Utilizing Solid Sorbent Patents (Class 203/41)
  • Patent number: 5487818
    Abstract: A process for separating phthalimido-peroxycaproic acid (PAP) from solutions in organic solvents, wherein the organic solvents have a solubility in water equal to or lower to 10% by weight, is provided. The process employs the following steps:(a) dispersing the solution in an aqueous medium to form a suspension;(b) bubbling an inert gas into the resulting suspension; and(c) recovering PAP from the suspension.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 30, 1996
    Assignee: Ausimont S.p.A.
    Inventors: Claudio Cavallotti, Claudio Troglia, Roberto Garaffa
  • Patent number: 5484511
    Abstract: A process for the removal of organic impurities and dissolved salts from hydrazine hydrate and aqueous solutions thereof by distillation of the hydrazine hydrate under reduced pressure, passing the hydrazine hydrate vapor through an adsorbent, and condensing the vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Wolfgang Ohlendorf, Michael Batz, Hans-Heinrich Moretto, Peter Schmidt, Gerhard Jonas
  • Patent number: 5484510
    Abstract: A water distillation apparatus and method include an improved control system for operation and maintenance, condensers with plastic to metal seals between a plastic condenser manifold and metallic cooling tubes, and a filter with steam bypass to allow for easy sterilization of the filter and remaining distillation system. The control system includes a three pronged probe assembly for monitoring conditions within an evaporation chamber. One of the three probes monitors steam conductivity and provides a steam fault signal to indicate an upper level of contaminants in the steam. A purge pump is responsive to fault signals, including the steam fault signal, to pump water from the evaporation chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 16, 1996
    Assignee: Dew Enterprises, Inc.
    Inventors: Micheal O. Hartman, Dale J. Kinder, Randy E. Rainey, Arthur R. Helmich, Daniel E. Willis
  • Patent number: 5468350
    Abstract: The apparatus includes a container for accommodating water to be treated and evaporating the water. Container is attached with water supply for supplying the water to be treated into the container. The water to be treated in container is heated by a heater. Vapor evaporated from the inside of container is cooled by a cooler. Distilled water output from cooler is irradiated with ultraviolet light by a ultraviolet light irradiator. An organic decomposed substance contained in the distilled water irradiated with the ultraviolet light is removed by organic decomposed substance removal device, and ultrapure water is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1995
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Cozy Ban
  • Patent number: 5456898
    Abstract: Proposed is an improvement in a method for the preparation of an enriched and purified aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution from a crude aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution comprising the steps of evaporating the crude aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution in an evaporator into vapor with accompanying liquid in the form of a mist, separating the vapor from the mist of liquid in a gas-liquid separator and subjecting the vapor to fractionating distillation in a fractionating distillation column in order to greatly upgrade the product solution relative to the impurity content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Shigeki Shimokawa, Yoshitsugu Minamikawa, Seishi Murakami
  • Patent number: 5454953
    Abstract: A multiple-stage process for the collection and treatment of biological waste, and for rendering the biological waste biologically inactive for the safe and economical environmentally non-contaminating disposal thereof. Moreover, also disclosed is an arrangement for the collection and treatment of biological waste utilizing the inventive process, and is especially adapted for the collection and treatment of biological waste which is generated during an embalming procedure implemented on a cadaver, such as a human cadaver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1995
    Inventor: Peter J. Waibel
  • Patent number: 5374337
    Abstract: A halohydrocarbon solvent recovery process. The process in one embodiment includes heating a gross mixture including solvent, fatty-acid impurities and water in a bath to vaporize at least a portion of the solvent and the impurities. A portion of the vapor is then condensed in a reflux condenser to form a condensate mixture. After drying and impurity absorption, a solvent product of at least 99% purity may be recovered. In one embodiment, the gross mixture is obtained from steam stripping dry-cleaner filter cartridges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1994
    Assignee: Technichem Engineering, Ltd.
