For Controlling Waveform Supplied To Working Electrode Patents (Class 204/229.5)
  • Patent number: 11894517
    Abstract: Methods of reducing acid stratification with an acid-soluble and acid-stable polymer with a high molecular weight are disclosed herein. Electrolytes and separators for an energy storage device are disclosed herein. The separator includes a coating containing an acid-soluble and acid-stable polymer with a high molecular weight. The electrolyte includes sulfuric acid and an acid-soluble and acid-stable polymer with a high molecular weight. Methods of making the separators disclosed herein and methods of making batteries are also disclosed herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 6, 2024
    Assignee: Amtek Research International LLC
    Inventors: Daniel Wandera, Robert Waterhouse, Wyatt Self, Eric B. Hostetler, Richard W. Pekala
  • Patent number: 11071955
    Abstract: Systems, devices, and methods are provided that are useful in generating a fluid suspension of nanoplasmoid bubbles. Such systems utilize a nanobubble/nanoplasmoid generator in conjunction with mechanisms for applying energy to the fluid in the form of electrolytic events, pressure waves, electrical fields, and/or magnetic fields. The nanobubble/nanoplasmoid generator is of modular construction that is readily adaptable to a wide variety of applications. Various applications of nanoplasmoid bubble suspensions so produced are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2021
    Inventor: Charlles Bohdy
  • Patent number: 10727522
    Abstract: To reduce a manufacturing cost on anodization in an aluminum-type fuel cell case, a method of manufacturing a fuel cell case made of one of aluminum and aluminum alloy and for accommodating a fuel cell is provided, which includes forming, in a fuel cell case, through-holes for receiving pins when the fuel cell case is mounted on a vehicle, and forming alumite on a surface of the fuel cell case by anodizing the surface using the through-hole as a contact.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2020
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Michitaro Itoga
  • Patent number: 10612147
    Abstract: An electrochemical reaction device of an embodiment includes: a reaction tank which includes a first storage storing a first electrolytic solution containing carbon dioxide, and a second storage storing a second electrolytic solution containing water; a reduction electrode which is disposed at the first storage, an oxidation electrode which is disposed at the second storage; a counter electrode which is used for potential sweep using the reduction electrode as a working electrode; a first power supply which is electrically connected to the reduction electrode and the oxidation electrode, to generate a reduction reaction and an oxidation reaction; and a second power supply which is electrically connected to the reduction electrode and the counter electrode, to sweep a potential while setting an oxidation potential of the reduction electrode or less as an upper limit potential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2020
    Inventors: Ryota Kitagawa, Yoshitsune Sugano, Masakazu Yamagiwa, Jun Tamura, Yuki Kudo, Akihiko Ono, Satoshi Mikoshiba
  • Patent number: 10309088
    Abstract: There is provided a urinal apparatus including: a water supplying device configured to supply water to a bowl section of a urinal; a water sprinkling device including a sprinkling hole configured to sprinkle water to a space inside the bowl section; and a human body sensing device configured to sense use of the urinal. The water sprinkling device not sprinkling the water from the sprinkling hole when the human body sensing device has transitioned from a human body non-sensing state to a human body sensing state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: TOTO, Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshinari Yaoka, Yoichi Murase
  • Patent number: 10253420
    Abstract: A process is provided for electrochemical reduction, particularly the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. According one embodiment, an electrochemical process includes the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to formate utilizing periodic pulsed anodic polarization, periodic pulsed deep cathodic polarization, or combinations thereof to remove cathodic deposits. Various polarization techniques are disclosed which improve overall Faradaic Efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2019
    Assignee: DNV GL AS
    Inventors: Yumei Zhai, Shan Guan, Narasi Sridhar, Arun S. Agarwal
  • Patent number: 10227708
    Abstract: An electrode cleaning system includes a medical device including a plurality of electrodes, a fluid reservoir including an electrolytic solution, and a cleaning device. The cleaning device is electrically coupled to the medical device, and is configured to channel a DC current between at least one pair of electrodes of the plurality of electrodes when the plurality of electrodes are submerged in the fluid reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2019
    Assignee: St. Jude Medical, Cardiology Division, Inc.
