas velocity in the fast fluidized bed zone exceeds about 5 ft/sec. and the bed density exceeds about 3 lb/cu.ft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1983
    Inventors: George J. Snell, Derk T. A. Huibers
  • Patent number: 4406744
    Abstract: The production of hydrogenated tar and distillates from coal which is passed through successive condensing, hydrogenation, desulfurization and cooling zones of a dense bed while a flue gas is discharged into the lower portion of the desulfurization zone in admixture with steam and hydrogen for countercurrent flow contact with the coal and coke solids. The gases evolved from the desulfurization zone are passed into countercurrent contact with the coal in the preceding hydrogenation zone where the high boiling coal tar fractions evolved from the coal are hydrogenated and pyrolyzed. The total effluent from the hydrogenation zone is then passed into countercurrent contact with the coal in the condensing zone, preheating the coal by direct contact and initiating the pyrolysis of the coal. The preferred method is practiced in a vertical kiln through which the coal is passed as a dense, compact gravitating bed of solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1983
    Inventor: Clyde Berg
  • Patent number: 4404086
    Abstract: Solid heat carrier material and solid hydrocarbon-containing material, such as oil shale, tar sands or coal, are deflected be conical baffles into radially moving fluid beds which alternately flow radially outwardly and inwardly over a series of trays and downwardly into a series of peripheral and axial downcomers for a sufficient residence time to liberate hydrocarbons from the solid hydrocarbon-containing material. A fluidizing gas is injected upwardly into the beds to mix and fluidize most of the solids in the beds as well as to strip and transport the liberated hydrocarbons away from the beds for further processing downstream. Upright annular baffles can be positioned in the beds to minimize radial backmixing of solids and can also extend above the surface of the beds to minimize wave propagation. Any unfluidized coarse particles can be moved downwardly at an angle of inclination by gravity flow and jet deflectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1983
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
    Inventor: Robert D. Oltrogge
  • Patent number: 4389283
    Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for making coke wherein the coal is heated by the walls of a multi-cell chamber means and wherein said walls are heated by electric induction in the absence of air; the raw gases from the coal are directed to a by-product plant. The coal is introduced into said chamber means and the coke is discharged from said chamber means in such a way as to provide positive displacement of both the coal and the coke to overcome the sticking and bridging properties of the coal and the coke within said chamber means. Also improved provisions are included for insuring the sealing of said chamber means while operating said chamber means under a positive pressure in order to increase the efficiency of the conversion of coal to coke without causing pollution. The coal, after being coked, is quenched to a temperature below its ignition point before being exposed to the atmosphere to prevent it from burning in order not to cause pollution nor lose yield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1983
    Inventor: Albert Calderon
  • Patent number: 4388174
    Abstract: Oil-containing materials and part of the hot burnt material which is available after the combustion of solid carbon are charged into a retorting shaft reactor and the oil-containing mineral in the mixture is heated to the retorting temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1983
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Norbert Magedanz, Horst Seidel, Hans J. Weiss
  • Patent number: 4383912
    Abstract: The invention pertains to a process of pyrolysis of shale capable of producing hydrocarbons. It comprises associating at least two retorts and causing their respective operational phases to be so coordinated as to achieve simultaneous pyrolysis of said materials in one of said retorts and treatment of the hot residues subsequent to an earlier pyrolysis in another of said retorts, said treatment comprising the discharging of the residues, the admission or supply into said other retort of crude or raw material as well as the recovery of the heat contained in the pyrolysis residues by means of a circulation therethrough of an oxidant gas, preferably air, and of initially pulverized or atomized water, the resulting mixture of oxidant gas and steam being then supplied into a retort in which a phase of pyrolysis is being run to assist the combustion of the carbonaceous residues formed as a result of the pyrolysis of the load of materials treated or pyrolyzed therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1983
    Assignee: Bureau de Recherches et de Participations Minieres
    Inventors: Moussa Saadi, Rabah Bouchta, Chang Y. Cha, Mohamed Sdiqui, Bachir Barodi
  • Patent number: 4357210
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electric furnace for heating by passing a current through the charge, and more particularly, a continuous furnace in which the charge is a carbonaceous material.The furnace according to the invention is provided with a device for allowing non-reactive gas to be circulated in the opposite direction to the charge.The furnace according to the invention is used, in particular, for calcining anthracite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1982
    Assignee: Societe des Electrodes et Refractaires Savoie/SERS
    Inventors: Michel Aubry, Jean-Claude Bernard, Paul Philipon
  • Patent number: 4352720
    Abstract: The process for the production of molded metallurgical coke from dried coal or fine coal mixtures with a low swelling index particularly highly volatile fine coal comprises mixing normal washed fine coal or fine coal mixtures of a grain size of from 0 to 10 mm and a swelling index of not more than 5 with a binder, pressing the mixture into briquettes, oxidizing the briquettes in a continuous material flow stream, and coking the oxidized briquettes continuously in an oven chamber by supplying indirectly and exhausting the coke oven gases with a temperature of 300.degree. to 1200.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1982
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still GmbH & Co., KG
    Inventors: Heinrich Weber, Kurt Lorenz, Horst Dungs, Klaus Urbye
  • Patent number: 4338198
    Abstract: Improved method and apparatus are disclosed for regenerating wet spent carbon containing volatile impurities wherein the wet spent carbon is dried in a drying zone utilizing incinerated reactivation zone gaseous effluent. The inmprovement of the invention provides that the portion of reactivation zone gaseous effluent used to dry the wet spent carbon in the drying zone is continuously recycled to the reactivation zone for incineration to remove any volatile impurities which may have been removed from the wet spent carbon during drying. The balance of the reactivation zone gaseous effluent may be discharged into the atmosphere without further incineration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1982
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventor: George N. Brown