And Shaping To Desired Form Or Configuration Patents (Class 201/5)
  • Patent number: 9657990
    Abstract: An apparatus (100) is provided for thermal or thermal-catalytic degradation of feedstock. The apparatus includes a retort vessel (102). The retort vessel (102) is configured to receive feedstock. Further, the retort vessel includes at least one partition structure (106), wherein the partition structure (106) divides the retort vessel into volumetric zones and extends from an input end (122) of the retort vessel (102) to an output end (124) of the retort vessel (102). The retort vessel (102) is declined to facilitate movement of the feedstock from an input end (122) of the retort vessel (102) towards output end (124) of the retort vessel (102). Further, the retort vessel (102) is configured to rotate angularly and heated to facilitate thermal or thermal-catalytic degradation of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Inventor: Amit Tandon
  • Patent number: 9017521
    Abstract: A process for heat treatment of a solid, with a coolant solid, in which a stage for mixing the solid with the pre-heated coolant solid is carried out, with the coolant solid being a solid hydrocarbon. The solid hydrocarbon is ground, before the mixing stage with the solid, to obtain a solid hydrocarbon powder with a grain size of between 20 ?m and 300 ?m. The solid is ground, before the mixing stage with the coolant solid, to obtain solid pellets with a thickness of between 1 mm and 30 mm, a width of between 1 mm and 40 mm, and a length of between 1 mm and 100 mm. The mixing is carried out at a temperature of between 80° C. and 700° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: IFP Energies Nouvelles
    Inventors: Elena Garcia Sanz, Matthieu Rolland
  • Patent number: 8802906
    Abstract: Described is an apparatus and method for recovery of energy and by-products from automobile and truck tires. The tires are heated in an oxygen poor environment, and the off gases are condensed to recover a liquid oil product and compressible natural gas. The tires are reduces to ash and steel, both of which can be feed streams for other processes. The apparatus includes a condenser with cooled plates, and oil recovery structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Inventor: David Brent Thompson
  • Publication number: 20130240343
    Abstract: A char making apparatus comprises a longitudinal pyrolyzer furnace housing wherein coal-bearing material may be heated to a temperature to fluidize volatile materials therein and plasticize coal in the coal-bearing material. At least two rotatable drive screws are laterally positioned and interleaved within the longitudinal furnace housing and capable of conveying coal-bearing materials through the pyrolyzer furnace housing, each drive screw having a hollow drive shaft and a diverter positioned within the drive shaft to provide heating to the coal-bearing material. A heating jacket about the longitudinal furnace housing provides additional heating to the coal-bearing material. Multiple combustion chambers adjacent the heating jacket and hollow drive shaft burn fluidized volatile materials and exhaust combustion fluids through the jacket and shaft.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2012
    Publication date: September 19, 2013
    Applicant: NUCOR CORPORATION
    Inventor: Richard A. WOLFE
  • Publication number: 20130168223
    Abstract: The object of the invention is a method and an apparatus relating to the dry distillation of raw biomaterial and to the recovery of different compounds as a continuous process. In the method according to the invention, raw material is dry distilled in at least two separate dry distillation zones maintained in pressures and/or temperatures different from each other. A multi-layer dry distiller pertaining to the apparatus according to the invention consists of at least two separate dry distillation tubes maintained in different pressures and/or temperatures from each other to implement different dry distillation zones.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2011
    Publication date: July 4, 2013
    Inventor: Juha Huttunen
  • Patent number: 8460515
    Abstract: A biocoke producing apparatus has a reaction vessel that has a preset temperature range and pressure range for, without carbonizing of the pulverized biomass, inducing a pyrolytic or thermal curing reaction of lignin and hemicellulose thereof. The reaction vessel has a pressurization device for pressurizing to the pressure range, a heating device for heating to the temperature range in the state of the pressurization and a cooling device for cooling after maintaining of the above state. Multiple reaction vessels are provided. A pulverization delivery conveyor is provided superior to these reaction vessels, and each of the multiple reaction vessels is connected via a connection tube to the conveyor. The connection tube is provided with a pulverizate charging device for charging a given amount of pulverized biomass in accordance with a timing of pulverizate charging to the reaction vessels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignees: Naniwa Roki Co., Ltd., Kinki University
