Plural Cells Patents (Class 204/244)
  • Patent number: 11066752
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides electrolyte solutions for electrodeposition of zinc-manganese alloys, methods of forming electrolyte solutions, methods of electrodepositing zinc-manganese alloys, and multilayered zinc-manganese alloys. An electrolyte solution for electroplating can include a metal salt, boric acid, an alkali metal chloride, polyethylene glycol, and a hydroxy benzaldehyde. An electrolyte solution can be formed by dissolving a metal salt, boric acid, an alkali metal chloride, polyethylene glycol, and a hydroxy benzaldehyde in water or an aqueous solution. Electrodepositing zinc-manganese alloys on a substrate can include introducing a cathode and an anode into an electrolyte solution comprising a metal salt, boric acid, an alkali metal chloride, polyethylene glycol, and a hydroxy benzaldehyde. Electrodepositing can further include passing a current between the cathode and the anode through the electrolyte solution to deposit zinc and manganese onto the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2021
    Assignee: THE BOEING COMPANY
    Inventors: Stephen P. Gaydos, Vijaykumar S. Ijeri, Om Prakash, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Raghuvir Singh, Sharma Paswan, Lokesh C. Pathak
  • Patent number: 10906203
    Abstract: A method for joining carbide ceramic particles, comprising: forming a first mixture comprising carbide ceramic particles, preceramic polymer liquid, fine carbon particles and metal nanoparticles that form a eutectic liquid at temperatures below 1400° C.; and heating the first mixture at a temperature of about 1150° C. to about 1400° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2021
    Assignee: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH—OF THE COMMONWEALTH SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION
    Inventors: Jung-Kun Lee, Ian Nettleship, Ryan W. Read
  • Patent number: 10689768
    Abstract: The embodiments described herein pertain generally to an amalgam electrode, and a producing method of the amalgam electrode, and an electrochemical reduction method of carbon dioxide using the amalgam electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2020
    Assignees: SOGANG UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FOUNDATION, KOREA SOUTHERN POWER CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Woonsup Shin, Sae Young Oh, Suk Kyu Kim, Ki Nam Kwon, Chan Hyo Yu, Gwang Gyu Kim
  • Patent number: 10179377
    Abstract: A process for manufacturing a turbine engine component includes the steps of: providing a powder containing gamma titanium aluminide; and forming a turbine engine component from said powder using a direct metal laser sintering technique.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2019
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Gabriel L Suciu, Gopal Das, Ioannis Alvanos, Brian D Merry, James D Hill, Allan R Penda
  • Patent number: 9551078
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for producing primary aluminum by using inert anodes is disclosed, in which an electrolyte system KF—NaF—AlF3 is used and the operating temperature of the cell is 700-850° C. The electrolytic cell comprises a cell shell, heat insulating refractory lining, a melting pot, a heat insulating cover, inert electrodes, electrode stems, anode bus-bars, cathode bus-bars, anode branching bus-bars, heat insulating plates, partitions between anodes and cathodes and a feeding device. The quality of the aluminum product obtained by using the electrolytic cell is not less than 99.7%. The cell is free from emission of carbon dioxide and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and hardly has consumption of electrodes, so the distances between anodes and cathodes can be kept stable. The cell is sealed and the volatilization of dust and fluorides can be prevented, and it is useful to recover oxygen gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: ALUMINUM CORPORATION OF CHINA LIMITED
    Inventors: Jianhong Yang, Wangxing Li, Peng Cao
  • Patent number: 9551091
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method and an apparatus for production of micro-carbon fibers. The method comprises introducing a selected chemical mixture suitable for creating micro-carbon fibers into a heating chamber and heating the heating chamber using a series of burners. The method further comprises injecting carbon feed stock into a catalyst reaction chamber to initiate a micro-carbon generating chemical process to occur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: Hexa Nano Carbon LLC
    Inventor: Sharon Wagner
  • Patent number: 9409799
    Abstract: A gravity flow runoff water purification system is provided. The gravity flow runoff water purification system of the present invention includes a debris filter, a grit chamber, and a linear electrolytic reactor. The linear electrolytic reactor includes a plurality of cell chambers separated by at least one fixed electrode plate operable to receive a current. A bi-polar anode blend is disposed at the bottom of each chamber and is charged by the at least one electrode plate using a VLF AC current in order to prevent plating over of fixed electrodes. The blend includes a conductive and consumable metal fraction, a conductive and non-consumable fraction, and a non-conductive pours spacer. Water runs through the debris filter, through the grit chamber and into the linear electrolytic reactor via gravity. The water flows through each of the cell chambers, thereby clarifying and purifying the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2016
