Distillation In Apparatus Or Element Of Specific Material Patents (Class 203/86)
  • Patent number: 9051419
    Abstract: An alpha-halocarbo aromatic monomer or comonomer and/or an allyl halide monomer or comonomer can be reacted with aluminum or an aluminum-containing catalyst to form a polymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2015
    Inventors: Richard H. Hall, Daniel F. Hall
  • Patent number: 8951391
    Abstract: A solar distillation apparatus utilizing a substantially vertical reactor assembly is disclosed. The reactor includes a tubular outer shell, a base, a cap, and a central tension member. The annular space between the outer tube and the central tension member forms the reactor chamber. Seawater or other feed liquid enters the reactor chamber through the base plate. Reflected or direct solar energy heats the feed liquid, generating low pressure vapor. The vapor exits the reactor through the cap structure or the base. The concentrate left behind settles by gravity to the bottom region of the reactor's liquid column. Extension tubes on the feed openings allow feed liquid to enter the liquid column above the concentrate layer and avoid excessive mixing of the feed liquid and the concentrate. The concentrate exits the reactor through one or more openings in the base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Inventor: Miles McClure
  • Patent number: 8920608
    Abstract: A method of treating sludge using solar energy is provided. The present invention utilizes a Fresnel panel frame that includes at least one Fresnel panel. The Fresnel panel may cover at least a portion of a bed cavity. An amount of waste may be placed within the bed cavity. When placed in sunlight, the heat enhanced by the Fresnel panels may heat the waste sufficiently for safe easy disposal, recycling, or for the creation of fertilizer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Inventor: Gary Hammond
  • Patent number: 8864952
    Abstract: Embodiments of apparatuses and methods for separating a paraffin isomerization-zone effluent are provided. In one example, an apparatus comprises a DIB column configured for fractionating the paraffin isomerization-zone effluent to form a branched C4 hydrocarbon-rich stream. The DIB column comprises a vessel. The vessel comprises a cylindrical wall that extends vertically and that encloses an internal cylindrical volume having a lower portion extending to an upper portion. An internal swage is disposed in the lower portion of the internal cylindrical volume. A plurality of fractionation trays includes an upper fractionation tray that is disposed in the internal cylindrical volume above the internal swage and a lower fractionation tray that is disposed in the internal swage. The lower fractionation tray has a smaller diameter than the upper fractionation tray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Anurag Sinha, Manoj Kumar, David James Shecterle, Douglas A. Becci
  • Patent number: 8696872
    Abstract: An improved water desalination system is disclosed, in which contaminated water such as seawater or brackish water is preheated and fed into a primary pressure vessel through a distribution head. The seawater is distributed from the distribution head over a non-adherent surface such as a plurality of silicone chords hanging below a distribution tank or a cone- and cylindrical-shaped surface. The water is exposed to a high temperature steam environment in the chamber to cause at least a portion of the water in the contaminated water to evaporate, while the remaining concentrated salts from the contaminated water fall to the bottom of the chamber. A portion of the steam in the primary pressure vessel is withdrawn to be condensed into fresh water. The energy withdrawn with the steam extracted from the primary pressure vessel is made up by a supplemental energy apparatus, such as a steam generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: Water Desalination International, Inc.