    Inventor: Timothy G. Curran
  • Patent number: 10208392
    Abstract: A method for creating a chrome-plated surface having a matte finish that typically includes: controlling a resistance of a current bridge circuit; depositing a first chromium layer on a substrate positioned in a chromium bath, wherein the first chromium layer is deposited by supplying current from a power source that is electrically connected to the substrate and to anodes positioned in the chromium bath; etching the first chromium layer by engaging a current bridge that closes the current bridge circuit; depositing a first intermediate chromium layer, wherein the first intermediate chromium layer is deposited by supplying current from the power source; etching the first intermediate chromium layer, wherein the first intermediate chromium layer is etched by engaging the current bridge; and depositing a final chromium layer, wherein the final chromium layer is deposited by supplying current from the power source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2019
    Assignee: Kings Mountain International, Inc.
    Inventor: Jordi Reichert
  • Patent number: 9942990
    Abstract: A circuit apparatuses include at least one circuit feature formed from patterning a conductive sheet. The conductive sheet includes an irregular surface and a planarized surface. Conductive sheet roughness is minimized in first regions of the circuit apparatus and is maintained in second regions of the circuit apparatus. Selectively planarizing portions of the conductive sheet allows for the utilization of lower cost rougher conductive sheets. The planarized surface allows for increased signal integrity and reduced insertion loss and the irregular surface allows for increased adhesion and enhancing reliability of the circuit apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Brian L. Carlson, John R. Dangler, Roger S. Krabbenhoft, Kevin A. Splittstoesser
  • Patent number: 9353447
    Abstract: The present application provides a device for generating hydrogen gas having a plurality of discharge electrode pairs, at least a first oxidation element and a second oxidation element, and at least one electrolysis electrode pair. The at least one electrolysis electrode pair is configured to perform electrolysis by flowing an electric current through the water and using heat generated by the oxidation of the first and second oxidation elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2016
    Assignee: Solar Hydrogen Holdings, Inc.
    Inventors: Konstantin Balakiryan, Hakop Aganyan
  • Patent number: 9347142
    Abstract: A hydrogen generation system includes a signal generation system configured to generate a driver signal. A signal processing system is configured to process the driver signal and generate a chamber excitation signal. A hydrogen generation chamber is configured to receive the chamber excitation signal and generate hydrogen from a feedstock contained within the hydrogen generation chamber. The signal processing system includes a feedback circuit that is configured to couple a cathode of the hydrogen generation chamber to an anode of the hydrogen generation chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2016
    Assignee: JOI Scientific, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert L. Koeneman, Traver H. Kennedy
  • Patent number: 8999118
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for defining discrete magnetic and non-magnetic regions on the magnetic film layer of a storage media substrate. The method applies anodic oxidation of a cobalt-containing magnetic film layer to remove cobalt, followed by controlled deposition of a non-magnetic matrix into the regions where the cobalt has been removed. Deposition may either be electrodeposition, collimated vacuum deposition, or other methods depending upon the composition of the non-magnetic matrix being deposited. The method may be performed in a single electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Ibro Tabakovic, Steve Riemer, Jie Gong, Mark Thomas Kief, Ming Sun
  • Publication number: 20140370649
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for an amount of Cu or Sb dopant incorporated into a zinc-based layer as the layer is being formed. The layer is formed over a coated substrate using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) process. In the ECD process, the bias voltage and plating solution composition may be systematically changed during the electrochemical deposition process to change the amount of Cu or Sb dopant incorporated into the plated layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2013
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Applicant: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Pawel Mrozek, Long Cheng
  • Patent number: 8871070
    Abstract: A sensor system including devices and methods for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample is described. Input signals including amperometric and voltammetric duty cycles of excitations and relaxations may provide a shorter analysis time and/or improve the accuracy and/or precision of the analysis. The disclosed system may reduce analysis errors, thus improving measurement performance, by adjusting the potential and/or scan rate in response to output currents obtained from voltammetric scans. The disclosed system also may determine the concentration of more than one ionizable species in the sample by adjusting the potential and/or scan rate in response to output currents obtained from voltammetric scans. The multiple, determined concentrations may be used to determine the concentration of multiple analytes or to correct the concentration determined for an analyte, thus improving the measurement performance of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: Bayer HealthCare LLC
    Inventor: Huan-Ping Wu
  • Publication number: 20140262797
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to an electro-chemical plating (ECP) process which utilizes a dummy electrode as a cathode to perform plating for sustained idle times to mitigate additive dissociation. The dummy electrode also allows for localized plating function to improve product gapfill, and decrease wafer non-uniformity. A wide range of electroplating recipes may be applied with this strategy, comprising current plating up to approximately 200 Amps, localized plating with a resolution of approximately 1 mm, and reverse plating to remove material from the dummy electrode accumulated during the dummy plating process and replenish ionic material within the electroplating solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 9, 2013
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chih-Yi Chang, Liang-Yueh Ou Yang, Chen-Yuan Kao, Hung-Wen Su
  • Publication number: 20140238864
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to an electro-chemical plating (ECP) process that provides for an isotropic deposition, and a related apparatus. In some embodiments, the disclosed ECP process is performed by providing a substrate into an electroplating solution comprising a plurality of ions of a material to be deposited. A periodic patterned signal, which alternates between a first value and a different second value, is applied to the substrate. When the periodic patterned signal is at the first value, ions from the electroplating solution affix to the substrate. When the periodic patterned signal is at the second value, ions from the electroplating solution do not affix to the substrate. By using the periodic patterned signal to perform electro-chemical plating, the deposition rate of the plating process is reduced, resulting in an isotropic deposition over the substrate that mitigates gap fill problems (e.g., void formation).