    Inventor: Ronald Charles Mehl
  • Patent number: 9196889
    Abstract: An electrode is provided with a metal terminal extending from a battery module main body, a bolt which has an expanded section configuring a retaining section at a rear end portion and penetrates the metal terminal upward, and an insulating body which insulates the metal terminal and the battery module case one from the other. The insulating body is provided with a drop preventing section which abuts at least a lower surface of the expanded section of the bolt and prevents the bolt from dropping from the metal terminal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 24, 2015
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takenori Tsuchiya, Hiroki Nagai, Masahide Hikosaka
  • Patent number: 8961749
    Abstract: The electrical connection device connecting the cells in series comprises: a first conductor (16) connected to the cathode assembly of cell (N?1) and to the anode frame of cell (N), having a portion (19) located between said pots (N?1) and (N) in which the current (I) flows in the direction of the alignment axis (x) of the pots; a second conductor (24) connected to the cathode assembly of cell (N) and to the anode frame of cell (N+1), having a portion (23) located between said pots (N?1) and (N) in which the current flows away from the axis. short-circuiting wedges (20, 21) housed between said portions (19, 23) of said conductors (16, 24); a third conductor (27) to balance the current flowing through the wedges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Rio Tinto Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Serge Despinasse, Yves Rochet, Sandra Berthe
  • Patent number: 8956524
    Abstract: Modular anode assemblies are used in electrolytic oxide reduction systems for scalable reduced metal production via electrolysis. Assemblies include a channel frame connected to several anode rods extending into an electrolyte. An electrical system powers the rods while being insulated from the channel frame. A cooling system removes heat from anode rods and the electrical system. An anode guard attaches to the channel frame to prevent accidental electrocution or damage during handling or repositioning. Each anode rod may be divided into upper and lower sections to permit easy repair and swapping out of lower sections. The modular assemblies may have standardized components to permit placement at multiple points within a reducing system. Example methods may operate an electrolytic oxide reduction system by positioning the modular anode assemblies in the reduction system and applying electrical power to the plurality of anode assemblies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC
    Inventors: Stanley G. Wiedmeyer, Laurel A. Barnes, Mark A. Williamson, James L. Willit
  • Publication number: 20140209457
    Abstract: An aluminum smelter comprising: (i) a series of electrolytic cells, designed for the production of aluminum, forming one or more rows, (ii) a supply station designed to supply the series of electrolytic cells with an electrolysis current, the said electricity supply station comprising two poles, (iii) a main electrical circuit through which the electrolysis current flows, having two extremities each connected to one of the poles of the supply station, (iv) at least one electrical conductor made of superconducting material, characterized in that the electrical conductor made of superconducting material is placed wholly or partly within an enclosure forming a magnetic shield.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2012
    Publication date: July 31, 2014
    Applicant: RIO TINTO ALCAN INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Christian Duval, Steeve Renaudier, Benoit Bardet, Olivier Martin, Stéphane Wan Tang Kuan
  • Publication number: 20140138240
    Abstract: Aluminum smelter comprising: (i) a series of electrolytic cells, comprising an anode, a cathode and a pot shell equipped with a side wall and a bottom, each cathode including at least one cathode output, (ii) a main electric circuit through which an electrolysis current passes, including an electrical conductor connected to each cathode output of a cell N, and to the anode of a cell N+1, and (iii) a means to stabilize the electrolytic cells. At least one of the cathode outputs of the cathode of N passes through the bottom of the pot shell, and during the operation of N and N+1, the electrolysis current passes, in an upstream-downstream direction only, through each electrical conductor extending from each cathode output of N in the direction of N+1.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2012
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Applicant: RIO TINTO ALCAN INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Olivier Martin, Steeve Renaudier, Benoit Bardet, Christian Duval
  • Publication number: 20140138241