    Inventors: Yoshimasa Kawami, Jun Satou, Tamio Ida
  • Publication number: 20120272565
    Abstract: Aspects of the present invention relate to methods, systems, and compositions for preparing a solid biomass for fast pyrolysis. The method includes contacting the solid biomass with an inorganic material present in an effective amount for increasing fast pyrolysis yield of an organic liquid product (e.g., bio-oil). In various embodiments, the inorganic material is selected from the group consisting of aluminum sulfate, aluminum nitrate, aluminum chloride, aluminum hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and combinations thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 11, 2012
    Publication date: November 1, 2012
    Applicant: KiOR, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Bartek, Michael Brady, Dennis Stamires
  • Patent number: 8287723
    Abstract: This invention relates to biomass pyrolysis through the use of a hot liquid refinery feedstock as a heat transfer medium, preferably a vacuum gas oil feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2012
    Assignee: Phillips 66 Company
    Inventors: Andreas Jess, Dominic Kaufmann, Daren E. Daugaard
  • Patent number: 8211274
    Abstract: A solidified biomass consisting of semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter is pressure-formed from raw biomass material while being heated and has a maximum compressive strength of 60-200 MPa and calorific value of 18-23 MJ/kg. A method for producing the solidified biomass: includes crushing raw biomass material; loading a barrel with the crushed raw biomass material; inserting a pressure applying piston into a hollow of the barrel; pressure-forming the crushed raw biomass materials by applying pressure with the pressure applying piston while heating the material; obtaining semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter by retaining constant time of the heating and the pressurizing; cooling the semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter while maintaining pressure to obtain a cooled solid; and taking out and drying the cooled solid, wherein the pressure applying piston and the hollow of the barrel have very small clearance between their outer and inner peripheries.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2012
    Assignees: Kinki University, Naniwa Roki Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tamio Ida, Akio Nakanishi
  • Patent number: 7794519
    Abstract: A graphite electrode for an electrothermic reduction furnace is formed from anode grade coke and graphitized at a graphitization temperature below 2700° C. The resulting electrode is particularly suited for carbothermal reduction of alumina. It has an iron content of about 0.05% by weight, a specific electrical resistivity of above 5 ?Ohm·m, and a thermal conductivity of less than 150 W/m·K. The graphite electrode is manufactured by first mixing calcined anode coke with a coal-tar pitch binder, and a green electrode is formed from the mixture at a temperature close to the softening point of the pitch binder. The green electrode is then baked to carbonize the pitch binder to solid coke. The resultant carbonized electrode, after further optional processing is then graphitized at a temperature below 2700° C. for a time sufficient to cause the carbon atoms in the carbonized electrode to organize into the crystalline structure of graphite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2010
    Assignee: SGL Carbon SE
    Inventor: Johann Daimer
  • Patent number: 7611609
    Abstract: A method for producing non-recovery/heat recovery coke may include the steps of providing a container, disposing a volume of loose coal into the container such that a vertical dimension of the volume of loose coal in the container is smaller than a horizontal dimension of the volume of loose coal, applying a force to the coal in the container to produce a volume of compacted coal having a substantially uniform density which is larger than that of the loose coal, disposing the compacted coal into a non-recovery/heat recovery type oven, and heating the compacted coal to produce coke. The method may also include the steps of providing a container, and moving the non-recovery/heat recovery coke mass from the oven at a substantially constant elevation to the container, quenching the coke mass in the container to produce a quenched coke mass, and removing the quenched coke mass from the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2009
    Assignee: ArcelorMittal Investigacion y Desarrollo, S. L.