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 27, 2013
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventors: Su-Horng Lin, Chi-Ming Yang
  • Publication number: 20140061035
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system and a method of plating metal alloys, as well as to the structures thus obtained. The system for plating metal alloys comprises an electrolytic cell containing an electrolytic solution (3) in which an anode (4,4a,4b), a cathode (5), and a plurality of metal components to be plated onto the cathode are immersed, the anode (4,4a,4b) and the cathode (5) being electrically connected to means (6) adapted to apply a potential difference between said anode (4,4a,4b) and said cathode (5). The invention is characterized in that the means (6) adapted to apply a potential difference between said cathode (5) and said anode (4,4a,4b) impose a potential difference value that changes over time according to a predefined law.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 8, 2013
    Publication date: March 6, 2014
  • Patent number: 8591717
    Abstract: This is a process to generate alternating current without an external source for cell-houses in electrowinning or electrorefining of copper or other products in which the electric source consists of a conventional rectifier-transformer group that supplies continuous electrical current to the cell-house, which is connected in parallel to a device characterized by having the capacity to extract an electrical current from the cell-house for a period of time and then return it in another period of time, whether periodically or semiperiodically and without changing the average value of the electrical current, supplied to the cell-house by the rectifier-transformer. This results in a electrical current in the cell-house that is the superimposition of a continuous and alternating current. This process is designed to overcome the barrier of electric potential produced by the presence of the pure continuous electric field in cell-houses through the electric agitation of an ion-rich electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Hecker Electronica de Potencia y Procesos S.A.
    Inventor: Juan Pablo Bustos Robledo
  • Patent number: 8585875
    Abstract: A system for electroplating a substrate includes one or more controllers, with each controller having an FPGA with one or more output channels. A bulk power supply is connected to each controller. One or more transistors are associated with each output channel. An electroplating chamber has one or more electrodes, with each electrode connected to at least one output channel. The system may include a waveform capture and viewing circuit providing built-in process verification and diagnostic tools. The system may also have a throttle back mode which attempts to maintain proper anode current ratios by reducing setpoints of all anodes by the same percentage, if a fault condition causes a reduction in current to one of the anodes. Blackbox logging may also optionally be used for recording selected data values into a circular buffer having a selected amount of memory.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles A. Cummings, Mikael R. Borjesson
  • Patent number: 8580089
    Abstract: A system is submitted here that permits superimposing an alternating current in the process of electrolytic refining of metals based on the use of power semiconductors without requiring an external source and which minimizes the utilization of passive elements, achieving a high efficiency solution applicable to high power industrial processes. The invention consists of the division of the cells involved in the metals electrolysis process in two groups of cells (3a) and 3b, both comprising a similar number of anode-cathode pairings, and with both groups linked by a common point for electrical connection (6), and interconnected by means of a bidirectional power converter (7). Said power converter (7) is connected to the common point for electrical connection 6 of the groups of cells (3a, 3b) and to the other two connection points of each group of cells, so that its operation permits transferring power from one group to the other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Ingenieria Y Desarrollo Technologico S.A.
