Abstract: A distillation solvent recycling system is provided which is characterized by improved safety features, modular construction, a double insulated solvent reservoir, electronic control and display of system parameters, and self diagnosis of system malfunctions. The components of the system are assembled into a compact unitized structure so as to maximize safety, efficiency, portability, convenience and ease of operation and maintenance. An outer insulative and protective safety casing shields the operator from process hazards while the system is in operation. An inner lid is provided with improved sealing mechanisms for preventing the escape of toxic solvent vapors. An outer safety lid shields the operator from heat and trace vapors in the vicinity of the solvent reservoir.
Abstract: A distilled water supply device including a stand, a condensing unit mounted on the stand and separated by a partition wall into an upper chamber, which receives water from an external water source, and a bottom chamber, which condenses steam into distilled water, a heating unit detachably mounted inside the stand below the condensing unit and controlled to heat water from the upper chamber into steam, permitting steam to be guided into the bottom chamber for condensing, a vertical guide pipe for guiding water from the upper chamber to the heating unit, a vertical steam pipe for guiding steam from the heating unit to the bottom chamber for condensing.
Abstract: A distilling apparatus for distillation of water, including a condensing chamber divided into an upper holding space for receiving water from a water source and a lower holding chamber for condensing steam into water, a heating chamber controlled to heat water from the upper holding space into steam and having a steam outlet connected to the lower holding space for guiding steam into the lower holding space for condensing, a hot water chamber, which receives condensed water from the lower holding space of the condensing chamber, and a cold water chamber, which receives distilled water from the hot water chamber and cools it down by an electronic cooler.
Abstract: A distiller for producing potable water employs a metal boiler tray having a cover member in which there is an inlet for raw water and which together form a steam chamber having an outlet for steam. The boiler tray bottom has a plurality of steps including a highest, an intermediate and a lowest level step which are all covered with water at the beginning of a distillation cycle. The temperature of the highest level step is monitored with a sensor. A rise in the temperature of the highest level step by a predetermined amount above the boiling temperature of water indicates that the highest and intermediate level steps have become dry. This results in a signal to a controller to open a valve and admit replenishment raw water whose amount is dependent on valve open time. Steam evolved from the boiler tray is conducted through a first check valve in the cover member to demister chamber when the mist or carryover water in the steam impinges on a baffle and is separated from the steam as condensate.
September 10, 1993
Date of Patent:
February 20, 1996
Emerson Electric Co.
Jonathan C. Vogelman, William F. Strutz
Abstract: A rotary evaporator is described utilizing a magnetically driven fluorocarbon cylinder, operating within a solvent container, to create a thin solvent film for rapid evaporation without the usual requirement for rotating the entire solvent container assembly. Infra-red heating is employed for efficient evaporation rates. Solvent heating is controlled during evaporation by a single temperature probe, turning the infra-red heater on and off on demand of the probe. Over heating of the product is prevented by maintaining a solvent residue at or near the conclusion of an evaporation.
Abstract: A method for the production of an industrial diluent which includes the steps of heating a liquid waste from a facility that manufactures coatings, inks, lacquers, adhesives, or dyes in a mixer-reactor to generate a vapor, flowing the vapor into a distillation column, distilling the vapor to form distillation components, and transferring each component to a tank designated for such component. The method may include the additional steps of mixing at least two of the components in a predetermined amount, and thoroughly mixing the liquid waste during the heating step. The heating step is preferably effected by applying heat substantially uniformly to the liquid waste.
Abstract: An apparatus for vaporizing volatile liquids comprises a packed column, a gas inlet port (for introducing a hot entrainer gas), a feed tube (for introducing a volatile liquid), a feed distributor comprising a base plate equipped with orifices (through which the liquid flows downward into the packed column) and risers (through which the formed gaseous mixture of entrainer gas and vaporized liquid flows upward), and a gas outlet port. This apparatus can be used to vaporize volatile liquids, preferably volatile tin compounds, optionally in admixture with volatile silicon compounds, wherein steam is used as the entrainer gas.