    Inventors: Mark J. Ng, Bruce T. Maeda
  • Patent number: 5368754
    Abstract: A method has been discovered for stripping aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants from wastewater and retaining the aromatic hydrocarbons on activated carbon. The wastewater is contacted countercurrently with stripping gas. The stripping gas is passed over a bed of activated carbon to regenerate the stripping gas. The entire volume of stripping gas is recycled to the stripping vessel. There is no purge of stripping gas or aromatic hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. The removed aromatic hydrocarbons are retained by the activated carbon and periodically recovered. An activated carbon particularly adapted for retaining and recovering aromatic hydrocarbons has been found.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1994
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Byron Von Klock, Irl L. Zuber
  • Patent number: 5340444
    Abstract: A circulation cooler (10) has a heat exchanger (12) in a housing (11) that contains a cooling liquid and is detachably connected by its forward flow (13) to an inlet line (5), and by its return line (14) to the outlet (6) of a condenser (4) of a distillation apparatus (1). The circulation cooler (10) moreover has a vacuum pump (21) inside its housing (11) and an absorber (28) outside its housing (11). A second condenser (24) is interposed along the cooling agent inlet line (13) between the circulation cooler (10) and the condenser (4) of the distillation apparatus (1), and is connected to a vacuum line (27). The cooling liquid (25) flows successively to the heat exchanger ( 12) through the two condensers (24, 4) , then back to the heat exchanger (12). In both condensers, which are under a vacuum through common vacuum line (26, 27) , the condensation of the liquid substances is effected in the form of main condensation and aftercondensation phases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: Peter W. D. van der Heijden Laborbedarf
    Inventor: Peter W. D. van der Heijden
  • Patent number: 5316627
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for producing odourless dimethyl ether (DME) which is thus an excellent propellant. This dimethyl ether is produced from methanol, the methanol feed, prior to the reaction to form dimethyl ether, and/or the dimethyl ether product still containing odorants being treated with acidic materials, preferably acidic ion exchangers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1994
    Assignee: RWE-DEA Aktiengesellschaft fuer Mineraloel und Chemie
    Inventor: Hartmut Hammer
  • Patent number: 5294305
    Abstract: The present invention is an improved process for the recovery of ethylene glycol from spent glycol generated in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate. The spent glycol typically consists of metal oxide catalyst residues, low molecular weight terephthalate oligomers, diethylene glycol and other trace impurities. The improved process of the present invention is based on the principle that elevating the temperature of the spent glycol increases the solubility of the low molecular weight oligomers so that the low molecular weight oligomers can be dissolved in the ethylene glycol and further that the spent glycol at an elevated temperature may be passed through an ion exchange bed to remove metal oxide catalysts, color forming impurities and other trace impurities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1994
    Assignee: Mobile Process Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Frank S. Craft, Sr., Michael D. Kelly
  • Patent number: 5248395
    Abstract: Ground water which contains heavy metal ions and toxic volatile organic compounds is purified by passing an air stream through it to purge out the organic compounds, adsorbing the displaced organic compounds on a molecular sieve and destroying them using a strong oxidizing agent such as hydrogen peroxide. This procedure avoids having the heavy metal ions from the water collect on the molecular sieve which causes the destruction of the oxidizing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1993
    Assignee: UOP
    Inventors: Henry Rastelli, Jenny L. Pai, Carl J. Kjellson
  • Patent number: 5183540
    Abstract: Method for the recovery of solvent from a solvent-based wash liquid containing non-hazardous waste resulting from an equipment cleaning operation. The wash solution typically averaging approximately 90 percent solvent and 10 percent resin, pigments and other dissolved or suspended solids is continuously tumbled in a tumbler/evaporator vessel together with a highly porous, adsorbent extender in granulated form, while maintaining temperatures sufficient to evaporate the solvent and prevent the solid matter from sticking together after processing. The extender is a substantially inert, material and may be selected from diatomaceous earth, powdered calcium silicate, powdered glass (100 mesh), oak sawdust (100 mesh), cedar sawdust (100 mesh), bentonite, charcoal (100 mesh) and ground corn cobs. The amount of extender introduced into the vessel is of the order of 5 to 20 percent by weight of the wash solution. The system may employ jacketed ribbon, double cone or rotating helix blenders.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1993