    Inventors: Hardarshan S Valia, William J Ambry
  • Publication number: 20090250331
    Abstract: The present invention provides an autothermal torrefaction device, which can be either stationary of mobile. Embodiments of the present invention include a torrefaction chamber having a chamber inlet for receiving biomass and at least one chamber outlet. The torrefaction chamber can be substantially surrounded by an exterior housing defining an outer jacket and having a jacket inlet and a jacket outlet. The outer jacket and torrefaction chamber define a space therebetween such that a burner unit including an inlet operatively connected to the chamber outlet and an outlet operatively connected to the jacket inlet allows vapors produced or released from within the torrefaction chamber to travel into the burner unit for combustion of at least a portion of the vapors and subsequently travel through the space between the jacket and the torrefaction chamber to provide heat necessary for autothermal torrefaction of biomass.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2009
    Publication date: October 8, 2009
    Inventors: Christopher B. Hopkins, Rucker Preston Burnette, JR.
  • Publication number: 20090102088
    Abstract: Exemplary embodiments of the present invention can be directed to producing high-density pellets by molding waste plastic and to producing high-strength coke by mixing the pellets with coal and dry-distilling the mixture in a coke oven. As feedstock is used waste plastic that contains polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, which are plastics that soften at a low temperature, at a total rate of about 50% or greater. The waste plastic is molded using a molding method of extruding it from a nozzle of a screw-type stuffing machine. In the method of this invention, the waste plastic can be heated to about 180˜260° C. in the molding machine and gas in the molding machine is sucked out. By this operation, the polyethylene, polypropylene and/or polystyrene are made molten and the amount of gas in the plastic is reduced. The plastic in this state is compression-molded by extrusion from a nozzle of about 15˜60 mm diameter.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 13, 2006
    Publication date: April 23, 2009
    Inventors: Tetsuharu Ibaraki, Tsuneo Koseki, Yuuji Tooda, Takashi Hiromatsu, Yasuhiko Mori, Syuuichi Shiozawa, Masatoshi Sakatani, Takashi Sato
  • Publication number: 20080152909
    Abstract: A process for spherical-polymer-powder production by which polymer particles which are nearly spherical, small in particle diameter, and suitable for use as a molding material can be easily obtained. The spherical polymer powder has excellent powder flowability, is safe, and can form, e.g., a high-quality molding, skin material, or coating film which is excellent in weather-ability, flexibility, rubber elasticity, low-temperature characteristics, adhesion to polar resins, texture, appearance, etc. The process for spherical-polymer-powder production is characterized by comprising a step in which an aqueous dispersion comprising a solvent solution of a polymer, water, and a dispersant is heated with stirring under such conditions that the power per unit volume of the dispersion, P/V, is 0.2 kW/m3 or more to remove the solvent from the aqueous dispersion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 9, 2006
    Publication date: June 26, 2008
    Applicant: Kaneka Corporation
    Inventors: Susumu Kyotani, Naoki Furukawa, Takeshi Chiba
  • Publication number: 20070237954
    Abstract: A process for the impregnation of carbon fiber bundles enables the carbon fiber bundles to be impregnated with a curable liquid resin without the impregnated fiber bundles sticking together. The fiber bundles are present in a mechanically generated fluidized bed during the impregnation and are held in the fluidized bed until the resin has been cured or at least dried. A resin-impregnated carbon fiber bundle, a shaped body and an intermediate body for silicization are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 11, 2007
    Publication date: October 11, 2007
    Inventors: Andreas Kienzle, Ingrid Kratschmer
  • Patent number: 7264694
    Abstract: A retort heating apparatus for processing a feed material includes a heating chamber bounded at least in part by a side wall. A plurality of baffles are at least partially disposed within the heating chamber. Each baffle includes an elongated body having a top surface, at least a portion of the top surface being arched. The plurality of baffles are vertically and horizontally spaced apart so that substantially all of the feed material that vertically passes through the heating chamber is horizontally displaced as the feed material passes by the baffles. Systems are also provided for heating the feed material within the heating chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2007
    Assignee: Oil-Tech, Inc.