Abstract: Method and apparatus for the distillation of liquids which is particularly suited for the removal of soluble impurities and insoluble and non-volatile particles of 10 microns to 0.2 micron or less in size. A substantially elongated distillation chamber having walls equipped with axially disposed concentric boiling rings spaced from the walls near the bottom, and a packing stop, packing redirector rings for condensed vapor, and a reflux condenser in the upper part of the distillation chamber provide, during distillation, a smooth convective upward flow of distilling liquid and vapor proximate the walls and boiling rings and a smooth convective downward flow of distilling liquid and vapor substantially centrally of the distillation chamber.
July 25, 1989
Date of Patent:
October 11, 1994
R. Scot Clark, Joe G. Hoffman, John B. Davison, David W. Persichini, Wallace I. Yuan, Bruce A. Lipisko, Alan H. Jones, Alan W. Jones
Abstract: This disclosure relates to an improved solar water purification system and process wherein the evaporating, condensing and distillate collecting chambers are located underground to assist in the evaporation and condensation process. The system includes three computer controlled preheaters which are constantly monitored to determine the temperature of the load therein. The cycling and recycling of the load relative to the load tank and the three preheaters is controlled by the computer for optimum system efficiency. One of the three preheaters is located underground, while a second preheater is located externally as a solar preheater and the third preheater is an outside gas, oil or waste heat fired preheater. In addition to producing pure water through the evaporation process, there is disclosed a system and process whereby various contaminants may be captured for further processing, storage and exploitation.
Abstract: The invention relates to a distillation apparatus including a housing (1) a blower (2), preheat exchangers (7) and (8) and an evaporative condenser (25) comprising pairs (13) of membranes. One pair (13) of membranes at a time can be detached from the evaporative condenser (25) for replacement. The pairs (13) of membranes are preferably made of plastic or similar material and they hang down loosely in the evaporative condenser.
Abstract: A method of feeding to a fractionator a feed mixture having a wide-boiling range vapor-liquid mixture is provided. Also, provided is a fractionator feed section adapted to receive a two phase feed mixture and has operational stability when fed a feed mixture which generates significant volume of vapor in the feed section.
Abstract: A method for water degasification and distillation in an apparatus having a container for a reservoir of water to be degasified and distilled, a relatively small boiler adjoining the container and having a feed water conduit connecting the container and boiler so that a selected water level in the container will fill the boiler to the same level, a coiled tube condenser within the container immersed in the water therein, the condenser coil having a vertically disposed longitudinal axis, a second conduit in the boiler connecting the space above the water level therein to the inlet of the condenser so that steam flows from the boiler to the condenser, an outlet on the condenser extending through a container wall for discharging the condensed steam as degasified distilled water, a heater in the boiler for heating the water therein, and a motor driven stirrer axially of the coiled tube condenser for generating a swirling movement of the reservoir water with formation of steam bubbles therein.
Abstract: The disclosure relates to an improved solar water purification apparatus. More specifically, it relates to a solar water purification apparatus that includes a first and second preheater, an evaporation load tank, condenser, and pure distillate collecting tank. The condensing surface is a domed upper structure which includes a corrugated inner surface to increase the condensing surface. The outersurface of the domed upper structure is likewise corrugated and completely enclosed by a first preheater chamber the permit efficient cooling of the domed upper structure and encourage rapid condensation, thus transferring heat from the interior corrugations to the exterior corrugations of the first preheater chamber, further adding to the overall thermal efficiency.
Abstract: Micro-distillation apparatus is provided for analyzing acidic anions in which the acidic anion sample is placed in a lower elongated member in water containing an acidifying material, upon heating the acidic anion leaves the lower member as a gas, passing through a permeable membrane into an upper elongated member containing a material which converts the acidic anion to a salt and the salt is recovered for analysis. The micro-distillation apparatus is sized so that a number of samples can be heated in a small heating member, such as a hot block heater.
Abstract: Crude pentachloronitrobenzene containing hexachlorobenzene and small amounts of acids is treated in the molten state or in a mixture solution of nitrobenzene or chloronitrobenzenes with an inorganic basic substance and then subjected to a distillation under reduced pressure.
Abstract: A spray dryer device for spray drying a sample dissolved in an organic solvent is disclosed, comprising a circulation line in which an inert gas is circulated by a blower, a heater for heating the inert gas to a specified temperature, a main drying chamber provided with a spray nozzle through which the sample dissolved in the organic solvent is sprayed into the inert gas, a collector in which the powdered sample produced in the main drying chamber is collected, and a condenser in which the gaseous organic solvent is condensed and recovered. The powdered sample is obtained in this spray dryer device for spray drying organic solvents by spraying the organic solvent through the spray nozzle into the main drying chamber in which the oxygen concentration is held to a low value by the introduction of the inert gas.