    Inventor: Isadore E. Rubin
  • Patent number: 5176798
    Abstract: A system is disclosed for recovering and disposing of volatile organic contaminants, from water contaminated with organics, which system includes a pump to feed water from the body of contaminated water to the system, with indirect heat exchange and direct steam addition to raise the temperature of the water, a stripping vessel to strip the heated water with gas to strip the volatile contaminants from the water, gas supply to provide stripping gas to the vessel conduits to pass the removed volatile contaminants to a vessel containing a bed of adsorbent selective for the removal organics and regenerating the near-saturated bed by stripping with ambient air heated by heat exchange with the exhaust gas from a fuel-fired heater, passing the contaminant-containing regenerating gas from the regenerating bed to said fuel-fired heater, and combusting the contaminants in said fuel-fired heater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventor: John B. Rodden
  • Patent number: 5130157
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for obtaining an aroma concentrate that is enriched in lactones. The present invention is particularly concerned with a process for concentrating lactones from a distillate obtained by the distillative deacidification of a fat composition rich in lauric acid residues, said distillate containing at least 0.1 wt. % of lactones having 6-20 carbon atoms, by subjecting the distillate or a fraction thereof to a fractional distillation so as to obtain a fraction containing at least 1 wt. % of lactones having 6-20 carbon atoms.The present invention offers a commercially and technically attractive route for obtaining natural lactones.Other aspects of the present invention are a lactone concentrate obtainable by the above process, the use of such a concentrate for flavoring food products and to food products flavored by such a lactone concentrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 14, 1992
    Assignee: Van den Bergh Foods Co., Division of Conopco, Inc.
    Inventors: Franciscus H. Hulsker, Koene de Jong, Hessel Turksma
  • Patent number: 5110419
    Abstract: A low profile water distiller has a housing. A steam chamber is located within the housing having a horizontal dimension greater than its vertical height. A condenser is also located within the housing having a horizontal dimension greater than its vertical height. The vertical height of the condenser is generally the same as the vertical height of the steam chamber. A raw water conduit extends in a generally horizontal plane within the housing for delivering water to be distilled into the steam chamber. A steam conduit also extends within the housing for delivering steam from the steam chamber to the condenser. The steam conduit extends in a generally horizontal plane parallel to the generally horizontal plane of the raw water conduit. An air circulation channel within the housing draws cooling air through the condenser in a generally horizontal path parallel to the generally horizontal planes of the raw water conduit and the steam conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Assignee: Emerson Electric Co.
    Inventors: Thomas J. Weber, Richard E. Forrest, Dale L. Garrison
  • Patent number: 5076896
    Abstract: A process for the separation of propylene glycol from a mixture of low-boiling fatty alcohols and propylene glycol which comprises extracting the mixture with water to produce a water-propylene glycol mixture and fractionating the water-propylene glycol mixture to produce propylene glycol that is substantially anhydrous and an apparatus for carrying out the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1991
    Assignee: Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien
    Inventors: Franz-Josef Carduck, Lutz Jeromin, Gerd Geobel, Wilhelm Johannisbauer, Georg Fieg, Theo Fleckenstein
  • Patent number: 5043075
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method of removing amines from aqueous solutions thereof, in particular from waste waters obtained in cellulose processing. The aqueous amine solutions are contacted with a cation exchanger whose anchor groups consist of carboxyl groups, in order to charge the cation exchanger with the amines. The charged cation exchanger is treated with an aqueous solution of a weak acid having a pK.sub.a larger than 3.0 in order to elute the amines. The eluate is processed by way of distillation, wherein a portion of the weak acid is separated from the amines and reclaimed, if desired.The method according to the invention offers a simple and cheap way of disposing amine-containing waste waters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 27, 1991
    Assignee: Lenzing Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Korger Dietmar, Stephan Astegger, Dieter Eichinger, Heinrich Firgo