    Abstract: An aluminum smelter comprising: (i) a series of electrolytic cells, designed for the production of aluminum, forming one or more rows, (ii) a supply station designed to supply the series of electrolytic cells with an electrolysis current, the said electricity supply station comprising two poles, (iii) a main electrical circuit through which the electrolysis current flows, having two extremities each connected to one of the poles of the supply station, (iv) at least one secondary electrical circuit comprising an electrical conductor made of superconducting material through which a current flows, running along the row or rows of electrolytic cells, characterized in that the electrical conductor made of superconducting material in the secondary electrical circuit runs along the row or rows of electrolytic cells at least twice in such a way as to make several turns in series.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2012
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Applicant: RIO TINTO ALCAN INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Christian Duval, Steeve Renaudier, Benoit Bardet, Olivier Martin, Stéphane Wan Tang Kuan
  • Patent number: 8449738
    Abstract: An apparatus for the removal of gasses from a number of electrolysis cells, including a suction duct for each cell, each suction duct being connected to a central manifold with a gas treatment center and a central suction fan. A flow restriction device is provided in each suction duct. One or more additional ductworks are provided. Each additional ductwork is for one or more suction ducts. Each additional ductwork has a branch for each suction duct, the branch being connected to the suction duct between the electrolysis cell and the flow restriction device, which one or more branches are connected to a booster duct in which an on/off valve is present. One or more booster ducts are connected to a booster manifold connected to the central manifold. A booster fan is provided in the booster manifold. A method for performing an electrolysis process is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Danieli Corus Technical Services BV
    Inventors: Pieter Dirk Klut, Petrus Leonardus Verbraak
  • Patent number: 8303795
    Abstract: In the method and system, a number of electrolytic cells are arranged as a cell group, which cells are separated by a number of partition walls; in each cell, a number of anodes and cathodes are arranged in an alternating order, so that in each cell, next to each anode, there is arranged a cathode, and so that in each cell, each individual anode is fitted in the same anode line with the anode of the adjacent cell, and in each cell, each individual cathode is fitted in the same cathode line with the cathode of the adjacent cell, and each anode is galvanically connected to at least one cathode of the adjacent cell. The flowing direction of the current passing in the cell group is deviated in different directions in order to make the current flow mainly in the direction of the cell group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2012
    Assignee: Outotec Oyj
    Inventors: Henri Virtanen, Olli Jarvinen, Lauri Palmu, Ilkka Laitinen
  • Patent number: 8293078
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device (50) and a method for short-circuiting a specified electrolysis in a row of electrolysis cells intended for the production of aluminum. This device includes a bridging member (60) including at least two opposite contact arms and at least one bridging conductor electrically that electrically connects the contact arms. The contact arms are shaped like a wedge. The device further includes a clasping member (70) including a frame and a least two opposite thrust members. The clasping member (70) is fit to embrace the bridging member (60) so that each thrust member bears on each contact arm and so that, upon moving the contact arms with respect to the clasping member, each thrust member urges the corresponding contact arm towards the conductors (201, 202) inserted between the contact arms, so as to create and secure a short-circuit. The invention makes it possible to short-circuit electrolysis cells with increased amperages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Rio Tinto Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Serge Despinasse, Yves Rochet, Olivier Martin
  • Patent number: 8273224
    Abstract: A collector bar for electrical connection to a busbar system of an electrolytic cell, the collector bar being received within a recess in a cathode block of the cathode of the electrolytic cell; wherein the collector bar comprises a first conductor which electrically connects to the busbar system, the first conductor having an external surface or surfaces which electrically contact the cathode block and at least one second conductor having a lower electrical resistance to the first conductor, the second conductor being positioned on at least one external surface of the first conductor in electrical contact with the first conductor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2012
    Assignee: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty Ltd
    Inventors: Ingo Bayer, Bruce Ringsby Olmstead
  • Publication number: 20120228144
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing a fluorine gas, comprising at least one fluorine generating cell, and at least one fluorine generating cell detector for detecting components of products obtained by the fluorine generating cell, wherein at least one of the fluorine generating cells is connected with the fluorine generating cell detector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2010
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Applicant: SOLVAY FLUOR GMBH
    Inventors: Holger Pernice, Johannes Eicher, Francis Feys, Dominique Balthasart, Christoph Sommer, Harald Krueger