    Inventor: Frank Passarelli
  • Patent number: 8668812
    Abstract: Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: UT-Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: John T. Simpson, Steve R. McNeany, Thomas V. Dinsmore, Scott R. Hunter, Ilia N. Ivanov
  • Publication number: 20140034480
    Abstract: A tantalum-material multilevel distillation crucible; the distillation crucible comprises a crucible body (1), an insulation plate (2), and a receiving hood (3); the insulation plate (2) is sheathed in the upper part of the crucible body (1), and the receiving cover is disposed on top of the crucible body (1) and above the insulation plate (2); the crucible body (1) is made of tantalum in a horn-shaped circular truncated cone increasing in size from top to bottom; and the insulation plate (2) is made of a high-temperature resistant refractory material with good insulation performance, characterized by: the insulation plate (2) comprises of a plurality of insulation plates that can be stacked and used (2); and a heating unit (6) provided with a plurality of pads (5) that can be stacked and used at the bottom of the crucible.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 10, 2012
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Inventors: Ping Yuan, Limin Tao, Qiuhua Xu
  • Patent number: 8617359
    Abstract: A method for distilling a starting material that includes a liquid Fd to be distilled, uses a gas-tight container system that is resistant to excess and/or negative pressure. The container system includes a condenser for condensing the liquid Fd, which has turned to vapor and whose temperature can be adjusted, to give the condensation product, and a vapor chamber connecting the evaporator and the condenser. The pressure and temperature in the vapor chamber are monitored and controlled so that distillation is always carried out in a range close to the saturation vapor pressure of the liquid Fd to be distilled. If the pressure is too high, it is reduced so that especially foreign gas is removed. An installation includes a container for distillation according to method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Inventors: Markus Lehmann, Markus Braendli
  • Publication number: 20130334104
    Abstract: A method of distilling a chemical mixture, the method including receiving, in a vessel comprising a complex, the chemical mixture comprising a plurality of fluid elements, applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to the complex, wherein the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat at a first temperature, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a first fluid element of the plurality of fluid elements of the chemical mixture to a first vapor element, and extracting the first vapor element from the vessel, where the complex is at least one selected from a group consisting of copper nanoparticles, copper oxide nanoparticles, nanoshells, nanorods, carbon moieties, encapsulated nanoshells, encapsulated nanoparticles, and branched nanostructures.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Publication date: December 19, 2013
    Applicant: WILLIAM MARSH RICE UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Nancy J. Halas, Peter Nordlander, Oara Neumann
  • Patent number: 8591705
    Abstract: A multi-effect evaporator, having an upstream and a downstream end, adapted for distillation of water. It includes a plurality of effects connected in a series manner and arranged into groups. Each group has a common parallel water feed inlet adapted to supply all effects in the group with feed water. The evaporator further includes a main feed water line in fluid communication with the most upstream group. An array of heaters is disposed along the line, adapted for heating the feed water before its entry into the effects of the latter group. Each effect includes means for forwarding the second outlet vapor into one of the heaters for heating the feed water. Each group includes a pump adapted to extract the concentrate from the effects of the group and pump it into the common parallel water feed of an adjacent downstream group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: I.D.E. Technologies Ltd.
    Inventors: Joseph Weinberg, Avraham Ophir
  • Patent number: 8586779
    Abstract: The present invention relates in general terms to a process for preparing alkyl methacrylates, comprising as steps: providing an acetone cyanohydrin by a process according to one of the preceding claims; contacting the acetone cyanohydrin with an inorganic acid to obtain a methacrylamide; contacting the methacrylamide with an alcohol in the presence of an inorganic acid in a reactor to obtain an alkyl methacrylate; continuously discharging at least a portion of the alkyl methacrylate from the reactor into a distillation column as a vapor stream; the discharge being effected by feeding a discharge stream comprising steam into the reactor, to an apparatus for preparing alkyl methacrylates, to a process for preparing polymers based at least partly on alkyl methacrylates, to the use of the alkyl methacrylates obtainable by the process according to the invention in chemical products, and to chemical products based on alkyl methacrylates obtainable by the process according to the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: Evonik Röhm GmbH
    Inventors: Udo Gropp, Robert Weber, Thomas Schaefer, Andreas Perl, Rudolf Sing, Thomas Mertz
  • Patent number: 8518219
    Abstract: Organic waste disposal technologies are disclosed herein. A multistage processing of sewage sludge into synthetic fuel and chemical products is carried out by means of a direct thermo-chemical liquefaction process. The process enables the minimization of coke formation by utilizing steam stripping in the processing of sewage sludge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 1, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: Metal Tech Ltd.
    Inventors: Yefim Plopski, Alexander Rogov
  • Patent number: 8460509
    Abstract: A fluid evaporation system includes a housing bounding a fluid reservoir and an air flow path that is disposed over top of the fluid reservoir. The housing has an inlet opening and a spaced apart outlet opening that both provide communication between the outside environment and the air flow path. A fan is positioned to draw the air out of the air flow path through the outlet opening. A baffle projects into the air flow path at a location between inlet opening and the outlet opening so as to constrict the area of the air flow path thereat. A plurality of spray nozzles are positioned within air flow path between the baffle and the first end of the housing. A pump is configured to draw fluid from the reservoir and deliver it to the plurality of spray nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignee: Total Water Management, LLC
    Inventors: Janos I. Lakatos, Edward Clay Slade, Clayton R. Carter
  • Patent number: 8444829
    Abstract: Improved methods for carrier-gas humidification/dehumidification [HDH] or dewvaporization enable production of clean water, derived in part from models generated and tested with produced water from the oil and gas industries, which likewise address industrial waste water remediation and generally facilitate the time and cost efficient disposal of waste waters from a plurality of industries ranging from food, wine, and beverage production to novel enhanced efficiencies within the oil and gas industries themselves. High efficiency carrier gas HDH thermal distillation functions without membranes, at ambient or near ambient pressures with no required pre- or post-treatment, and economies of scale to leverage a plastics-based processing platform. Industrial waste water including that generated by the food, wine, and beverage industries, among others, is likewise ameliorated according to the instant teachings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Altela, Inc.