  • Patent number: 4982034
    Abstract: A process to purify t-butylstyrene from product containing substantial amounts of t-butylethylbenzene and small amounts of alkenyl-substituted styrene impurities by a combination of vacuum fractionation and vacuum evaporation in the presence a polymerization inhibitor, and treatment with a carbonaceous adsorbent. Such a product to be purified can be prepared by catalytically, oxidatively dehydrogenating over an alkaline pyrophosphate in the vapor phase t-butylethylbenzene containing about 95 wt. % or more of the p-isomer which can be made by alkylating ethylbenzene with isobutylene in a controlled manner in the presence of cooled concentrated sulfuric acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 1, 1991
    Assignee: Amoco Corporation
    Inventors: Eric J. Moore, Marc L. Kullberg, Lori B. Lane
  • Patent number: 4898601
    Abstract: An aftercooker device for reducing the solvent content of drycleaning solid residues is disclosed as is its application in dry cleaning processes. The aftercooker is adapted for use with fouled disposable filters as well as with the solids which result from the flashing of soil-containing filter backwash. The aftercooker and its use are characterized by the use of ambient to moderately elevated temperatures and low velocity flows of air to remove solvent from residues and to the use of a vent scrubber to recover the solvent so removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Inventor: Michael E. Casey
  • Patent number: 4874524
    Abstract: An adsorption-desorption process for separation of a component from a feed mixture of components wherein at least two components of the feed mixture are adsorbed by an adsorbent material during the adsorption step of the adsorption-desorption process and the adsorbent material has a greater affinity for a first one of said adsorbed components than for a second one of the adsorbed components, the process comprising charging the feed mixture to an inlet end of a bed of the adsorbent material, passing the feed mixture through the bed under such conditions that the adsorbent material adsorbs said first and second components of the feed mixture, withdrawing an effluent from an outlet end of the bed, the effluent consisting essentially of feed mixture decreased in content of the materials adsorbed by the bed, after the adsorbent material is substantially saturated, desorbing the first and second components from the adsorbent material in at least two steps at substantially the same pressure but at different temperat
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1989
    Assignee: The Curators of the University of Missouri
    Inventors: Athanasios I. Liapis, Marshall E. Findley, Hoa T. Nguyen
  • Patent number: 4857150
    Abstract: A process for the recovery of silicone oil and chlorobenzenes from a mixture containing silicone oil, chlorobenzenes, and polychlorinated biphenyls comprising:(a) introducing the mixture into a distillation zone at a temperature and a pressure which will cause the chlorobenzenes to flash overhead and the mixture of silicone oil and polychlorinated biphenyls to pass to the bottom of the zone; and(b) removing the bottoms from step (a), cooling same, and passing the bottoms through at least one bed of activated carbon, which is an adsorbent for polychlorinated biphenyls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Steven E. Rival, William D. Prince
  • Patent number: 4834841
    Abstract: The improved method and apparatus treats the stack gases from a commercial bakery oven to remove and recover pollutants, specifically ethyl alcohol. The method includes the steps of cooling the stack gases and passing the cooled gases through a packed column to condense the water and ethyl alcohol and if the ethyl alcohol is to be recovered drying the ethyl alcohol by distillation and by absorption of the water therefrom by a molecular sieve. The apparatus includes blowers and controls to maintain the normal flow of gases from the oven so that the removal and recovery of the ethyl alcohol from the stack gases does not interfere or change the baking conditions of the oven. This may be accomplished by a system of dampers or by controlling the discharge rate of the blowers used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1989
    Inventor: Kenneth W. Peck
  • Patent number: 4769112
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for removing water from a liquid mixture of water and ethanol contacts it with liquid carbon dioxide so that the ethanol is preferentially transferred into solution, dries the solution using an adsorbent, and then recovers dry ethanol by distilling off the carbon dioxide. This process is particularly energy efficient especially when it includes a fermentation process to generate the ethanol and uses the carbon dioxide generated during the fermentation as the source of liquid carbon dioxide. In this case the method and apparatus provide an additional product of dry carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: United Distillers P.L.C.