  • Publication number: 20120160699
    Abstract: In a method for reducing a solid feedstock (110), such as a solid metal compound, feedstock is arranged on upper surfaces of elements (60, 80, 81) in a bipolar cell stack contained within a housing (25). A molten salt electrolyte is circulated through the housing so that it contacts the elements of the bipolar stack and the feedstock. A potential is applied to terminal electrodes (50, 60) of the bipolar stack such that the upper surfaces of the elements become cathodic and the lower surfaces of the elements become anodic. The applied potential is sufficient to cause reduction of the feedstock. The invention also provides an apparatus for implementing the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 12, 2010
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Applicant: METALYSIS LIMITED
    Inventors: Peter G. Dudley, Allen Richard Wright
  • Publication number: 20120138475
    Abstract: In a method for reduction of a solid feedstock, such as a solid metal compound, in an electrolytic apparatus a portion of the feedstock is arranged in each of two or more electrolytic cells (50, 60, 70, 80). A molten salt is provided as an electrolyte in each cell. The molten salt is circulated from a molten salt reservoir (10) such that salt flows through each of the cells. Feedstock is reduced in each cell by applying a potential across electrodes in each cell, the potential being sufficient to cause reduction of the feedstock. The invention also provides an apparatus for implementing the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 12, 2010
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Applicant: METALYSIS LIMITED
    Inventors: Peter G. Dudley, Allen Richard Wright
  • Patent number: 8066856
    Abstract: A tending module for a series of electrolysis cells designed for the manufacture of aluminum by igneous electrolysis, each cell including a series of anodes provided with a metal rod designed to fix and electrically connect the anodes to a metal anode frame. The tending module includes a frame to be fixed to a mobile component, and at least one anode handling unit connected to the frame. The module also includes, integral with the anode handling unit, an activator that can exert at least one force or impulse on the anode rod, with a force such that, although the stem is firmly maintained in contact against the anode frame, the contact surfaces are moved in relation to each other by an amount sufficient for electrical contact to be improved. Advantageously, the activator is a jack or an impulse generator integral with the anode clamp.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2011
    Assignee: E.C.L.
    Inventor: Alain Van Acker
  • Patent number: 7638026
    Abstract: This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO2, is added to a solution of UCl4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2009
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: James L. Willit, John P. Ackerman, Mark A. Williamson
  • Patent number: 7635421
    Abstract: An electrolytic apparatus for an oxide electrolytic method includes an interior of an electrolytic vessel, a common cathode and two types of anodes different in shape and arrangement, a first electrolysis controller is connected between the cathode and the first anode, and a second electrolysis controller is connected between the cathode and the second anode. The electrolytic processing of the substance in the electrolytic vessel is carried out such that a pair of the cathode and one of the anodes is used for main electrolysis and a pair of the cathode and the other anode is used for auxiliary electrolysis. By this apparatus, prevention of the ununiform distribution of the electrodeposit, improvement of the processing speed and improvement of the durability of the crucible are achieved, whereby the recycling of spent nuclear fuels based on the nonaqueous reprocessing method is made feasible in a commercial scale.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2009
    Assignee: Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute
    Inventors: Kenji Koizumi, Nobuo Okamura, Tadahiro Washiya, Shinichi Aose
  • Patent number: 7513979
    Abstract: The invention relates to a series (1) of electrolysis cells for the production of aluminum by fusion electrolysis, comprising at least two lines of cells, arranged transversely, an internal correction circuit (200) with at least one internal correction conductor (20, 20?) per line, adjacent to the neighboring line and a main connection circuit (400) between the final cells of the lines (101, 101?). In at least one line, the main connection circuit (400) comprises a layer of conductors, each conductor of which extends from the end of the final cell of the line to a given distance (D2, D2?) therefrom and the internal correction circuit (200) comprises a section of transverse conductors, arranged at a given distance (D1, D1?) from the final cell (101, 101?) running along the final cell for a given part L of the length thereof Lo. The invention permits a reduction in the mean supplementary vertical fields to very low values for electrolysis currents of a value greater than 300 kA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: Aluminium Pechiney
    Inventors: Morgan Le Hervet, Nicolas Ligonesche
  • Patent number: 7422624