    Inventors: Patricio Clemente Lagos Lehuede, Ricardo Armando Feuntes Fuentealba, Jorge Luis Estrada Gonzalez
  • Publication number: 20130248359
    Abstract: Disclosed is a mixed gas generating device and has an object to provide a mixed gas generating device capable of generating CO and H2 with favorable energy efficiency. An energy efficiency characteristic line 10 of electrolysis with respect to a generation ratio between CO and H2 (CO/H2) becomes a curve projecting downward. Thus, electrolysis is executed not at an operation point A where CO/H2=1/2 is given but in a divided manner at an operation point B and an operation point C. However, the electrolysis time is divided into electrolysis time periods such that the generation ratio of a mixed gas becomes CO/H2=1/2 after the electrolysis is executed with the respective generation ratios. As a result, energy efficiency in the vicinity of an operation point D higher than the operation point A can be obtained.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 8, 2010
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Inventor: Yasushi Ito
  • Publication number: 20130196441
    Abstract: Provided herein are the concept that “singularity-based configuration” electrodes design and method can produce in an ionic substance local high electric fields with low potential differences between electrodes. The singularity-based configuration described here includes: an anode electrode; a cathode electrode; and an insulator disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. The singularity-based electrode design concept refers to electrodes in which the anode and cathode are adjacent to each other, placed essentially co-planar and are separated by an insulator. The essentially co-planar anode/insulator/cathode configuration bound one surface of the volume of interest and produce desired electric fields locally, i.e., in the vicinity of the interface between the anode and cathode. In an ideal configuration, the interface dimension between the anode and the cathode tends to zero and becomes a point of singularity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2011
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Inventors: Boris Rubinsky, Gregory D. Troszak
  • Patent number: 8349150
    Abstract: An actuator includes a fixed including a substrate, electrodes disposed on a surface of the substrate, and an insulating layer disposed on the surface of the substrate to cover the electrodes. The actuator includes an electrically conductive, liquid member disposed on and contacting a surface of the insulating layer, a movable body contacting the liquid member, a retaining device configured to adhere the liquid member to the movable body, a device configured to apply potential to each of the electrodes, and a controller configured to control the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2013
    Assignee: Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Hiroto Sugahara
  • Publication number: 20120279863
    Abstract: A supply of metal parts are electroplated by progressively transferring the parts with a computer controlled robot into a series of open top tanks containing solutions. The tanks have submerged metal fixtures which temporarily support the parts, and each fixture in the electroplating tank is individually connected to a direct current power source through a corresponding timer switch controlled by the computer so that each part is plated for a precise time period independently of the time the part remains in the plating solution. Each fixture is coated with an insulation material and has a base with metal contact with a removable fixture member having limited metal line contact with the supporting part. A plurality of electroplating lines each include the above components, and common tanks in the lines receive an electroplating solution recirculated through a common filter and service tank where the solution is heated and controlled.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 3, 2011
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Inventor: John J. Buschur
  • Publication number: 20120258408
    Abstract: Methods of electroplating metal on a substrate while controlling azimuthal uniformity, include, in one aspect, providing the substrate to the electroplating apparatus configured for rotating the substrate during electroplating, and electroplating the metal on the substrate while rotating the substrate relative to a shield such that a selected portion of the substrate at a selected azimuthal position dwells in a shielded area for a different amount of time than a second portion of the substrate having the same average arc length and the same average radial position and residing at a different angular (azimuthal) position. For example, a semiconductor wafer substrate can be rotated during electroplating slower or faster, when the selected portion of the substrate passes through the shielded area.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2012
    Publication date: October 11, 2012
    Inventors: Steven T. MAYER, David W. PORTER, Bryan L. BUCKALEW, Robert RASH
  • Patent number: 8241940
    Abstract: This disclosure presents manufacturing methods and apparatus designs for making TFSSs from both sides of a re-usable semiconductor template, thus effectively increasing the substrate manufacturing throughput and reducing the substrate manufacturing cost. This approach also reduces the amortized starting template cost per manufactured substrate (TFSS) by about a factor of 2 for a given number of template reuse cycles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignee: Solexel, Inc.