    Inventors: Ned Allen Godshall, Matthew Jason Bruff
  • Patent number: 8430993
    Abstract: A fluid evaporation system includes a housing bounding a fluid reservoir and an air flow path that is disposed over top of the fluid reservoir. The housing has an inlet opening and a spaced apart outlet opening that both provide communication between the outside environment and the air flow path. A fan is positioned to draw the air out of the air flow path through the outlet opening. A baffle projects into the air flow path at a location between inlet opening and the outlet opening so as to constrict the area of the air flow path thereat. A plurality of spray nozzles are positioned within air flow path between the baffle and the first end of the housing. A pump is configured to draw fluid from the reservoir and deliver it to the plurality of spray nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: Total Water Management, LLC
    Inventors: Janos I. Lakatos, Edward Clay Slade, Clayton R. Carter
  • Patent number: 8317982
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a process and apparatus for utilization of waste heat of flue gas liberated from different heat sources to provide high quality water from sea/brackish.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Inventor: Subrahmanyam Kumar
  • Patent number: 8092646
    Abstract: A vaporization apparatus and related vaporization method is provided that relies on thermocapillary convection. The apparatus of a thermocapillary evaporator has three sections: an evaporation section, a displacement section, and a storage system for storing the liquid to be evaporated. The evaporation section is operable to distribute thermal energy substantially along the entire liquid-gas interface. The method of the present invention includes providing a thermocapillary evaporator. Advantageously, the present invention provides substantial evaporation from relatively low temperature heat sources, compared to conventional evaporators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2012
    Inventor: Ward Charles Albert
  • Patent number: 8088257
    Abstract: The present disclosure is generally directed to a solar distillation system capable of recovering potable water from non-potable water. In certain embodiments, the system includes a substantially air tight solar still having a roof top composed of a solar light-transmitting material. The solar still includes a tube positioned below and running underneath the roof top, the tube having an exit end. Additionally, the solar still includes a heating surface positioned below the roof top and adapted for receiving at least a portion of the non-potable water exiting the tube at the exit end. Non-potable water on the heating surface is solar heated and a portion of the non-potable water evaporates and condenses on the outside of the tube to be collected as potable water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2012
    Assignee: KII, Inc.
    Inventor: Hillery Thomas Kemp
  • Patent number: 8057642
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for reducing the corrosion rate of iron-containing vessels within an ethylene glycol distillation system. The inventive process includes the addition of an additive component of sodium nitrite and sodium hypophosphite into such iron-containing vessels, to thereby react with iron of the inside walls and form a protective coating thereon. This process reduces the corrosion rate in iron-containing vessels of the apparatus, and reduces the catalytic effects of iron corrosion products within the system. Thus, not only is the on-stream time of the vessels extended, but also product quality is improved by reducing the aldehyde content of the final ethylene glycol product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: SD Lizenzverwertungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Barry Billig, James Mann
  • Publication number: 20110132743
    Abstract: There is described a novel woven-fabric packing 1, in which a plurality of woven-fabric layers 2 of metal or plastic filaments 3 are disposed parallel to one another. The woven-fabric layers 2 have protuberances 4, at least one protuberance 4 having an opening 5, which lies in an opening plane 6, which is oriented at an angle of 40 to 140 degrees relative to the woven-fabric layer 2. The openings 5 of woven-fabric layers 2 are all oriented in one opening direction X.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 6, 2010
    Publication date: June 9, 2011
    Applicants: T & R engineering GmbH, BASF SE
    Inventors: Alexey SHILKIN, Gunter SCHUCH, Rüediger TÜESHAUS, Peter ROESSLER
  • Patent number: 7955477
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to distillation systems and methods. The still may have an impermeable nonporous membrane that may be extruded, molded, vacuum formed or sprayed-on. The membrane may be installed in a lightweight basin as a liner. The distillation system may also include a unique sealing system that may include a gasket with a cross-section shaped like the lowercase letter “e” and may include a trim piece that hold a basin casing and casing cover together. The distillation system may be designed in such a manner so as to make shipping and assembly easy and cost effective. For example, the distillation system may be constructed as a kit that all needed components and all the components are placed inside of a standard dimension box for shipping. In various embodiments, the distillation system may be a solar distillation system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2011