Abstract: The disclosure relates to a solar-operated apparatus to purify and/or desalinate water. Several embodiments are disclosed, each of which substantially derives its source of heat from solar energy. The apparatus includes a unique design of the evaporating collector dome which is provided with a smooth interior surface to permit collection of increased amounts of distillate. The apparatus exterior is provided with a black surface to serve as a black body and so absorb increased amounts of the sun's energy. Additionally, that same exterior is coated with a film of infra-red absorbing material (STET) to further increase solar-energy absorption. To further improve the system's efficiency, various external tubing designs are utilized to preheat the load prior to its entry into the evaporating chamber. The distillate-collecting vessel is a downwardly-extending dome. This increases the volume while at the same time reducing re-evaporation by minimizing the exposed surface area.
Abstract: A modular water distillation apparatus includes a distillation unit which may be manually operated by adding water manually to the steam generator. The apparatus further includes an add-on holding tank and an add-on control unit which mounts to the holding tank and provides automatic control of the distillation unit by providing feedwater to the steam generator when the steam generator is deenergized and the holding tank is not full. The add-on control further includes a power receptacle for an add-on distilled water demand pump.
Abstract: A vertically extending distillation cylinder has a closed top and an open bottom having an electric heating element disposed therein to form a closure. Adjacent to the top of the distillation cylinder is connected a condensing tube. The condensing tube extends down through a condenser having a cooling water inlet at the bottom and a water discharge at the top. A throttle valve regulates the flow of cooling water. From the water discharge, a trough carries the water to impinge on the distillation cylinder causing pollutants to vaporize. The water collects below in a basin surrounding the distillation cylinder. A feed tube carries water from the basin to the bottom of the distillation cylinder. A discharge tube also connected to the bottom of the distillation cylinder carries water up to where it makes a U-turn. This regulates water height in the distillation cylinder. The discharge tube and an over flow tube from the basin discharge into a funnel from which water is conveyed to a sewer.
Abstract: An evaporator includes heating elements which are part of a thin skin providing the evaporator vessel wall, supporting the skin for internal and external pressure, and a top portion of the vessel. A liquor distributing plate is supported on the heating elements, with a liquor inlet donut-shaped conduit disposed above the liquor distributing plate. The heating elements are radially disposed within the vessel, and are supported at the bottom by a ring which engages the bottoms of the heating elements, and a vertical axis tube extending from the vessel bottom to the ring, the tube having a plurality of through-extending openings formed in it. The vapor outlet for the vessel is concentric with the heating elements and the liquor distributing perforated plate. Heating fluid (e.g. steam) is introduced into the interior volumes of the heating elements adjacent the tops thereof, and a vent is provided adjacent the bottoms.
Abstract: A portable solvent recovery distillation apparatus for improved on-site recovery of highly flammable solvent from a batch of spent solvent. Both evaporation of the spent solvent and condensation of the purified solvent vapors are conducted within a common tank under reduced pressure conditions maintained by an air-operated vacuum pump. Heating of the spent solvent is accomplished by a hot fluid circulating in indirect heat exchange relationship with the spent solvent. The apparatus is totally non-electrical for increased safety of operation.
Abstract: Water degasification and distillation apparatus having a container for water to be degasified and distilled, a relatively small boiler adjoining said container and having a first conduit extending into the container so that a selected water level in the container will fill said boiler to a selected height, a condenser within the container and immersed in the water contained therein, a second conduit extending from the space above the water in said boiler to the inlet of the condenser, an outlet on the condenser extending through a container wall for discharging degasified and distilled water and heating means in said boiler for heating the water therein.
Abstract: A membrane distillation module is provided with a thin, flexible microporous membrane positioned against an impermeable condensor sheet that is stiffer in bending than the membrane. Distillate vapor diffuses through the membrane from the hot feed flowing rapidly past the membrane, and condenses and collects between, and in intimate contact with, the membrane and the condensor sheet. The condensed distillate is stripped by forces exerted by the hot feed acting on the distillate across the membrane, and flows toward a distillate outlet located in the downstream direction of the hot feed flow. Cold feed flows past the condensor sheet in the counter direction to that of the hot feed for absorbing the latent heat of condensation, and is subsequently additionally heated and introduced into the hot feed channel. Expanded microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is the preferred membrane material, and a spiral-wound assembly is the preferred configuration.