    Inventors: Mehrdad M. Moslehi, Karl-Josef Kramer, David Xuan-Qi Wang, Pawan Kapur, Somnath Nag, George D Kamian, Jay Ashjaee, Takao Yonehara
  • Publication number: 20120187700
    Abstract: Electrolysis cell (10) comprises a DC voltage source (12) with positive and negative terminals (14, 16) to alternating electrodes (18) and (20) respectively. The source (12) produces a voltage that cycles between a minimum voltage Vmin and a maximum voltage Vmax where Vmin?0 volts, and Vmax=Vmin+?, where ?>0 volts. Thus, the voltage provided by the DC source (12) is in the form of a periodic wave having a period T, and frequency f. As the voltage source (12) cycles its voltage from Vmin to Vmax, there is an intermediate peak VP1 between Vmin and Vmax. When the voltage reaches VP1, it decreases for a period of time TP1, before again ramping up to voltage Vmax. The voltage then decreases relatively rapidly to Vmin, completing one cycle of period T.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2010
    Publication date: July 26, 2012
    Applicant: Craft Holdings WA Pty Ltd.
    Inventor: John Wayne Craft
  • Patent number: 8192608
    Abstract: An anode and cathode for an electrolytic cell configured as a low inductance transmission line to enable control of an interphase at an electrode surface. The anode and cathode are coupled to a switched current source by a low inductance path that includes a parallel plate transmission line, a coaxial transmission line, or both. The switched current source provides fast switching between current sources to provide fast charging and discharging of the double-layer capacitance associated with the electrode surface so that an isotope may be selectively transported to the electrode surface for oxidation or reduction. A photon source may be used to create a population of isotope containing species within the electrolyte. An additional static magnetic field and/or an alternating current magnetic excitation source may be used to modify the composition of the population of species containing the isotope to be separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2012
    Inventor: Mehlin Dean Matthews
  • Patent number: 8187444
    Abstract: A fluid treatment device is disclosed. The fluid treatment device includes at least a first electrode and a second electrode in direct contact with the fluid. The fluid treatment device may include a control device which adjusts a parameter of an alternating potential difference provided between the first electrode and the second electrode based on the indication of the conductivity between the first electrode and the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2012
    Inventor: Eric John Kruger
  • Patent number: 8147659
    Abstract: A gated electrode structure for altering a potential and electric field in an electrolyte near at least one working electrode is disclosed. The gated electrode structure may comprise a gate electrode biased appropriately with respect to a working electrode. Applying an appropriate static or dynamic (time varying) gate potential relative to the working electrode modifies the electric potential and field in an interfacial region between the working electrode and the electrolyte, and increases electron emission to and from states in the electrolyte, thereby facilitating an electrochemical, electrolytic or electrosynthetic reaction and reducing electrode overvoltage/overpotential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Rakesh K. Lal, Likun Shen, Umesh Kumar Mishra
  • Publication number: 20110284386
    Abstract: A method for electrofilling large, high aspect ratio recessed features with copper without depositing substantial amounts of copper in the field region is provided. The method allows completely filling recessed features having aspect ratios of at least about 5:1 such as at least about 10:1, and widths of at least about 1 ?m in a substantially void-free manner without depositing more than 5% of copper in the field region (relative to the thickness deposited in the recessed feature). The method involves contacting the substrate having one or more large, high aspect ratio recessed features (such as a TSVs) with an electrolyte comprising copper ions and an organic dual state inhibitor (DSI) configured for inhibiting copper deposition in the field region, and electrodepositing copper under potential-controlled conditions, where the potential is controlled not exceed the critical potential of the DSI.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 18, 2011
    Publication date: November 24, 2011
    Inventors: Mark J. Willey, Steven T. Mayer
  • Patent number: 8057645
    Abstract: A system and method for electrochemically machining a work-piece contains a fixture capable of receiving a work-piece and securing the work-piece to the fixture. An electrolyte source is also provided. In addition, the system contains a rotary drive subassembly capable of receiving a portion of the work-piece therein, motion of the rotary drive assembly being determined by a received control signal, wherein frequency and amplitude of the control signal increases and decreases motion of the rotary drive subassembly, and wherein the control signal is a trapezoidal waveform.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: Turbocam, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas S. McGee, Marian B. Noronha, Hans Hendrik Wolters
  • Patent number: 8043485
    Abstract: An electrolysis system (100) and method of using same is provided. In addition to an electrolysis tank (101) and a membrane (105) separating the tank into two regions, the system includes at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (115/116) of a first type, at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (117/118) of a second type, and at least one pair of high voltage electrodes (121/122). The low voltage applied to the low voltage electrodes (115/116/117/118) and the high voltage applied to the high voltage electrodes (121/122) is pulsed with the pulses occurring simultaneously with the same pulse duration. Low voltage is also applied to the low voltage electrodes (115/116/117/118) during part, or all, of the period of each cycle occurring between pulses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2011
    Assignee: Nehemia Davidson
    Inventor: Nehemia Davidson
  • Publication number: 20110256654
    Abstract: This disclosure presents manufacturing methods and apparatus designs for making TFSSs from both sides of a re-usable semiconductor template, thus effectively increasing the substrate manufacturing throughput and reducing the substrate manufacturing cost. This approach also reduces the amortized starting template cost per manufactured substrate (TFSS) by about a factor of 2 for a given number of template reuse cycles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 12, 2011
    Publication date: October 20, 2011
    Applicant: SOLEXEL, INC.