    Assignee: SolAqua, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert E. Foster, Michael J. Cormier, Gregory R. Vogel, William H. Amos
  • Publication number: 20110120854
    Abstract: A hybrid photovoltaic panel-interfaced solar-greenhouse distillation technology is provided that is capable of utilizing solar waste heat to perform liquid distillation while co-generating solar electricity. Solar waste heat co-generated at a photovoltaic panel is effectively utilized by in situ distillation liquid as an immediate heat sink in thermo contact with the photovoltaic panel front surface, thus providing beneficial cooling of the photovoltaic panel and co-making of distillation products while generating electricity with significant improvement on total-process solar energy utilization efficiency. Its enabled beneficial utilization of waste heat can provide a series of distillation-related products such as: freshwater, sea salts, distilled water, hot water, hot steam, saline/brine products, and brine photobiological cultures for production of advanced biofuels and bioproducts, in addition to solar electricity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2010
    Publication date: May 26, 2011
    Inventor: James Weifu Lee
  • Patent number: 7927463
    Abstract: The present invention provides a novel tritium distillation device, which includes a container, a radiator covered on top of the container with a protrusion at the bottom, a conduit penetrating the container with an inlet and an outlet, the inlet being arranged in correspondence with the protrusion, and a heating device fixed below the container. The method of operating the tritiated water distillation includes the steps of adding environmental tritiated water in the container, covering the radiator on top of the container closely, heating environmental tritiated water to cause tritiated water steam to be condensed to the bottom of the radiator, and collecting the tritiated water condensation dropped from the protrusion with conduit. The present invention uses a simple structure to ease assembly and reduce the cost of cooling water source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research
    Inventor: Hsin-Fa Fang
  • Patent number: 7922874
    Abstract: A multi-effect evaporator, having an upstream and a downstream end, adapted for distillation of water. It comprises a plurality of effects serially connected and arranged into groups. Each group has a common parallel water feed inlet adapted to supply all effects in the group with feed water. The evaporator further includes a main feed water line in fluid communication with the most upstream group. An array of heaters is disposed along the line, adapted for heating the feed water before its entry into the effects of the latter group. Each effect comprises means for forwarding the second outlet vapor into one of the heaters for heating the feed water. Each group comprises a pump adapted to extract the concentrate from the effects of the group and pump it into the common parallel water feed of an adjacent downstream group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignee: I.D.E. Technologies Ltd.
    Inventors: Avraham Ophir, Joseph Weinberg
  • Patent number: 7883670
    Abstract: New designs, methods and processes are described that in which laminated devices and configured in a style named the “ortho” style. To form a device in the ortho style, plates or sheets are machined to have apertures and then stacked together such that the apertures connect and fluid can flow through the device in a direction that is substantially parallel to the direction of sheet thickness. Various laminated devices and processes using them are also described. For example, devices in which non-rectangular microchannels conform around reaction chambers or other bodies that need to be heated or cooled, are described. Features that separate or trip boundary layer and enhance heat transfer are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2011
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Anna Lee Tonkovich, Gary Roberts, Sean P. Fitzgerald, Paul W Neagle, Dongming Qiu, Matthew Schmidt
  • Patent number: 7862692
    Abstract: A method of evaporating liquid in a liquid evaporating system having heat exchangers, evaporators, and steam reheaters, includes: preheating condensed water in the heat exchangers; distilling in the evaporators the condensed water from the heat exchangers, wherein the evaporators each has a horizontal plane evaporating chamber at an upper side thereof and a horizontal plane steam heating chamber at a lower side thereof, wherein heating steam is provided from an external boiler to the heating chamber; exchanging heat between the evaporating chamber and the heating chamber using a heat exchange boundary face formed in a concavo-convex shape, wherein the heat exchange boundary face is formed of a metal plate; and reheating in the steam reheaters the steam from the respective evaporators, wherein the reheaters each are coupled to a subsequent one of the heating chambers to serve as a heating source of the subsequent heating chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Inventor: Jeong-Ho Hong
  • Patent number: 7857945