    Inventors: Byron G. Merrell, Michael R. Keller, Roger K. Noble
  • Patent number: 6875316
    Abstract: Related to a blast furnace coke and a production method thereof. A coke having high reactivity and high strength in which coke strength, reactivity with CO2 and a pore size distribution are each at a desired level can be produced at a low cost by using a coal blend composed of a small number of brands comprising a large quantity of caking coal having medium rank and low fluidity. The blast furnace coke, being obtained by charging a coal blend comprising 60 wt % or more of semi-heavy caking coal having medium rank and low fluidity in which a content of inert component is 30 vol % or more in total or another coal blend comprising 60 wt % to 95 wt % of semi-heavy caking coal having medium rank and low fluidity in which mean reflectance (Ro) is 0.9 to 1.1 and maximum fluidity (MF) is less than 3.0 and the balance being a caking coal in which mean reflectance (Ro) exceeds 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2005
    Assignee: JFE Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Koji Hanaoka, Seiji Sakamoto, Katsutoshi Igawa, Yutaka Yamauchi, Shizuki Kasaoka, Toshiro Sawada, Koichi Shinohara, Yuji Tsukihara, Shinjiro Baba
  • Patent number: 6332957
    Abstract: The aim of the invention is to provide a method and a stamping device which is affiliated with said method. Using known economical stamping techniques, the stamping device permits coke coal cakes which are produced in an edgewise manner to be inserted into a coking furnace in a manner suited for positioning, i.e. in a flat-lying manner. To this end, a coke coal cake (1) having a small cake height and a large cake base surface is stamped inside a stamp die in an edgewise arrangement while using known techniques. Afterwards, the coke coal cake (1) remains in the stamp die and is placed in a position by a tipping and holding device (3) which is placed on the stamp die and which is suited for carrying out functions. In said position, the coke coal cake (1) which has not yet been removed from the die is inserted into the furnace chamber, is removed from the die therein, and is placed on the furnace base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2001
    Assignee: Saarberg-Interplan Gesellschaft für Rohstoff-, Energie- und Ingenieurtechnik mbH
    Inventors: Peter Gross, Frank Kayser
  • Patent number: 5688376
    Abstract: Method for the gas sealing manufacture of a door frame of a coke oven battery which battery comprises a refractory structure with an armor plate connected to it onto which the door frame is fitted characterized by the following steps:measuring the profile of the surface of the armor plate at the position where it faces the door frame in its mounted state;fitting a profile to one side of the door frame which in its mounted state faces the armor plate, corresponding to the profile of the surface of that armor plate measured in the previous step, in such a way that in its mounted state the door frame rests essentially against the armor plate;placing the door frame thus adapted against the armor plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1997
    Assignee: Hoogovens Staal BV
    Inventors: Jacobus Hermanus Maria Van Egmond, Hans Willem Smits
  • Patent number: 5336443
    Abstract: An improvement is proposed in an anisotropically electroconductive adhesive composition comprising an insulating adhesive resin as a matrix and electroconductive carbon particles dispersed in the matrix used for electrically connecting oppositely facing electrode terminals on various kinds of electronic devices and circuit boards. Different from conventional spherical carbon particles, the conductive particles used here are carbon particles each having a plurality of projections on the surface as formed, for example, by the high-temperature calcination of spherical carbon particles blended with a tar or pitch. By virtue of the projections on the carbon particles, the electric connection formed by using the inventive adhesive composition is very reliable and durable even under adverse ambient conditions involving a high temperature, high humidity, vibrations and mechanical shocks by virtue of the anchoring effect by the projections.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1994
    Assignee: Shin-Etsu Polymer Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Satoshi Odashima
  • Patent number: 4875979
