Abstract: A method and apparatus for forming an array of multiple parallel flow orifices, for example by holes drilled through a plate in a selected pattern and spacing and of selected sizes or flow diameters, and whereby these orifices are used to provide an approximately equal and adequate distribution of liquid flowing through them as parallel streams of liquid and into an evaporation zone or a parallel array of evaporation channels, and wherein the orifices can be adjusted in flow diameter to control the flowrate of liquid in generally parallel streams with an array of orifice adjusting apparatus, for example an adjacent sliding orifice plate which provides for orifice flow rate adjustment with orifices through this second plate corresponding in position to those of the first orifice plate, and the use of such dual orifice plates for supporting a pool of liquid there-above and for controlling the flowrate of liquid through the first array of orifices by reducing or enlarging their orifice flow diameters to control
Abstract: Impure 2,6-diisopropylphenol (DIP) is purified by use of a distillation process in which a single distillation column is used. The process comprises: (a) subjecting the impure DIP to a first continuous distillation in the column in an inert environment to distill off lower boiling components and produce first column bottoms enriched in DIP; (b) collecting, cooling and storing the first column bottoms while continuously maintaining them in an inert environment; (c) discontinuing the first continuous distillation; (d) subjecting the first column bottoms to a second continuous distillation in an inert environment in the same column to produce a second overhead distillate composed of purified DIP. The process avoids the formation in the distilling mixtures of dose boiling impurities due to seepage of air through standard pipe flanges and fittings and consequent oxidation reactions which occur under the conditions needed for batch distillations conducted in typical industrial distillation facilities.
October 13, 1995
Date of Patent:
January 6, 1998
Sam F. Clarke, Venkataraman Ramachandran, J. Steve Staton, Paul L. Wiggins
Abstract: A distiller for producing potable water employs a metal boiler tray having a cover member in which there is an inlet for raw water and which together form a steam chamber having an outlet for steam. The boiler tray bottom has a plurality of steps including a highest, an intermediate and a lowest level step which are all covered with water at the beginning of a distillation cycle. The temperature of the highest level step is monitored with a sensor. A rise in the temperature of the highest level step by a predetermined amount above the boiling temperature of water indicates that the highest and intermediate level steps have become dry. This results in a signal to a controller to open a valve and admit replenishment raw water whose amount is dependent on valve open time. Steam evolved from the boiler tray is conducted through a first check valve in the cover member to demister chamber when the mist or carryover water in the steam impinges on a baffle and is separated from the steam as condensate.
September 10, 1993
Date of Patent:
February 20, 1996
Emerson Electric Co.
Jonathan C. Vogelman, William F. Strutz
Abstract: A wafer drying apparatus incorporated in a semiconductor wafer cleaning system includes a bath for storing IPA. A heater for generating an IPA vapor is arranged on the bath. The bath is surrounded by a housing. The housing has opening portions at three positions. The opening portions are opened/closed by shutters. A sensor for detecting a fire and a nozzle for discharging CO.sub.2 gas into the bath are arranged around the bath. A plurality of wafers are held by a chuck of a convey robot and are conveyed from the outside of the housing into the housing via the opening portions. When a fire is detected by the sensor, the chuck immediately retreats from the housing, and the shutters are closed. Signals for closing the shutters are transmitted to shutter drive sources again 10 seconds after the fire is detected, and discharging of CO.sub.2 gas is started 20 seconds after the fire is detected.
February 16, 1994
Date of Patent:
July 11, 1995
Tokyo Electron Limited, Tokyo Electron Kyushu Limited
Abstract: A wastewater evaporator system is provided for evaporating wastewater at a rate of about seven gallons per hour. Such system includes a heater, a blower, a plurality of honeycombed plates, a drive element including an electric motor, and a tank. Such system improves the environment and allows safe, reliable, and economical disposal of wastewater.
Abstract: An evaporating process that alternate between different modes of operation, according to the characteristics of the product handled; the product is either force fed into the tube nest, or cascaded through it in a free-falling film.