    Abstract: A solar still includes a relatively shallow chamber with a pyramid shaped transparent cover and a transparent base. The still also includes a pair of rollers and an endless heat absorbing belt rotatable about the rollers. The still is positioned to receive solar energy passing through the transparent cover and impinging on an upper surface of the heat absorbing belt in order to vaporize seawater within the chamber. The efficiency of the still is increased by one or more mirrors disposed below the still for reflecting sun light up through the transparent base to impinge on a lower outer surface of the belt to enhance the vaporization of the seawater. One or more fans are also provided for cooling the cover to enhance the condensation of water that will then run down the cover and into a pure water receptacle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2010
    Assignee: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
    Inventors: Ahmed Al-Garni, Ayman Kassem, Farooq Saeed
  • Patent number: 7790001
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for reducing the corrosion rate of iron-containing vessels within an ethylene glycol distillation system. The inventive process includes the addition of an additive component of sodium nitrite and sodium hypophosphite into such iron-containing vessels, to thereby react with iron of the inside walls and form a protective coating thereon. This process reduces the corrosion rate in iron-containing vessels of the apparatus, and reduces the catalytic effects of iron corrosion products within the system. Thus, not only is the on-stream time of the vessels extended, but also product quality is improved by reducing the aldehyde content of the final ethylene glycol product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: SD Lizenzverwertungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Barry Billig, James Mann
  • Patent number: 7619098
    Abstract: Process for the preparation of on-spec phthalic anhydride by the distillative purification of crude phthalic anhydride at reduced pressure, where the crude phthalic anhydride is passed to the distillation column above a side take-off, the low-boiling components are removed at the top of the column or in the vicinity of the top of the column and the on-spec phthalic anhydride is removed from the side take-off of the column, in which a distillation column is used whose number of theoretical plates located above the supply of the crude phthalic anhydride into the distillation column is 10 to 20 and the column is operated at a reflux ratio of from 0.1 to 0.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2005
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2009
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Werner Peschel, Matthias Kummer, Marcus Bechtel
  • Patent number: 7608171
    Abstract: A distillation system for distilling contaminated water includes an evaporation chamber for receiving the contaminated water. The evaporation chamber includes (i) a vessel for absorbing the contaminated water; (ii) a plurality of heat conductive pipes extending through the vessel for delivering the contaminated water to the vessel; and (iii) a heat source for heating the plurality of heat conductive pipes for evaporating the contaminated water absorbed by the vessel and causing the at least one contaminant to be retained by the vessel. A condensation chamber is connected to the evaporation chamber for receiving the evaporated water for condensing and producing purified water in liquid form. A storage device is connected to the condensation chamber for storing the purified liquid water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Inventor: Samuel Okwaja Otukol
  • Patent number: 7494573
    Abstract: The invention relates to an evaporator tube for a sea water desalination system, whereby drinking water or water for domestic or industrial purposes, respectively, is extracted from the sea in particular in areas having scarce fresh-water resources. The evaporator tube of the invention is characterized by being formed of a steel that is sea water resistant and at the same time acid resistant, and by having a wall thickness between 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm. The evaporator tube of the invention may be furnished and utilized economically, and is characterized in particular by a high corrosion resistance at good heat transition owing to the thin wall, and by good resistance against low pH values. In addition, scaling on the evaporator tubes may reliably be prevented. It is therefore also suited for economical operation in intermittently operated sea water desalination systems such as, e.g., wind energy-powered sea water desalination systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2009
    Assignee: Wme Gesellschaft Fur Windkraftbetriebene Meerwasserentsalzung MbH
    Inventor: Ulrich Plantikow
  • Patent number: 7470349
    Abstract: A device for delivering purified water from a reservoir of salt water including a vapor tube supported concentrically inside a barrier tube The vapor tube has apertures that provide a passage of purified condensate from interior of the purified waste to the space between the space between the outside of the vapor tube and the inside of the barrier tube. A pump between the reservoir of salt water and the interior of the vapor tube generates a pressure differential that forces water vapor from the surface of salt water to the inside of the vapor tube. Condensate inside the vapor tube flows as fresh water to outside the vapor tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2008