    Inventor: Alfred G. Wheldon
  • Patent number: 4753735
    Abstract: A method, liquid and apparatus is disclosed that is capable of effectively removing contaminated liquids from nonabsorbent articles. Articles wet with such liquids are immersed in azeotropic mixtures. Liquid film is displaced by the azeotrope which, in turn, is purified through a still and recycled. Articles moved through a vapor phase are clean and dry. In a typical operation, articles to be cleansed and dried are introduced into the solvent then rinsed and then elevated into a vapor zone. Suitable heating coils maintain the desired temperatures in the various compartments. In the vapor zone, all liquid film is changed to vapor while the article temperature is raised above ambient to prevent moisture condensation on the surface of the article upon removal from the system. In the solvent treating or reprocessing compartment, solvent with any accumulated moisture contained is processed through a molecular sieve (solvent dessicant) and filtered and the solvent collected and recirculated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1986
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1988
    Assignee: Allied-Signal Inc.
    Inventor: Frances J. Figiel
  • Patent number: 4735728
    Abstract: A combination of pollution control technologies are employed in the treatment of effluent from photographic processing. The technologies employed are evaporation, oxidation by photolysis and catalyzed ozone, condensation, treatment by activated carbon and electrolysis. The method includes the steps of filtering the liquid wastes, electrolytically treating the filtered liquid, evaporating the wastes to create steam and vapors, oxidizing the steam and vapors by photolysis and photolytic catalyzed ozone, and condensing the vapors and passing them through a column of activated carbon. The carbon is regenerated by oxidizing the carbon sites with ozone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1988
    Assignee: Environmental Tech America, Inc.
    Inventor: Mark F. Wemhoff
  • Patent number: 4715965
    Abstract: A method for separating volatilizable contaminants from soil by introducing the soil into a rotary aggregate dryer through which a working gas indirectly heated to between 750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F. is drawn to vaporize the contaminants, and for recovering the contaminants for environmentally sound disposal or recycling by downstream treatment of the effluent drawn off from the dryer. The downstream treatment includes cooling the effluent to condense and precipitate out a substantial portion of the contaminants and passing the effluent through activated carbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1987
    Inventors: Adam L. Sigerson, James E. Shirk
  • Patent number: 4696720
    Abstract: The present invention involves a process for removing water from mixtures of alcohols and water by contacting such a mixture with an ion exchange resin of either the cation or anion type. Prior to use for alcohol dehydration, the ion exchange resin itself is dehydrated if necessary or desired by contacting it with methanol, propanol, isopropanol, acetone or other like low molecular weight hydrophilic solvents. After use for alcohol dehydration, the ion exchange resin is regenerated by contacting it with these regenerating agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1987
    Assignee: Grain Processing Corporation
    Inventor: Donald L. Kiser
  • Patent number: 4664752
    Abstract: An aqueous saline vapor is passed through a porous mass having a temperature no less than that of the vapor and subsequently condensed to provide substantially salt-free water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1982
    Date of Patent: May 12, 1987
    Assignee: Industrial Filter & Pump Mfg. Co.