March 5, 1982
Date of Patent:
October 8, 1985
W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
Wilbert L. Gore, Robert W. Gore, David W. Gore
Abstract: A continuous trickle-down distillation unit for producing hydrated alcohol having a compact, elongated distillation tube through which a fluid mixture including alcohol as one of its constituents passes. Within the distillation tube only the alcohol-predominant portion of the fluid mixture is vaporized while the remaining constituents of the fluid mixture are removed. The vaporized alcohol-predominant portion is condensed within a chamber which communicates with the distillation tube and is removed therefrom by a collection plate which extends partially into the chamber.
Abstract: Volatile reactants are heated under reflux in a reactor and form volatile reaction by-products which are continuously removed in a vapor effluent from a reflux column and partial condenser. The effluent, which entrains some of the reactants, is condensed in a first total condenser and is fed to a distillation apparatus for separation of the volatile reactants and by-products and return of the separated reactants to the reactor. Before the condensate reaches the distillation apparatus, it is temporarily stored in a receiver from which it is controllably fed to a pre-heater where it is evaporated and then fed as a vapor to the distillation column of the distillation apparatus for separation. The distillation column includes at one end a reboiler which retains the reactants. The other end of the distillation column is coupled to a second total condenser in which the volatile by-products are condensed and withdrawn through a cooler for disposal.
May 12, 1980
Date of Patent:
June 28, 1983
Fiberglas Canada Limited
Robert J. Coker, Gary W. Bate, Henk J. Deuzeman
Abstract: Apparatus for use in fractionation, stripping, absorption, and the like, wherein a column or tower has plural vertically spaced trays each consisting of two vertically spaced rows of strips which are parallel and of which the strips of the lower row are centered below the spaces of the upper row, and has a separator above each said tray consisting of plural vertically spaced rows of upwardly facing channels which are parallel and of which the channels of one row are centered between the channels of the adjacent row or rows, the trays and separators occupying a major portion of the cross sectional area of the tower and the remainder of the cross sectional area of the tower being occupied by downcomers, whereby the tower has a major portion of its cross sectional area used for upflow of vapor and liquid, or vapor. The towers or columns according to the invention result in reduced size and cost as compared with conventional apparatuses, and result in improved efficiencies and performance.
Abstract: A process for causing to vibrate at determined frequencies pieces having a relatively large surface, notably plane pieces, wherein a volume comprising the piece or pieces to be caused to vibrate is achieved, said piece or pieces are elastically connected to the walls of said volume wherein a fluid is running so that it supports the surface or surfaces to be caused to vibrate and vibrations are periodically generated in said fluid so as to generate shock-waves in succession which, in turn, cause the vibration at a frequency corresponding to that of the piece or pieces elastically mounted.
Abstract: The apparatus includes a housing enclosing a boiler in the lower portion and a water-filled condenser in the upper portion with an insulated partition between them. The entry of boiler feed water is controlled by a float valve in the boiler, and steam from the boiler is conveyed through the partition and thus through a condenser coil substantially immersed in the water in the condenser.
Abstract: The invention relates to a system for purifying salty or brackish water which may, also, contain solids and living organisms making the water unpalatable for agriculture or long term animal consumption. The system includes a cyclic mechanism which causes an evaporable liquid to boil at a predetermined pressure and temperature in a first vertical elongated column, vapor cross over means to a second vertical elongated column, said vapor being condensed at a predetermined pressure and temperature in the second vertical elongated column, means for supplying heat to the first column, heat rejection means for the second column for reliquefying the material. Heat may be supplied to the first column by low temperature geothermal heat, heat from solar ponds, heat from solar collecting devices, as well as heat from the ambient air, or any form of low temperature heat for vaporizing the subject liquid.