    Abstract: A method for operating one or more electrolysis cells (43, 154, 243) for production of aluminium, the cell comprising inert or substantially inert anodes, where an oxygen containing gas (21, 126, 221) evolved by the electrolysis process in the cell is gathered and removed therefrom. The oxygen containing gas is introduced into a combustion chamber (38, 149, 238) where it is reacted with a carbon containing gas (7, 116, 209) in a combustion process. Emisions of CO2 and NOx can be reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2008
    Assignee: Norsk Hydro ASA
    Inventors: Knut Ingvar Åsen, Stein Julsrud, Ole-Jacob Siljan
  • Publication number: 20080135402
    Abstract: A gas evolving bipolar electrolysis system is provided which includes multiple cells. Each cell further includes a cathode, an anode, at least one inlet and at least one outlet for flow of electrolyte and the cathode and the anode are configured to maintain a variable interelectrode gap between the cathode and the anode. In some embodiments, the cell includes a membrane disposed between the electrodes and in some other embodiments the electrodes are coated with electrocatalysts configured to provide uniform current density on the electrode surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2006
    Publication date: June 12, 2008
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Ravichandra Srinivasa Jupudi, Richard Scott Bourgeois, Hongmei Zhang
  • Patent number: 7018516
    Abstract: A bipolar multi-purpose electrolytic cell for high current loads has a frame, two electrode edge plates with metal electrode sheet, and power supply and of bipolar plates. Each includes a plastic electrode base body with electrode rear spaces and/or with coolings spaces that are incorporated on one or both sides: incorporated supply and discharge lines for the electrolyte solutions and the cooling medium, metal electrode sheets which are applied to both sides of the base body and are solid and/or perforated in the electrochemically active area: electrolyte sealing frames, which rest on the solid metal electrode sheets and which are made of flexible plastic, and: ion exchanger membranes, which rest on the perforated metal electrode sheets and/or on the electrolyte sheets and/or on the electrolyte sealing frames and which are provided for separating the electrode spaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2006
    Assignee: Peroxid-Chemie GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Michael Gnann, Wolfgang Thiele, Gerd Heinze
  • Patent number: 7001493
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus for preparing sterilizing water, which comprises an electrolyzer wherein an anode chamber (10) and a cathode chamber (20) partitioned by an ion exchange membrane (40) form a unit cell (A), being alternately arranged and successively equipped with close relation; water inlets (61, 62) and water outlets (71, 72) are provided on the end plate (60, 70) at both ends of the electrolyzer; said anode chamber (10) and cathode chamber (20) having circulative openings at the vicinity of each edge at both sides centered from anode plate (11) and cathode plate (21), of which two circulative openings of diagonal direction among them have plural passages of fan-shape, in order for water introduced through the openings to pass through the passages to rapidly go through each electrode; and a gap-control gasket (30) and a gasket for preventing leakage of electrolyte (31) having plural horizontal members are provided at the center to form an anode reaction chamber (13) and a cathode r
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Assignee: Kyungwon Enterprises Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hee Jung Kim
  • Patent number: 6881308
    Abstract: A method for electrochemical synthesis of ammonia gas comprising providing an electrolyte between an anode and a cathode, providing hydrogen gas to the anode, oxidizing negatively charged nitrogen-containing species present in the electrolyte at the anode to form an adsorbed nitrogen species, and reacting the hydrogen with the adsorbed nitrogen species to form ammonia. Preferably, the hydrogen gas is provided to the anode by passing the hydrogen gas through a porous anode substrate. It is also preferred to produce the negatively charged nitrogen-containing species in the electrolyte by reducing nitrogen gas at the cathode. However, the negatively charged nitrogen-containing species may also be provided by supplying a nitrogen-containing salt, such as lithium nitride, into the molten salt electrolyte mixture in a sufficient amount to provide some or all of the nitrogen consumed in the production of ammonia.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: Lynntech, Inc.
    Inventors: Adrian J. Denvir, Oliver J. Murphy, Alan J. Cisar, Priscilla Robertson, Kyle Uselton
  • Patent number: 6866768
    Abstract: Electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte employing inert anode and cathodes, the anode having a box shape with slots for the cathodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2005
    Inventors: Donald R Bradford, Robert J. Barnett, Michael B. Mezner
  • Patent number: 6818106
    Abstract: A solid material (12′) circumscribing an anode system (10) in an electrolysis apparatus is made from a mixture of cryolite and/or alumina (Al2O3), where the solid material (12′) contacts and surrounds the anodes (14, 14′).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignee: Alcoa Inc.