    Inventors: James F. Zievers, Paul Eggerstedt
  • Patent number: 4657639
    Abstract: An electrostatic filtration apparatus is used to significantly reduce contaminants in N.sub.2 O.sub.4 vapor and liquid at ambient temperatures. The apparatus uses an electret vapor filter having therein a stack of layers of electret material through which the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 must pass. A flow blocking filter is added to the electret liquid filter to insure a sufficient time for removal of contaminants by said electret material. The filter is constructed of chemically inert materials to prevent additional contaminants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Parameswar Mahadevan, Elfreda T. Chang, Peter Breisacher
  • Patent number: 4640769
    Abstract: The apparatus uses a combination of technologies for treatment of hazardous and nonhazardous liquid wastes. The first treatment step is an evaporation stage where the liquid wastes are heated. The resulting steam and vapors are then oxidized by photolysis and photolytic catalyzed ozone before they are condensed. The steam and vapors are then condensed and the condensate is passed through a column of activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs any unoxidized Chemical Oxygen Demanding (COD) species and aids in the control of any odors which may be emitted in the evaporation stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1987
    Inventor: Mark F. Wemhoff
  • Patent number: 4639257
    Abstract: Carbon dioxide is recovered from gas mixtures containing it in a concentration not greater than the equilibrium concentration at the freezing temperature of the mixture, by subjecting the gas mixture to membrane separation and recovering from the membrane separation a permeate having a carbon dioxide concentration between the equilibrium concentration and 98% (by volume), distilling said permeate at subambient temperature above the freezing temperature of the permeate and recovering substantially pure carbon dioxide as a liquid bottoms product of the distillation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1987
    Assignee: Costain Petrocarbon Limited
    Inventors: Melvyn Duckett, David I. Limb
  • Patent number: 4617093
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for separating at least one component of a mixture from another without the aid of gravity comprises, in one embodiment, a heat pipe structure having an inlet and spaced outlets, a wick element disposed within the heat pipe for inducing a capillary flow of condensed phase mixture in liquid form therealong and spaced heating and cooling elements for creating zones of higher and lower temperature, respectively, within the heat pipe structure. In an alternate embodiment, a sorbent column is provided having an inlet and spaced outlets, a sorbent material disposed along the inner wall of the column for inducing a flow of adsorbed mixture therealong and spaced heating and cooling elements for creating zones of higher and lower temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1986
    Assignee: University of Cincinnati
    Inventor: Sun-Tak Hwang
  • Patent number: 4556460
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for dewatering an ethanol-water solution is disclosed wherein a carrier gas is used to vaporize the solution and transport the vapors to a sorbent where water is sorbed in preference to ethanol. The invention is particularly suited for small-scale production of fuel-grade ethanol for blending with gasoline.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1982
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1985
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: George H. Robertson, Attila E. Pavlath
  • Patent number: 4490563
    Abstract: MTBE is recovered from an ether containing effluent by fractionation. When driers are not used on the hydrocarbon feed to MTBE manufacture, a separate water-methanol phase occurs in the fractionation overhead which is separately processed in a methanol fractionator and the water recovered is used to water wash the separated hydrocarbon phase from the overhead while methanol is recycled to MTBE and when driers are used on the hydrocarbon feed a separate methanol phase occurs in the fractionation overhead which can be recycled to MTBE manufacture and the hydrocarbon phase is directly passed to a drier preceding alkylation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1984
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Joe Van Pool, Paul D. Hann
  • Patent number: 4487614
    Abstract: In a fixed-bed vapor phase adsorption cycle for bulk separations wherein the heat front generated by the exothermic heat of adsorption is maintained in the bed either in or behind the mass transfer zone, and is subsequently utilized in the purge desorption/regeneration of the bed, improved efficiency and enhanced versatility with respect to the degree of product purity is obtained by treating the regeneration purge gas with a portion of the purified product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 11, 1984
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventor: Carmen M. Yon
  • Patent number: 4430226