    Inventor: Joel Miller
  • Patent number: 7431805
    Abstract: A method, system, and apparatuses for simultaneous heat and mass transfer utilizing a carrier-gas at various absolute pressures are described. A method may include: thermally coupling at least two continuous contacting apparatuses together; varying the pressure between the at least two continuous contacting apparatuses; allowing heat removed from the first continuous contacting apparatus to be the heat delivered to the second continuous contacting apparatus. A system may include: at least two continuous contacting apparatuses thermally coupled together and operating at different absolute pressures. A continuous contacting apparatus may include: an evaporation chamber and a dew-formation chamber both operating at an absolute pressure in a vacuum range. A continuous contacting vapor recompression apparatus may include: an evaporation chamber operating at a first absolute pressure; and a dew-formation chamber operating at a second absolute pressure higher than the first absolute pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2008
    Assignee: Arizona Board of Regents
    Inventor: James R. Beckman
  • Patent number: 7416643
    Abstract: A solar water desalination and purification device includes an outer liquid-tight containment and an inner liquid-tight containment disposed within the outer containment. The outer containment collects liquid that forms from condensing water vapor that evaporates within the inner containment and passes through the inner containment material. The inner containment is made from hydrophobic material that allows water vapor to pass through the material as the sunlight evaporates the contaminated water within the inner containment. An inlet communicates with the inner containment for allowing the contaminated water to fill the inner containment. An outlet communicates with the outer containment to allow discharge of condensed water vapor collected within the outer containment to be used as drinking water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2008
    Inventor: Robert N. Yonover
  • Publication number: 20080190755
    Abstract: A solar distillation apparatus utilizing a substantially vertical reactor assembly is disclosed. The reactor consists of a tubular outer shell, a base, a cap, and a central tension member. The annular space between the outer tube and the central tension member forms the reactor chamber. Seawater or other feed liquid enters the reactor chamber through the base plate. Reflected or direct solar energy heats the feed liquid, generating low pressure vapor. The vapor exits the reactor through the cap structure or the base. The concentrate left behind settles by gravity to the bottom region of the reactor's liquid column. Extension tubes on the feed openings allow feed liquid to enter the liquid column above the concentrate layer and avoid excessive mixing of the feed liquid and the concentrate. The concentrate exits the reactor through one or more openings in the base.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 14, 2007
    Publication date: August 14, 2008
    Inventor: Miles McClure
  • Patent number: 7264695
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a solar powered distillation system and method. The solar powered still may have an impermeable nonporous membrane that may be extruded, molded, vacuum formed or sprayed-on. The membrane may be installed in a lightweight basin as a liner. Further, the membrane may have a plurality of fluid reservoirs and an overflow trough. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane material may be an opaque water grade non-toxic odorless, tasteless silicone, TPE, TPR, TPO, or EPDM. In one variation, the solar still basin casing may be molded or vacuum formed and made of ABS, polycarbonates, fiberglass and/or polybutylene. The solar still may further include legs made of PVC or similar pipe materials that are coupled to the still basin with a coupling. The still may include a gasket or seal compressed by a metal and rubber seal stripping to couple a sheet of glass to the still basin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2007
    Assignee: Sol Aqua, Inc
    Inventors: Robert E. Foster, Michael J. Cormier, Gregory R. Vogel, William H. Amos
  • Patent number: 7258767
    Abstract: The invention pertains to a device for the condensation of water from an aqueous liquid by using a temperature gradient, which device includes: (a) a vapor chamber that can be brought in contact with a condensation compartment wherein at least part of the water vapor from the aqueous liquid condenses, and wherein inside of said vapor chamber is located (b) an evaporation compartment having a least a wall with an outer surface and which includes a closed, hollow and water permeable membrane wherein the vapor chamber has an outer surface that includes a substantially water-impermeable insulation skirt with an inner and an outer surface, such that there is a gap between the inner surface of the insulation skirt and the outer surface of the evaporation compartment, and wherein the vapor chamber has a lower surface of an active width (w) which is at least 10% of the effective diameter (d) of the evaporation compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2007
    Assignee: Akzo Nobel N.V.