    Abstract: A process for treating high sulfur petroleum coke to inhibit puffing is disclosed wherein particles of the petroleum coke are contacted, in the absence of a binder, with a compound containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, at an elevated temperature above that at which the alkali or alkaline earth metal compound begins to react with carbon, but below the temperature at which the coke particles would begin to puff in the absence of the compound. The coke particles are maintained at the elevated temperature for a sufficient period of time to permit the reaction to proceed and allow products of reaction to penetrate into the particles and form an alkali-or alkaline-earth-metal-containing deposit throughout the mass of the particles; and then cooling the so-treated coke particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas H. Orac, Herbert C. Quandt, David R. Ball
  • Patent number: 4559060
    Abstract: A upgrading method of low-rank coal containing higher ash and moisture contents into coal decreased in ash content and decreased in moisture content and heightened in heating value includes subjecting the low-rank coal to a low-temperature dry distillation treatment, pulverizing the dry-distilled low-rank coal to form a coal-water slurry and adding a binder to the slurry to effect oil agglomeration of the coal and promote separation of the ash.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1985
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsumi Muroi, Akio Yamamoto, Yoichi Nakamura, Toshihiko Takahashi, Morihisa Maruko
  • Patent number: 4461627
    Abstract: A coal is finely pulverized. The finely pulverized coal is subjected to dry distillation. A tar obtained by the dry distillation is added to an aqueous slurry together with the dry-distilled coal to effect the submerged granulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 24, 1984
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Yokoyama, Toshio Kuge, Shunsuke Nogita, Yoichi Nakamura
  • Patent number: 4351702
    Abstract: A heavy high-sulfur hydrocarbonaceous feedstock is partially delayed coked and partially formcoked. The coke products are screened, with larger particles being calcined at desulfurizing temperatures and smaller particles being recycled to the formcoker. Overhead products from both coking operations are combined, fractionated, and desulfurized. The heaviest cut from the fractionator is combined with the feedstock as recycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1982
    Assignee: Conoco Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce A. Newman, Lyndon D. Boyer
  • Patent number: 4288293
    Abstract: In the fluidized carbonization and calcination of coal to form a reactive coal calcinate for admixture with bituminous binder for briquetting, curing, and coking to produce form coke, the improvement of recovering medium BTU gases in the overheads by using as the fluidizing medium oxygen diluted with steam or carbon dioxide and removing the steam or carbon dioxide from the overheads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1981
    Assignee: FMC Corporation
    Inventor: Erik Saller
  • Patent number: 4187079
    Abstract: A method for the production of form coke, such as coke for use in the smelting industry as blast furnace coke and also in electro-metallurgical facilities, comprising, coking a high volatile coal containing at least 35% volatile constituents so as to remove the volatile constituents to form a non-baking base coal, mixing a plurality of fine grain coal components together, of which at least one of the components comprises said non-baking base coal and at least one other component comprises a baking bituminous coal so as to form a mixture of such coals, subjecting the mixture to a degassing operation using highly volatile coals, coking the degassed mixture and pressing the coke into briquettes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1980
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still
    Inventors: Heinrich Weber, Kurt Lorenz, Horst Dungs, Karl-Heinz Wollenhaupt
  • Patent number: 4165220
    Abstract: Briquettes obtained from semicoke and a binder such as pitch, can be hardened when stacked to relatively great height of 5 to 10 meters, provided the "green" briquettes are heated in a vertical oven at a temperature between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. for 35 to 50 minutes in an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1979
    Assignee: Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico S.p.A.