    Abstract: A water treatment cartridge and method for producing ultrapure water is described. The cartridge comprises a container having therein a particulate admixture of activated carbon and mixed bed ion exchange resins. A source of water, preferably pretreated, is passed through the container, preferably following treatment by one or more cartridges containing mixed bed ion exchange resins. The carbon in the admixed cartridge removes residual organic contamination from the water and the resins remove ionic contamination from the carbon, without re-introducing organic material to the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1984
    Assignee: Millipore Corporation
    Inventors: Ramesh S. Hegde, Gary C. Ganzi
  • Patent number: 4409104
    Abstract: A molecular sieve material for removing water from a liquid, such as distilled alcohol produced from grain, is placed in a series of concentric cylindrical spaces of narrow but equal width and separated by concentric cylindrical passages of lesser width, through which a heated gas, such as air containing the gaseous product of combustion of a fuel, is passed for heating the material for regeneration. After heating, the material is cooled by a gas, such as air, through the same passages. The cylindrical sleeves forming the spaces and passages are relatively thin and the spaces are closed at opposite ends by annular rings to which the sleeves are attached, as by welding, with spacing blocks at spaced points in the passages. Additional rings, of slightly less width than the spaces, are spot welded just inside the end rings to permit flow of liquid but retain the sieve material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1983
    Inventors: Leonard E. Schroder, Leonard D. Schroder, Billy D. Schroder, deceased, by Beverly Schroder, personal representative
  • Patent number: 4407662
    Abstract: A method is provided for removing sufficient water from H.sub.2 O ethanol at least 160 proof to produce ethanol having a proof of 195 or more comprising the steps of heating the ethanol water mixture until it is a vapor with sufficient superheat to maintain the vapor phase and prevent substantial capillary adsorption as the mixture passes through a dessicant bed of molecular sieves, passing the superheated ethanol water mixture through the bed to remove sufficient water to increase the proof of the ethanol of at least 195, passing a portion of the dehydratedethanol through a second dessicant bed of molecular sieves at less than atmospheric pressure to desorb the water and ethanol on the dessicant from a previous dehydration cycle, and reversing the flow through the two beds after the temperature of the first bed increases no more than about 14.degree. C. (25.degree. F.).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: Ad-Pro Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: William F. Ginder
  • Patent number: 4391677
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for producing a substantially sulphur-free, butene-1 rich stream from a butene-containing C.sub.4 hydrocarbon feed stream by passage through a desulphurization zone, e.g. successive beds of active alumina and zinc oxide, and then distilling it. The desulphurization zone adsorbs, absorbs or converts to higher boiling sulphurous compounds low boiling sulphurous impurities such as H.sub.2 S, COS and CH.sub.3 SH. A sulphur-free butene-1 rich stream is recovered overhead from the distillation zone, while a butene-2 rich stream containing higher boiling sulphurous impurities originally present or produced in the desulphurization zone is recovered as a bottom product. A dechlorination zone (containing, for example, a charge of copper impregnated active carbon) can be provided upstream or downstream from the desulphurization zone but upstream from the distillation zone or can be provided in the path of the butene-1 rich stream from the distillation zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 5, 1983
    Assignee: Davy McKee (Oil & Chemicals) Limited
    Inventors: Norman Harris, John F. Flintoff, John W. Kippax
  • Patent number: 4383893
    Abstract: Liquid mixtures containing aliphatic alcohols are separated, by distillation, into a higher-boiling alcohol-containing fraction and a lower-boiling fraction containing the other liquids, by carrying out the fractionation in the presence of water and of an alkanal and, over about 3/4 of the column height, in the presence of a non-volatile or only slightly volatile acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1981
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1983
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Gerd Kaibel, Horst Hartmann, Waldhelm Hochstein, Franz-Josef Mueller
  • Patent number: 4373935
    Abstract: An efficient fixed-bed vapor-phase adsorption cycle for bulk separations wherein the heat front generated by the exothermic heat of adsorption is maintained in the bed either in or behind the mass transfer zone, and is subsequently used in the desorption/regeneration step. The cycle is especially useful in drying mixtures of water and compounds which form azeotropes with water as well as the azeotropes themselves, such as 190-proof ethanol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1983
    Assignee: Union Carbide Corporation
    Inventors: Joseph P. Ausikaitis, Desh R. Garg
  • Patent number: 4371718