    Inventors: Arnoldus Paulus Maria Ter Beek, Carel Theo Jozef Wreesmann
  • Patent number: 7241365
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus and a process for the preparation of anhydrous or substantially anhydrous formic acid. This apparatus is constructed partly or entirely of substantially zirconium-free materials. The extractant employed is a liquid of the general formula I where the radicals R1 and R2 are alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl or aralkyl groups, or R1 and R2 jointly, together with the N atom, form a heterocyclic 5- or 6-membered ring, and only one of the radicals is an aryl group, and where R3 is hydrogen or a C1–C4-alkyl group. The apparatus has a synthesis reactor (6), a hydrolysis reactor (1), three distillation devices (2,4,5) and an extraction device (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2007
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Heinz Auer, Bernd Bessling, Hans Hammer, Hans Hasse, Friedrich Sauer, Maximilian Vicari, Gerhard Wagner, Till Adrian
  • Patent number: 7153395
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an improved solar powered distillation system and method. The solar powered still may have a membrane that is extruded, molded, or sprayed-on. The membrane may be installed in a lightweight basin as a liner resulting in improved ease of still manufacturing and assembly as well as improved sealing. Further, the membrane may have a plurality of fluid reservoirs. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane material may be an opaque water grade non-toxic odorless, tasteless silicon, Uniprene, or Sarlink. In one variation, the solar still basin casing may be molded and made of ABS, polycarbonates, or polybutylene. The solar still may further include legs made of PVC or similar pipe materials and may include a strengthening member formed integrally in the bottom surface of the basin casing. The still may include a metal and rubber seal stripping to couple a sheet of glass to the still basing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2006
    Assignee: SolAqua, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert E. Foster, Michael J. Cormier, Gregory R. Vogel, William H. Amos
  • Patent number: 7108769
    Abstract: A solar distillation loop apparatus includes a first pipe section disposed on a ground surface, the first pipe section including a substantially straight portion and elevated portions on each end of the substantially straight portion, an impure water inflow coupling at one end of the straight portion and an impure water outflow coupling at the other end of the straight portion; solar powered fans disposed in each of the elevated portions of the first pipe section; a second pipe section disposed under the ground surface beneath the first pipe section; and two substantially vertical pipe sections that connect respective ends of the second pipe section to respective ends of the first pipe section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2006
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Interior
    Inventor: James Edward Constantz
  • Patent number: 6966973
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus for producing (meth)acrylic acid and a process for producing (meth)acrylic acid with this apparatus wherein the apparatus enables the production of (meth)acrylic acid stably for a long period of time by effectively inhibiting the polymerization of (meth)acrylic acid in its production process (for example, in a reboiler). At least a part of the apparatus is made of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with a molybdenum content of 3 to 20 mass %, but not including 3 mass %, or with a molybdenum content of 1 to 4 mass % and a copper content of 0.5 to 7 mass %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2005
    Assignee: Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sei Nakahara, Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Kenji Sanada, Masatoshi Ueoka
  • Patent number: 6936724
    Abstract: A process produces ?-caprolactone by the oxidation of cyclohexanone by feeding a crude reaction mixture to a first distillation column; distilling off a first distillate containing low boiling components including unreacted cyclohexanone from the top of the first distillation column; recovering a first side-cut fraction containing unreacted cyclohexanone in a higher concentration than in the first distillate from an intermediate tray; recovering a first bottom liquid containing high boiling components including ?-caprolactone from the bottom; introducing the first side-cut fraction to a second distillation column; recovering a second bottom liquid containing unreacted cyclohexanone from the bottom of the second distillation column; recycling the second bottom liquid into the raw material cyclohexanone; introducing the first bottom liquid to a third distillation column to thereby yield a third distillate containing ?-caprolactone from the third distillation column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 30, 2005
    Assignee: Daicel Chemical Industries, LTD
    Inventors: Eiji Ohara, Ken-ichiro Kawazumi
  • Patent number: 6887344
    Abstract: A compact, self-contained apparatus for treating wastewater containing as impurities and pollutants various non-volatile (at water boiling points) fluids such as greases, oils and soaps, a vessel for collecting the wastewater, a heating chamber including electric heating elements and a heat transfer liquid such as mineral oil to heat the wastewater admixture to boil off the water and to reduce the volume of liquid for disposal, and a wastewater supply tank positioned under the apparatus. The apparatus may further include a disposable liner to isolate the wastewater from the vessel itself and facilitate rapid and clean removal and disposal of waste material after evaporation of the water, and thermally-activated sensors to maintain a desired temperature differential between the heating elements and the heat transfer liquid contained in the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2005