Abstract: A process and apparatus especially suited for distilling alcohol from aqueous fermentation liquors wherein liquid vapors from a body of a liquid mixture (4) which is to be distilled pass from a container (2) holding the liquid mixture to a vapor heating chamber (8) disposed above the container where the vapors are heated by solar radiation and/or heat exchange with a source of process heat. The vapors are then withdrawn from the vapor heating chamber, compressed, passed in heat exchange relation with the liquid mixture and introduced into a reflux column (15) disposed in the interior of the body of liquid to be distilled near the center of the container. An aqueous fraction (24) is collected from the bottom of the reflux column, and an alcohol vapor fraction is withdrawn from the top of the reflux column and further condensed in heat exchange contact with the liquid mixture to produce an alcohol fraction (32).
Abstract: The apparatus comprises a container closed to free communication with the atmosphere, and means for maintaining therein a body of crude volatile liquid at a predetermined surface level with an evacuated space thereabove containing a low pressure mixture of evaporated volatile liquid vapor and incondensible gas, an array of heat conducting tubes immersed in said body of crude liquid with their lower ends entering into a closed drum member, a fan blower arranged to maintain a pressure differential for heating said mixture by compression and friction and impelling it into the upper ends of the tubes, whereby through heat exchange the vapor is condensed to liquid and passes into the drum member together with incondensible gas.
Abstract: Solvents are separated from solvent bearing material by feeding the material to the open end of a reactor vessel rotatable about a substantially horizontal axis. The vessel has internal vanes operable to move the material from the open end towards the closed other end of the vessel when the vessel is rotated in one direction, and to move the material towards the open end when the vessel is rotated in the opposite direction. The reactor vessel is heated to a predetermined temperature while rotating the vessel in the one direction to cause solvent to be distilled from the material, and distilled gases are collected from the open end of the vessel and subsequently cooled to condense the distillate. The heating of the vessel is continued to a temperature high enough to produce a free-flowing residue when the reactor vessel is cooled. The vessel is then cooled and rotated in the opposite direction to cause the residue to be discharged from the open end of the vessel.
Abstract: Hazards are dealt with by appropriate placement of high heat capacity flame arrestor packings at suitable zones in the flow of the process streams comprising vapors of flammable mixture containing water and more than 10 mol % tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (conveniently designated as TBHP). Stainless steel mesh or other corrosion resistant high heat capacity packing is inserted in the lower portion of the first distillation zone, from which all components more volatile than dilute aqueous TBHP are removed. Suitable packing is also inserted into the upper portion of the second distillation zone, whereby a flammable mixture containing more than 10 mol % TBHP, is distilled without allowing a large plenum filled with flammable vapor. The vapor line between the top of such distillation zone and a condensation zone features a plurality of flame arrestors (e.g.
Abstract: A solar still adapted to float on a body of water has a toroidal evaporating chamber with sunlight admitting and absorbing, respectively, top and bottom walls for vaporizing water from the body admitted to overlie the bottom wall. A surrounding inner float ring and underlying toroidal inflatable float support the chamber. A condenser depends from and communicates with the evaporating chamber through elongate coaxial vapor outlet and air return tubes, and in turn supplies distillate to a pendent holding tank. A rotatable shaft extending coaxially down through the evaporating chamber carries a fan to propel vapor from the evaporating chamber into the condenser due to rotation of a windmill atop the chamber. A curved reflector is rotatably driven atop the inner ring to direct additional sunlight on the evaporating chamber as the sun moves overhead. An outer float ring loosely coaxially surrounds the inner float ring.
Abstract: A bubble-cap column for the distillation of high-sediment or clogging liquids is disclosed, in which the bubble-cap structures comprising a bubble-cap and a neck are detachable and removable from the column and lined with polytetrafluoroethylene.
October 4, 1978
Date of Patent:
June 10, 1980
Oy Alko AB
Pentti P. Ronkainen, Olavi A. Leppanen, Kyosti T. Vento, Heimo K. Pesonen
Abstract: Novel quick opening removable tray sections or deck plates for trays of fluid contact vessels having foldable closures or covers adapted to rest upon frame members which coact to form perimeters of one or more polygonal, preferably quadrangular, complementary openings in each tray. Each cover has at least a pair of closure panels hingedly connected at their adjacent inner margins. Opposed outer lateral or side margins of closure panels, which overlie complementary lateral or side frame members in spaced relationship, extend in the same general direction as their adjacent inner margins. At least one of opposed outer lateral margins is slidably confined whereby cover is removable upon elevating closure panels at their hinged inner margins and simultaneously sliding said outer lateral panel margins toward each other and out of confinement so as to permit folding of said cover.