    Abstract: Butenes are added to the methanol-containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) reactor effluent fractionation to effect recovery of substantially methanol-free MTBE bottoms product. Methanol analysis taken below the fractionator feed locus manipulates control of butenes addition. In an embodiment, the methanol-butenes-containing overhead stream from the fractionation is treated over activated alumina to adsorb methanol, yielding a methanol-free butenes feed for HF alkylation of isobutane. The used adsorbent can be regenerated using hot butenes product and/or MTBE reactor feed vapor with the recovered methanol being recycled to the MTBE reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 1, 1983
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Thomas Hutson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4360695
    Abstract: In a process for the continuous preparation of adipic acid by hydrolysis of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 -alkyl adipates with water at an elevated temperature in the presence of a strongly acidic ion exchanger, the improvement that the esters and excess water are fed to the middle section of a column, reaction mixture is taken off at a plurality of trays of the column below the feed point, passed over a strongly acidic ion exchanger and recycled, alkanols or alkanol/water mixtures are taken off at the top of the column and an aqueous solution of adipic acid is taken off at the bottom of the column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1982
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Magnussen, Volker Schumacher, Wolfgang Gebert, Heinrich Reitz, Werner Praetorius
  • Patent number: 4345973
    Abstract: A method for dehydration and/or enrichment of aqueous alcohol mixtures wherein the mixtures in the vapor state are contacted with a dehydration agent which is composed of cellulose, caboxymethylcellulose, cornmeal, cracked corn, corn cobs, wheat straw, bagasse, starch, hemicellulose, wood chips, other grains, other agricultural residues or mixtures thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1982
    Assignee: Purdue Research Foundation
    Inventors: Michael R. Ladisch, George T. Tsao
  • Patent number: 4316774
    Abstract: A urine-water recovery system is described which provides efficient potable water recovery from waste liquids. The design allows use over extended durations such as encountered in space flights. The system has advantages such as low power consumption, compactness, and gravity insensitive operation. The system comprises a vacuum distillation system combining a hollow fiber polysulfone membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump and condenser. With the system of the present invention, water purified from urine can be produced at a rate of more than 0.5 kg/hr at a total system energy of less than 400 w-hr/kg.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1982
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Raymond B. Trusch
  • Patent number: 4306943
    Abstract: Crude liquid polyether-polyols containing an alkaline catalyst are purified by the steps of:neutralizing said crude liquid polyether-polyol with a mineral acid having a dissociation constant of greater than 10.sup.-3 at 25.degree. C.distilling off water from said liquid, and filtering the same. The improvement resides in the step of adding a hydrate of a metal salt of said mineral acid to the liquid polyether-polyol at a stage before the distillation step for promoting the crystal growth of a salt formed from said alkaline catalyst by the neutralization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1981
    Assignee: Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shigeo Mori, Takeshi Fujita
  • Patent number: 4273621
    Abstract: Process for dehydrating aqueous ethanol, utilizing a high-pressure distillation (with a single distillation column) of an aqueous ethanol admixture (preferably one derived from a conventional ethanol fermentation process), to achieve a vapor phase ethanol-water admixture containing about 90 percent, by weight, of ethanol, and then drying the vaporous admixture, in the presence of CO.sub.2, with a crystalline zeolite type 3A, utilizing the "pressure energy" derived from the distillation to allow the product ethanol to condense at ambient temperatures, and then, if desired, employing the resultant dried ethanol product in the production of gasohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1981
    Assignee: The Lummus Company
    Inventor: Louis L. Fornoff
  • Patent number: 4260827
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a process for the purification of aqueous solutions of low molecular weight polyhydroxyl compounds containing calcium or lead compounds or mixtures thereof. Methanol and a precipitant for calcium and/or lead ions in a quantity equivalent to the ions to be removed are added to the solutions. The deposits thus formed are removed and the residual solutions are treated with a cation exchanger followed by distillation of the low-boiling fractions. The distillation sump which essentially contains the low molecular weight polyhydroxyl compounds is then treated with an anion exchanger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1981
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Kurt Klinkmann, Raimund Wambach
  • Patent number: 4257914
    Abstract: In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1981
    Assignees: Conoco, Inc., The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Clyde W. Zielke, William A. Rosenhoover