    Inventor: Raymond E. VanKouwenberg
  • Patent number: 6884324
    Abstract: To improve the columns used so far for producing phthalic anhydride, and to make them less expensive and easier to install, it is proposed that in the column for concentrating phthalic anhydride two distillation stages are arranged, wherein the removal of the low-boiling components of the crude phthalic anhydride by distillation is effected in the first distillation stage (2) and the separation of the high-boiling components from the pure phthalic anhydride is effected in the second distillation stage (3), both distillation stages being arranged side by side and being separated from each other by a vertical wall (4), and that the bottom (7) of the first distillation stage (2) is connected with the bottom (10) of the second distillation stage (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2005
    Assignee: Lurgi AG
    Inventors: Thomas Gutermuth, Helmuth Domes
  • Patent number: 6821395
    Abstract: A solar of still of the tilted tray type having a black absorber member forming a plurality of cells. A glass window is positioned closely adjacent the cell distortion of the absorber, and a reflector beneath the absorber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Inventor: John Ward
  • Patent number: 6797124
    Abstract: A solar distilling apparatus employs anthracite coal as a heat-absorbing medium. Greenhouse roof elements rest over a gutter that is isolated from the water-holding container to prevent deposit formation and algae growth from reaching the gutter. Bacterial growth is inhibited by ventilation and the use of titanium-laden magnetite mixed with the anthracite particles. The gutter is also isolated from the exterior of the unit, which prevents contamination from outside sources. The exterior side of the roof elements resting on the gutter are fitted with a metal skirt that provides a heat sink preventing the re-evaporation of condensation flowing toward the gutter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Inventor: David M. Ludwig
  • Patent number: 6797123
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a device for a distiller adapted to distil solvents for recovery of pure solvent from impure solvent, the solvent (2) being used for washing away residues of paint from spray guns. The distiller (1) includes an outer container (5) with a boiling chamber (8) which at the top has an opening (9) which can be tightly closed by a cover (10) and a flexible inner container (13) is provided in the boiling chamber (8), the flexible inner container (13) containing impure solvent to be distilled. A pipe means (20) is placed beside the flexible inner container (13) in order to allow solvent steam (7a), which is generated by boiling solvent in a lower space (19) beneath the flexible inner container (13), to pass from the lower space (19) into an upper space (16) having an outlet (17) and located above the flexible inner container (13) for preventing the solvent steam (7a) from lifting the flexible inner container (13) in the boiling chamber (8).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Assignee: Hedson Technologies AB
    Inventor: Peter Beijbom
  • Publication number: 20040134767
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a solar powered distillation system and method. The solar powered still may have an impermeable nonporous membrane that may be extruded, molded, vacuum formed or sprayed-on. The membrane may be installed in a lightweight basin as a liner. Further, the membrane may have a plurality of fluid reservoirs and an overflow trough. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane material may be an opaque water grade non-toxic odorless, tasteless silicone, TPE, TPR, TPO, or EPDM. In one variation, the solar still basin casing may be molded or vacuum formed and made of ABS, polycarbonates, fiberglass and/or polybutylene. The solar still may further include legs made of PVC or similar pipe materials that are coupled to the still basin with a coupling. The still may include a gasket or seal compressed by a metal and rubber seal stripping to couple a sheet of glass to the still basin.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2003
    Publication date: July 15, 2004
    Inventors: Robert E. Foster, Michael J. Cormier, Gregory R. Vogel, William H. Amos
  • Publication number: 20030205451
    Abstract: A process is provided herein for the high yield production of high purity glacial methacrylic acid (“HPMAA”) that is substantially pure, specifically 99% pure or greater with a water content of 0.05% or less.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2003
    Publication date: November 6, 2003
    Inventors: Keith Frederick Briegel, James Clarence Day, Michael Stanley DeCourcy, Donald Alan Ebert, Jamie Jerrick John Juliette
  • Patent number: 6638398
    Abstract: A method including evaporating aqueous solutions containing ammonia, adding an acid to the evaporated vapor flow to form an ammonium salt, and condensing the vapor flow to form a liquid containing the salt. By this method the ammonia formed into a salt is not present as an inert gas layer which would impede condensation on the condenser surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignee: Hadwaco Ltd Oy
    Inventors: Leif Ramm-Schmidt, Matti Laajaniemi, Peter Koistinen