Abstract: A water distiller has a steam chamber that includes a tray for containing water to be distilled. Water is conveyed from a source to the tray for distillation. A valve operates in an open position to convey water to the tray and a closed position to block the passage of water to the tray. A heating element means extends in the steam chamber for submersion in the water carried by the tray. The heating element is operable within a range of temperatures to heat the water in the tray. The heating element includes a main body portion having an axis that extends in a plane generally parallel to the water in the tray and a section havign an axis that is deflected above the axis of the main body portion. A heat sink surrounds the deflected section of the heating element means. A heat sensor detects the temperature of the heat sink. A control connects the valve and the heat sensor means. The control closes the valve when the sensed temperature of the heat sink is equal to or less than a predetermined amount.
Abstract: A disposal device for photographic processing waste liquor which concentrates the photographic process waste liquor by evaporation. The disposal device has a gas detecting device for detecting gas which may be generated during the evaporation of the waste liquor and a control device for stopping the evaporation based on the detection of a concentration of a specific gas. The processing method for photographic waste liquor involves evaporating the waste liquor to concentrate it and detecting gases which are generated during the evaporation process. When the concentration of a specific gas reaches a certain level, the evaporation step is halted.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for automatically and sequentially distilling batches of water having substantially equal volumes in a plurality of distillation cycles, one batch in each cycle. During each cycle, water is admitted to a boiler tank for a fixed interval of time to form a batch in the tank. The batch of water in the tank is then vigorously boiled while venting the tank through a pipe to the atmosphere. The vigorous boiling is terminated when the temperature within the vent pipe reaches the boiling point of pure water. Upon termination of the vigorous boiling phase, a gentle boiling phase is initiated, the vent pipe is closed, and vapor in the tank is admitted to a condenser. The condenser condenses the vapor to obtain distilled water which is collected in a collection device. The gentle boiling phase continues until the level of water in the tank recedes to the level of a heater in the tank.
Abstract: A method for treating photographic process waste liquor by evaporation to concentrat the waste liquor. The method includes evaporating with a heating device which has a heat density of about 17.2 kcal/cm.sup.2 or less; and intermittently feeding the waste liquor to maintain a predetermined liquid level in the vessel. By controlling the heating and/or the liquid level in the evaporation vessel, odors are controlled while efficiency is maintained.
Abstract: Rotation driving apparatus usable with a rotary evaporator for holding a sample vessel in a water bath. The driving apparatus includes a stator supported by an elevating member mounted alongside the water bath, and a rotor mounted on the inside of the stator. A hollow support shaft is mounted within the rotor, and the sample vessel is detachably connected to one end of the support shaft. A concentrator can be connected to the other end of the support shaft, for fluid communication with the sample vessel through the hollow support shaft. The support shaft is affixed to the rotor, so that the sample vessel and concentrator are rotated as the rotor turns. A slitted disk is supported by the rotor, and a photosensor produces signals in response to relative movement of the slits. These signals are used for controlling the rotation of the driving apparatus.
Abstract: In a fractional distillation process, the operation of a reflux pump in the process is enhanced by providing that liquid discharged from the reflux pump is returned directly to the reflux pump suction during the periods when the liquid reflux supply from the fractional distillation process is not sufficient to keep the reflux pump in constant operation.
Abstract: The present invention provides a process for distillation of styrenes which can be stably operated without loss of energy saving effect, by leading a part or all of low boiling point component vapor from the top to a compressor to use as a heat source for a reboiler and returning the low boiling point components condensed in the reboiler or a mixture of the condensate and a part of the uncondensed vapor to a recycling line of a distillation column.
Abstract: A vapor generating and recovering apparatus for vaporizing a liquid and condensing a vapor, the apparatus including a container having a liquid therein with a heating and cooling system in heat transfer relation with the liquid and vapor in the container. The heating and cooling system includes means to vaporize the liquid; means to condense the vaporized liquid; and, means to compress a refrigerant. The means to compress the refrigerant is in fluid communication on its high pressure side with the means to vaporize a liquid or heat a liquid and on its low pressure side with the means to condense or cool a liquid. The heating and cooling system further includes a complementary condenser system on the high pressure side of the means to compress a refrigerant, discharging its heat external to said apparatus and pump down valve means selectively closeable so that refrigerant can be pumped out of the means to compress a refrigerant.
