Abstract: A method for processing sewage eliminates chemical "treatment", or, the addition of chemicals that are as harmful or more so to the environment as raw sewage. The method of processing sewage disintegrates the generally solid components of sewage into a highly de-moisturized powder via alternative processes of either (i) a freeze-drying process, or (ii) a combination centrifugal separation and an evacuated "bake-out" process, both which substantially drive out the vaporizable components of the sewage. In consequence, there are no resultant effluent and/or exhausting vapors from this method which would impact the environment.
Abstract: To decrease the sulfur emissions of a sulfate cellulose mill, black liquor is heated before the last effect of the evaporation at a temperature higher than the cooking temperature of the sulfate cook and the sulfidity of white liquor is adjusted by adjusting the temperature and/or retention time of the heat treatment so that a predetermined amount of sulfur compounds are separated from the gaseous black liquor. Preferably, the sulfur containing gas is thereafter divided into different fractions and separately combusted.
Abstract: A liquid evaporator includes an air-tight outer container containing liquid therein, the liquid container having support legs adjacent the bottom surface thereof; an inner container mounted on the legs for partitioning the interior space of the outer container, the inner container having a wall made of insulating material; and a heater fixed to an upper portion of the outer container and positioned inside the inner container. The liquid evaporator may be combined with a deodorizing device for forming a urine treating device, wherein the urine treating device includes a deodorizing housing having an upper portion provided with a secondary heater therein, a catalyst surrounding the secondary heater, a blower provided outside the housing, and a diffusion pipe provided at the upper portion of the housing.
Abstract: A liquid waste reduction system uses an evaporator having two packed columns. A reservoir of the evaporator has three level sensor which monitor the fluid level in the reservoir. An input pump delivers waste liquid to the reservoir. When the fluid level has exceeded a low level, a control unit powers an output pump which pumps liquid from the base of the reservoir to an external storage unit. A distributor pump pumps liquid from the reservoir to the top of the packed columns. A blower forces air upward through the packing material to evaporate water from the liquid. When the fluid level has exceeded a high level, the control unit switches on a heating element which heats the air delivered from the blower to the second packed column, thus accelerating the evaporation process. When the fluid level has exceeded the maximum level, the control unit deactivates the input pump to prevent flooding of the evaporator unit.
Abstract: A cleaning apparatus having a container for holding a quantity of cleaning agent, which is vaporized and condensed to form an upper vapor layer. Essentially, the container is divided into a lower chamber, for holding the cleaning agent, and an upper chamber for containing the vapors. One or more heat pumps are adapted to establish a relatively low temperature in the upper region to condense the vapors released by the lower heating process. Multiple high thermally conductive shunting devices are coupled between the high temperature end of the heat pumps and the bottom portion of the container to transfer extracted heat from the upper portion to the lower portion, to augment the vaporization process.
Abstract: A combination of pollution control technologies are employed in the treatment of effluent from photographic processing. The technologies employed are evaporation, oxidation by photolysis and catalyzed ozone, condensation, treatment by activated carbon and electrolysis. The method includes the steps of filtering the liquid wastes, electrolytically treating the filtered liquid, evaporating the wastes to create steam and vapors, oxidizing the steam and vapors by photolysis and photolytic catalyzed ozone, and condensing the vapors and passing them through a column of activated carbon. The carbon is regenerated by oxidizing the carbon sites with ozone.
Abstract: This invention is a sanitary disposal system for human waste and organic garbage by aerobic composting combined with solar evaporative distillation for greywater. The aerobic composting reduces waste volume by ninety percent leaving water, carbon dioxide and a harmless but fertile ash by-product. Except for urine, the system essentially operates dry. No chemicals, septic system, or sewage treatment plant is required. There is no odor and no polluting discharged during operation. A nonsoiling toilet seat is provided so a dry toilet bowl may be used without the usual problems of cleaning. Insects are prevented from entering or leaving the system which is constantly aerated to assure that the composting process does not convert to anaerobic. The greywater system further enhances pollution control. This includes solar evaporative distillation to separate out solids which can be disposed of in a sanitary dump while the reclaimed water can be used for non-household purposes.
Abstract: A urine-water recovery system is described which provides efficient potable water recovery from waste liquids. The design allows use over extended durations such as encountered in space flights. The system has advantages such as low power consumption, compactness, and gravity insensitive operation. The system comprises a vacuum distillation system combining a hollow fiber polysulfone membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump and condenser. With the system of the present invention, water purified from urine can be produced at a rate of more than 0.5 kg/hr at a total system energy of less than 400 w-hr/kg.
Abstract: Water containing combustible sludges are dried with the multiple effect use of the heat required by adding recycled cool high boiling oil and heating the mixture by direct contact with steam produced as later described. Then the oil sludge mixture has water separated off which is possible, since water has been added by the direct condensation of steam in the heating of the mixture plus any extra original water in the sludge that can be removed by a centrifuge. The mixture is heated again by adding hot oil and then the mixture has water evaporated off by reducing the pressure. This steam produced is used for the direct steam heating mentioned above. Then water vapor is evaporated off again by reducing the pressure again and this water vapor is condensed by a water cooled condenser. In this way water vapor is evaporated off with the double use of heat. By indirect heat exchange of separated warm water with oil plus dried solids being heated sensible heat losses are kept small.
Abstract: A sewage disposal plant for treating raw sewage. The plant has an enclosed tank with a heating element for evaporating or vaporizing the raw sewage, including solids and liquids. The sewage vapor is conveyed to another unit for condensing the vapor to an unpolluted liquid, suitable for disposal in a stream or other body of water.
Abstract: A self-contained process for the treatment of liquid waste from a unit source which involves a flow of liquid waste purified in a heating zone, preferably an electrode boiler, by direct passage of an electric current through the raw waste, the water content thereof being converted to a water vapor and the total body of the waste becoming sterilized, the produced steam is condensed to water and returned to the water system of the unit for re-use, residual purified solid content of the stored waste is dried if to be used for fertilizer, the latent heat of the steam is utilized for either heating or cooling the unit and a portion of the sensible heat of the condensed vapor is utilized to preheat the effluent waste prior to the heating zone. The process is preferably continuous and may use automatic circulating means. It may be staged in one or more stages and pressurized for more efficient utilization of heat.
Abstract: An apparatus for efficiently disposing of combustible organic waste materials, such as organic industrial and household wastes, comprising a macerator and an evaporation unit where liquids are removed from the waste to leave a concentrated organic residue. Evaporation of liquids from the waste is accomplished by heat exchange with a medium heated, in part, by exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine, and in part by incineration of the solid, relatively dry organic residue. The liquids from the evaporation unit are preferably condensed to a suitable liquid form for subsequent use, and the concentrate remaining after liquid evaporation is introduced to a high temperature zone developed in the course of the operation of an internal combustion engine, so that the solid organic residue is incinerated to a relatively small quantity of ash and innocuous gases. Heat for the purpose of partially heating the heat exchange medium used in the evaporation unit is developed in the course of such incineration.