    Inventors: Angelo Colletta, Paolo Marini
  • Patent number: 4138222
    Abstract: Pelletization of a pumpable non-distillable conversion product of coal is effected by agglomerating, in a pelletization zone, a mixture of such product with finely divided coaly solids and recycled undersized pellets from solvent extract and pellet classification zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1979
    Assignee: Continental Oil Company
    Inventor: Everett Gorin
  • Patent number: 4138223
    Abstract: The effluent slurry product from a coal liquefaction reactor is split into two streams. The first stream is subjected to vacuum distillation to produce a vacuum bottoms. The second stream is mixed with particulate char to form a solids-enriched slurry feedstock to a low temperature carbonization plant. The char made in this plant, plus the vacuum bottoms from the first stream, forms a pelletizable composition which serves as a feedstock to a pelletizing plant. By virtue of the foregoing procedure, a reduction of the order of 30 percent in size of the pelletizing plant is effected, as compared to sending to the pelletizing plant all the vacuum bottoms obtainable from the entire coal liquefaction effluent slurry product; yet about the same total weight of pellets is made.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1979
    Assignee: Continental Oil Company
    Inventor: Everett Gorin
  • Patent number: 4138221
    Abstract: The manufacture of pellets from pumpable non-distillable coal conversion products is accomplished as follows. The non-distillable product is split into two streams. A pelletizable composition is made from a mixture of one stream with char made from the other stream. The pelletizable composition is converted to pellets in a pelletization zone supplied adiabatically with heat from the preheated char.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1979
    Assignee: Continental Oil Company
    Inventor: Everett Gorin
  • Patent number: 4133718
    Abstract: Rotation of a first drum member at a preselected speed intimately mixes finely divided agglomerative materials to form a loosely coherent, plastic sticky mass. The tumbling action generated by the rotating drum breaks up the loosely coherent, plastic mass into plastic particles or agglomerates which grow in size as they roll within the first drum member. The formed agglomerates are conveyed by rotation of the first drum member into a second drum member that includes an inlet portion surrounding the outlet portion of the first drum member. The second drum member has a longitudinal axis that is coplanarly aligned with the longitudinal axis of the first drum member and both drum members are independently rotated at preselected peripheral speeds with the angle of inclination of the first drum member being adjustable relative to the second drum member to control the movement of the agglomerates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1979
    Assignee: Dravo Corporation
    Inventor: Louis H. Jaquay
  • Patent number: 4126519
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for performing a continuous thermal treatment of organic carbonaceous materials under controlled pressure in which the feed material is introduced into the system in the form of a slurry, and the level of liquid is maintained at a preselected operating level, serving as a gas-tight seal. The feed material is conveyed upwardly of the liquid operating level and is thereafter introduced into a reaction chamber in which it is heated to within a controlled elevated temperature range under controlled pressure in a manner to effect vaporization of at least a portion of the volatile substances therein, forming a gaseous phase composed of condensible and noncondensible vapors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1977
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1978
    Assignee: Edward Koppelman
    Inventor: Robert G. Murray
  • Patent number: 4108731
    Abstract: Coke is produced with high yield and low sulfur by heating and drying ground coking coal at 200.degree. to 300.degree. C. for 15 to 120 minutes in air, and then heating in two semicoking stages in nitrogen in fluidized bed reactors. The first semicoking stage is 400.degree. to 600.degree. C. for 10 to 60 minutes while the second is 800.degree. to 1,100.degree. C. for 10 to 60 minutes. Tar is condensed from the offgases of the first semicoking stage and the residual gas is divided and 15 to 95% recycled to the first semicoking reactor. Similarly, 15 to 95% of the offgases from the second semicoking reactor is recycled. The condensed tar is fed to the final coke-forming operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1978
    Assignee: Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico S.p.A.