Abstract: This process separates less volatile contaminates from thermal power recovery systems utilizing a volatile working fluid in a cyclic closed system; such a system may comprise a reservoir, a pump, a heater, a separator, a throttle device, a turbine and a condenser. The purification can be accomplished during start-up, shut-down or periods of low power generation. The contaminant is separated from the working fluid in the separator in which the temperature and pressure correspond to a dew-point substantially above that of a sample of uncontaminated working fluid. To achieve this condition, the normal flow of liquid from the reservoir to the heater is reduced and the heater and throttle device are correspondingly adjusted. The condensed contaminant is removed from the separator while substantially all of the working fluid which has been vaporized is passed on through the throttle device to the turbine.
Abstract: The apparatus comprises a container closed to free communication with the atmosphere, and means for maintaining therein a body of crude volatile liquid at a predetermined surface level with an evacuated space thereabove containing a low pressure mixture of evaporated volatile liquid vapor and incondensible gas, an array of heat conducting tubes immersed in said body of crude liquid with their lower ends entering into a closed drum member, a fan blower arranged to maintain a pressure differential for heating said mixture by compression and friction and impelling it into the upper ends of the tubes, whereby through heat exchange the vapor is condensed to liquid and passes into the drum member together with incondensible gas.
Abstract: The portable water distiller is constructed to distill water placed within a housing and to dispense it directly into a separate storage vessel or to a distilled water space in the housing. In the latter case, the distillers are provided with a flexible impermeable partition which may be in the form of a bag and which divides the interior of the housing into a raw water space and a distilled water space. A boiler is disposed within the raw water space in order to vaporize the water and a compact radiator and fan assembly is mounted on top of the housing in order to condense the vapor into distilled water for delivery to the distilled water space within the housing. A heater-thermostat shut-off means is also provided for turning off the heater when the supply of water is too low.
Abstract: In a process for treating radioactive liquid waste having an evaporation concentration device, including a concentration vessel, and a steam heater having steam inlet and outlet lines and operating to heat, with heating steam, radioactive liquid waste in the evaporation concentration device so as to concentrate the waste, contamination of the entire steam heater system in the event of leakage is prevented or greatly reduced by the provision of: (1) a sluice valve in the steam outlet line near the heater; (2) a discharge line with a drain valve for discharging any waste fluid between the heater and the sluice valve; and (3) means for receiving radioactive waste discharged through the discharge line. In accordance with the process of the present invention, when the pressure within the steam heater is less than that within the concentration vessel, and the operation of the evaporation concentration device is to be resumed, the sluice valve is first closed and the drain valve is opened.
Abstract: Disclosed is a method for preventing the polymerization of a readily polymerizable vinyl aromatic compound during distillation at elevated temperatures within a distillation apparatus which is subject to an emergency condition, such as a power outage. This method comprises force feeding a supplemental polymerization inhibitor having a high solubility in the vinyl aromatic compound, and a long duration of efficiency, into each of the distillation vessels of a conventional distillation apparatus in an amount sufficient to prevent polymerization therein. In the preferred embodiment the supplemental polymerization inhibitor comprises 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol and meta-nitro-para-cresol.
Abstract: An electronic system for automatically controlling the operation of a desalination system, and particularly such systems utilizing waste heat from internal combustion engines. The automatic control system is responsive to physical parameters within the desalinator and is particularly useful during warm-up and cooling periods at the beginning and end of use of such a desalination system for minimizing wear on system components and for maximizing the operational life of the system.
Abstract: A vapor generating and recovering apparatus for separating one component from a second component of a liquid solution and recovering the first component including at least one chamber for generating vapor from the liquid solution and recovering the vapor in a liquid form, the vapor generating portion of the chamber being in heat emitting relation with a heat emitting means and the vapor recovering portion chamber being in heat absorbing relation with a heat absorbing means. A preferred system for providing heat to the vapor generating portion of the chamber and removing heat from the vapor recovering portion of the chamber is a refrigerating system which includes condensing coils and evaporating coils in heat transfer relation with the vapor generating and vapor recovery chamber.