    Inventors: Mehrdad M. Moslehi, Karl-Josef Kramer, David Xuan-Qi Wang, Pawan Kapur, Somnath Nag, George D Kamian, Jay Ashjaee, Takao Yonehara
  • Patent number: 8034228
    Abstract: A method and device for the production of components having a three-dimensionally formed surface by a lowering operation with an electrochemical ablation process, namely a Precise Electro Chemical Machining (PECM) process, is disclosed. The method includes the steps of: a) providing a specially pre-formed workpiece featuring a specific dimensional allowance; b) providing at least one working electrode, in which case the contour of the working electrode, or of each working electrode, is adapted to the contour of the three-dimensionally formed surface to be produced; and c) lowering the three-dimensionally formed surface by placing the pre-formed workpiece and the working electrode, or each working electrode, in an electrolyte and by applying an electrical voltage or an electrical current, in which case the working electrode, or each working electrode, is moved in the sense of a circular advance motion in the direction toward the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2011
    Assignee: MTU Aero Engines GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Bayer, Albin Platz
  • Patent number: 7959771
    Abstract: An electrophoretic dip coating plant comprises at least one dip tank, which is filled with a coating fluid. The objects which are to be coated are carried by means of a conveyor system through the coating fluid located in the dip tank and are then in electrical contact with a bus bar arrangement comprising an input and/or output region and a main region. The main region of the bus bar arrangement is connected to one terminal of a d.c. voltage supply unit. The other terminal of this d.c. voltage supply unit is electrically connected to at least one electrode which is immersed in the coating fluid in the dip tank. In order to enable the voltages which are applied to the adjacent regions of the bus bar arrangement to be regulated independently of one another, yet still to manage with a single d.c.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2011
    Assignee: Eisenmann Anlagenbau GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Ingo Grass, Zoltan-Josef Horvath
  • Patent number: 7914650
    Abstract: In an air filtering apparatus in which power is supplied from a power supply to electrodes in an electrolytic bath to electrolyze water in the electrolytic bath and thus generate electrolytic water and the generated electrolytic water and air are supplied to a gas-liquid contact member to filter the air, a voltage varying unit varies the voltage applied between the electrodes, and includes a voltage switching unit for switching a power supply voltage, a voltage adjusting unit for adjusting the power supply voltage switched by the voltage switching unit and applying the adjusted voltage between the electrodes and a controller for controlling the voltage switching unit so that the power supply voltage is adjusted to a voltage nearest to the adjusted power supply voltage by the voltage adjusting unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2011
    Assignee: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masanori Kobayashi, Mitsuhiro Dobashi
  • Publication number: 20110024300
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to techniques for electro-depositing nano-patterns. More specifically, systems and methods for fabricating periodic structures in complex nano-patterns are described. An electrical signal may be applied to one or more electrodes that are positioned about a surface of a substrate. The periodicity of the deposited pattern may be influenced by one or more parameters associated with an applied electrical signal, including one or more of frequency, amplitude, period, duty cycle, etc. The weight of each deposited line on the substrate may be influenced by the described parameters, and the shape of the pattern may be influenced by the number, shape, and position of electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 30, 2009
    Publication date: February 3, 2011
    Inventor: Ezekiel KRUGLICK
  • Patent number: 7879216
    Abstract: An anode and cathode for an electrolytic cell configured as a low inductance transmission line to enable control of an interphase at an electrode surface. The anode and cathode are coupled to a switched current source by a low inductance path that includes a parallel plate transmission line, a coaxial transmission line, or both. The switched current source provides fast switching between current sources to provide fast charging and discharging of the double-layer capacitance associated with the electrode surface so that an isotope may be selectively transported to the electrode surface for oxidation or reduction. A photon source may be used to create a population of isotope containing species within the electrolyte. An additional static magnetic field and/or an alternating current magnetic excitation source may be used to modify the composition of the population of species containing the isotope to be separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Inventor: Mehlin Dean Matthews
  • Patent number: 7867374
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of electrochemical machining utilizes a computer controlled static array of electrically insulated cathode sections to selectively and individually energize the electrodes for the purpose of shaping the surface of a part. The tightly clustered array of electrodes can be formed by individual wires as an example. The waste reaction products may be managed so as to improve machining accuracy. The electrodes can be composed of materials capable of generating an oxide layer or that resist electrolytic dissolution to combat the problem of crossover erosion in closely spaced conditions. An alternative approach to remedy crossover erosion is to extend the reach of insulation into the gap space between tool and part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Federal-Mogul World Wide, Inc.