    Inventors: Luigi Palumbo, Angelo Colletta, Giampaolo Giromella
  • Patent number: 4105504
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing form coke that is coke having pieces of substantially identical form comprises a heated shaft furnace comprises mixing fine coke with a caking coal and pressing the mixture at temperatures at which the mixture is plastic in order to form briquettes. The briquettes are permitted to harden and degasify and thereafter they are exposed to a high temperature after hardening for example to a temperature of from 400.degree. to 900.degree. C. from 60 to 120 minutes. Thereafter the briquettes are cooled. A first mixing substance is prepared by permitting a fine coal to fall in a non-compressed stream in the shaft furnace while heat is transferred thereto substantially by radiation. The apparatus for carrying out the method includes a regeneratively fired shaft furnace which is provided with heating flues and which has a clear height of approximately 35 meters, a width of approximately 1 meter and a length of approximately 5 meters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1978
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still
    Inventor: Kurt Lorenz
  • Patent number: 4094746
    Abstract: This invention is directed to a process for converting coal into useful liquids, solids, and gases, by combined processes of coal carbonization and liquefaction in which the carbonization reaction yields hydrogen suitable for the liquefaction. The heavy liquid products from the liquefaction and the carbonization may be combined with the solid char to form a metallurgical coke. Other liquids may be treated and converted into useful industrial hydrocarbon chemicals. The gases from the combined reactions yield a fuel gas as well as a hydrogen stream suitable for use in the overall processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1978
    Assignee: United States Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Philip X. Masciantonio, Kenneth A. Schowalter
  • Patent number: 4061600
    Abstract: Coke intended for use in graphitized articles such as graphite electrodes is thermally desulfurized and made more ordered by heating in the absence of air at a temperature between about 1600.degree. C and 2200.degree. C for a period of at least one hour before the particles are mixed with binder. Coke processed in this manner yields graphite electrodes of superior flexural strength and having lower coefficients of thermal expansion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1977
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Arthur William Moore, Herbert Franz Volk, Jack Kenneth Merrow
  • Patent number: 4056443
    Abstract: Coke is produced with high yield and low sulfur by heating and drying ground coking coal at 200.degree. to 300.degree. C. for 15 to 120 minutes in air, and then heating in three semicoking stages in fluidized bed reactors. The first semicoking stage is 300.degree. to 470.degree. C. for 10 to 20 minutes; the second is 400.degree. to 600.degree. C. for 10 to 20 minutes; while the third is 800.degree. to 1100.degree. C. for 10 to 20 minutes. Tar is condensed from the offgases of the first two semicoking stages and the residual gas from each is divided and 60 to 80% recycled as fluidizing gas to the same semicoking reactor. 10 to 20% of the offgases from the third semicoking stage is recycled to the third stage as fluidizing gas. In addition, oxygen is used as make-up fluidizing gas in each of the three stages, in the amount of 10 to 30 liters per kilogram of dry coal in the first stage, 5 to 20 liters per kilogram of dry coal in the second stage, and 40 to 100 liters per kilogram of dry coal in the third stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1977
    Assignee: Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico S.p.A.
    Inventors: Angelo Colletta, Luigi Palumbo
  • Patent number: 4050990
    Abstract: A method of producing form coke that is coke having pieces of substantially identical form using a heated shaft furnace comprises mixing fine coke with a caking coal and pressing the mixture at temperatures at which the mixture is plastic in order to form briquettes. The briquettes are permitted to harden and degasify and thereafter they are exposed to a high temperature after hardening for example to a temperature of from 400.degree. to 900.degree. C from 60 to 120 minutes. Thereafter the briquettes are cooled. A first mixing substance is prepared by permitting a fine coal to fall in a non-compressed stream in the shaft furnace while heat is transferred thereto substantially by radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: Firma Carl Still
    Inventor: Kurt Lorenz
  • Patent number: 4022668
    Abstract: In the production of formed coke, the temperatures and times of the oxidation and carbonization phases can be reduced if 5 to 12% by volume of oxygen is included in the fluidizing gas in a fluidized bed reactor in which the carbonization phase is conducted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1977
    Assignee: Centro Sperimentale Metallurgico S.p.A.
    Inventors: Luigi Palumbo, Angelo Colletta