    Inventors: William J. Zdeblick, Yuefeng Luo
  • Publication number: 20100175941
    Abstract: The present invention provides a signal generator device for generating an electrical signal for use in an electrolysis device. The signal comprises a waveform with a voltage, a duty cycle, and a frequency. These waveform parameters may be varied based on data received from a plurality of sensors. The signal generator may generate a second electrical signal superimposed with the first electrical signal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 14, 2009
    Publication date: July 15, 2010
  • Publication number: 20100147676
    Abstract: A method of using honeycomb material having opposite surfaces and flow channels between the surfaces, includes directing fluid flow through the channels while applying a voltage between the surfaces and across fluid flowing in the channels. A method of using honeycomb material that includes at least one electrode, the honeycomb material and electrode be useful in an electrical or electronic device, includes using the honeycomb material to support or to suspend the electrical or electronic device. An apparatus includes a honeycomb structure of dielectric material having a number of flow channels therethrough, an electrode at a surface of the dielectric material responsive to electrical input to apply an electrical response alone or with regard to another electrode, the honeycomb structure having cohesive strength and rigidity to support itself and the electrode from in suspended relation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 25, 2008
    Publication date: June 17, 2010
    Applicant: ION A-Z, LLC
    Inventor: Paul R. Goudy, JR.
  • Patent number: 7727363
    Abstract: A microfabricated device employing a bridging membrane and methods for electrokinetic transport of a liquid phase biological or chemical material using the same are described. The bridging membrane is deployed in or adjacent to a microchannel and permits either electric current flow or the transport of gas species, while inhibiting the bulk flow of material. The use of bridging membranes in accordance with this invention is applicable to electrokinetically inducing fluid flow to confine a selected material in a region of a microchannel that is not influenced by an electric field. Other structures for inducing fluid flow in accordance with this invention include nanochannel bridging membranes and alternating current fluid pumping devices. Applications of the bridging membranes according to this invention include the separation of species from a sample material, valving of fluids in a microchannel network, mixing of different materials in a microchannel, and the pumping of fluids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2010
    Assignee: UT-Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: Stephen C. Jacobson, J. Michael Ramsey
  • Patent number: 7604718
    Abstract: A dynamically configurable electrode includes a first planar electrode and a planar array of pixels in a different plane, wherein a polarizable liquid medium (including electrolyte solutions) is to reside in the gap between electrodes. The pixels are individually addressable by a time-varying voltage, and adjacent pixels receive, at any instant in time, either the same voltage waveform or a different voltage waveform. Adjacent pixels receiving different voltage waveforms generate corresponding movement of dipolar entities, including dipolar particles, ions, or dipolar molecules in the polarizable liquid medium between the electrodes, which can in turn generate fluid flow and movement of particles suspended in the fluid along the planar array surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2009
    Assignee: BioArray Solutions Ltd.
    Inventors: Yi Zhang, Michael Seul
  • Patent number: 7368042
    Abstract: An electro-chemical plating system includes an upper rotor assembly for receiving and holding a wafer; an electroplating reactor vessel for containing plating solution in which the wafer is immersed; an anode array including a plurality of concentric anode segments provided inside the electroplating reactor vessel; a power supply system including power supply subunits for controlling electrical potentials of the anode segments, respectively; and a plurality of sensor devices mounted inside the upper rotor assembly, wherein the sensor devices are substantially arranged in corresponding to the anode segments, and during operation, the plurality of sensor devices are utilized for in-situ feeding back a deposition profile to a control unit in real time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2008
    Assignee: United Microelectronics Corp.
    Inventors: Chia-Lin Hsu, Kun-Hsien Lin, Wen-Chieh Su
  • Patent number: 6843894
    Abstract: A cathode current control system employing a current thief for use in electroplating a wafer is set forth. The current thief comprises a plurality of conductive segments disposed to substantially surround a peripheral region of the wafer. A first plurality of resistance devices are used, each associated with a respective one of the plurality of conductive segments. The resistance devices are used to regulate current through the respective conductive finger during electroplating of the wafer. Various constructions are used for the current thief and further conductive elements, such as fingers, may also be employed in the system. As with the conductive segments, current through the fingers may also be individually controlled. In accordance with one embodiment of the overall system, selection of the resistance of each respective resistance devices is automatically controlled in accordance with predetermined programming.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert W. Berner, Joseph J. Fatula, Jr., Robert Hitzfeld, Richard Contreras, Andrew Chiu
  • Patent number: 6808613
    Abstract: Process for obtaining a ceramic coating on the surface of a metal having semiconducting properties, such as aluminium, titanium, magnesium, hafnium, zirconium and their alloys, by a physico-chemical transformation reaction of the treated metal. This process consists in immersing the metal workpiece to be coated in an electrolytic bath composed of an aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide, such as potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, and of an oxyacid salt of an alkali metal, the metal workpiece forming one of the electrodes, and in applying a signal voltage of overall triangular waveform to the electrodes, that is to say a signal having at least a rising slope and a falling slope, with a form factor that can vary during the process, generating a current which is controlled in its intensity, its waveform and its ratio of positive current to negative current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2004
    Inventor: Jacques Beauvir
  • Patent number: 6797134
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for electrolyzing water for enhanced production of oxygen, hydrogen and heat by the steps of (i) providing an electrochemical cell comprising an isotopic hydrogen storage cathode, an electrically conductive anode and an ionically conducting electrolyte comprising water, and (ii) impressing a repeating sequence of voltages across the cathode and anode comprised of at least two cell voltage regimes, a first cell voltage regime consisting of a voltage sufficient to enhance cathodic absorption of hydrogen, and a second cell voltage regime consisting of at least one voltage pulse which is at least two times the voltage of the first cell voltage regime for a total duration no greater than 0.10 seconds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Assignee: Lectro Press, Inc.
    Inventors: Norman L. Weinberg, Klaus Tomantschger, Robert S. Feldstein, J. David Genders, Joseph M. Rait
  • Publication number: 20030159943
    Abstract: The object of the invention is to provide a method and apparatus for treating membrane-containing material with electrical fields, in vitro, and with an added treating substance. With the method, a plurality of electrodes are arrayed around the material to be treated and are connected to outputs of an electrode selection apparatus. Inputs of the electrode selection apparatus are connected to outputs of a pulse sequence generator. A treating substance is added to the membrane-containing material. Electrical pulses are applied to the electrode selection apparatus and are routed through the electrode selection apparatus in a predetermined, computer-controlled sequence to selected electrodes in the array of electrodes, whereby the membrane-containing material is treated with the added treating substance and with electrical fields. The routing of applied pulses through the electrode selection apparatus to selected electrodes can be done in an enormous number of ways.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 7, 2002
    Publication date: August 28, 2003
    Applicant: Cyto Pulse Sciences, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard E. Walters , Alan D. King , Derin C. Walters
  • Patent number: 6585868
    Abstract: This invention relates to a reduced water producing apparatus, which can mass-produce reduced water, wherein oxidation-reduction potential maintains for a long period successively, from not only industrial water, natural water but pure water speedily and inexpensively, and that suited for industrial mass production of reduced water. The apparatus have a water tank, at least one electrode plate unit, and a voltage impressing means for impressing high-frequency alternating voltage, wherein the electrode plate unit includes two alternating electrode plates in which alternating voltages impressed by the voltage impressing means are varied to be modulated waves of mutually opposite phases and a ground electrode plate arranged to oppose the two alternating electrode plates, and wherein surfaces of these electrode plates are formed of titanium or platinum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2003
    Assignee: Japan Matex Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yasutaka Chihara