    Inventors: LeRoy E. D'Astolfo, Calvin Bates
  • Patent number: 6811677
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrolytic cell for the production of aluminum comprising an anode and an electrolytic tank where the electrolytic tank comprises an outer shell made from steel and carbon blocks in the bottom of the tank forming the cathode of the electrolytic cells. At least a part of the sidewall of the electrolytic tank consists of one or more evaporation cooled panels, and wherein high temperature, heat resistant and heat insulating material is arranged between the evaporation cooled panels and the steel shell. The invention also includes a method for maintaining a crust on the sidewall of the tank and for recovering heat from the cooling medium inside the panel for transformation into electrical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2004
    Assignee: Elkem ASA
    Inventors: Jan Arthur Aune, Kai Johansen, Per Olav Nos
  • Patent number: 6811676
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2004
    Assignee: Northwest Aluminum Technologies
    Inventors: Donald R Bradford, Robert J. Barnett, Michael B. Mezner
  • Patent number: 6797148
    Abstract: A drained-cathode cell for the electrowinning of aluminium comprises one or more anodes (14) suspended over one or more cathodes (16). The or each anode (14) and cathode (16) respectively have a sloped V-shaped active anode surface (22) and parallel sloped inverted V-shaped drained cathode surfaces (18) facing one another and spaced apart by two sloped inter-electrode gaps (20), arranged so the electrolyte circulates upwardly in the sloped inter-electrode gaps (20) assisted by anodically produced gas and then returns from a top part (22′) to a bottom part (22″) of each inter-electrode gap (20) along an electrolyte path (26,27,36,37).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2004
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventor: Vittorio De Nora
  • Patent number: 6783656
    Abstract: A cell for the electrowinning of aluminum using anodes (10) made from a alloy of iron with nickel and/or cobalt is arranged to produce aluminum of low contamination and of commercial high grade quality. The cell comprises a cathode (20) of drained configuration and operates at reduced temperature without formation of a crust or ledge of solidified electrolyte. The cell is thermally insulated using an insulating cover (65,65a,65b,65c) and an insulating sidewall lining (71). The molten electrolyte (30) is substantially saturated with alumina, particularly on the electrochemically active anode surface, and with species of at least one major metal present at the surface of the nickel-iron alloy based anodes (10). The cell is preferably operated at reduced temperature from 730° to 910° C. to limit the solubility of these metal species and consequently the contamination of the product aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2004
    Assignee: MoltechInvent S.A.
    Inventors: Vittorio De Nora, Jean-Jacques Duruz
  • Publication number: 20040108222
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell design is disclosed for the particular application of the electrochemical treatment of contaminants in water. The cell is designed to allow the treatment of low concentrations of contaminants in low conductivity water efficiently, and to be simple to fabricate. The design incorporates tapered inlet and outlet fluid flow manifolds so that the cell pressure drop will be almost entirely due to fluid contacting the electrodes, thus maximising the effective use of the system pump power. A short anode to cathode distance and thin working electrodes are used to minimise resistive electrical power losses. The parallel slacked arrangement of the electrodes and the smooth inlet and outlet designs leads to relatively even distributions of current density and mass transfer resulting in maximal utilisation of the entire active electrode surface area.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 3, 2003
    Publication date: June 10, 2004
    Inventors: Michael Gattrell, Thierry Guena, Barry MacDougall
  • Patent number: 6723222
    Abstract: A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu—Ni—Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2004
    Assignee: Northwest Aluminum Company
    Inventors: S. Craig Bergsma, Craig W. Brown
  • Patent number: 6599413
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for adding a metal, for example sodium, to a melt of a material, for example aluminum, in a vessel, in which a molten compound of the metal or a solution of a compound of the metal is provided in a container (12), the container being positioned outside the vessel, the compound is electrolytically decomposed and ions of the metal are caused to pass through a wall of a solid-state electrolyte (14) which is a conductor therefor, from a first side of the wall to an opposite second side thereof, and to combine with electrons at the second side of the wall and then to flow as molten metal from the container into the melt in the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2003
    Assignee: Foseco International Limited
    Inventors: Jacky Dekeyser, Derek John Fray, Robert Charles Copcutt, Gregory Doughty
  • Patent number: 6579438
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell (10) for producing a molten metal having a density less than a density of a molten electrolyte used for producing the metal in the cell. The cell includes a section (14) for the electrolysis of a salt of the the metal contained in a molten electrolyte to form droplets of the metal in molten form contained in the electroylte; electrodes (18) within the electrolysis section for effecting the electrolysis; a metal recovery section (15) for separation of the metal from the electrolyte to form a molten metal layer, having an upper suface, floating on an upper surface of the molten electrolyte; a tapping device for periodically removing molten metal from the cell; and a reservoir (25) for withdrawal and temporary holding of molten metal separated from the electrolyte in the metal recovery section. The reservoir has a means to remove liquid from the reservoir without permanently removing the liquid from the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2003
    Assignee: Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: David K. Creber, Jorgen Christensen, Meine Vandermeulen, Pasquale Ficara, George C. Holywell
  • Patent number: 6558525
    Abstract: A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900° C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2003
    Assignee: Northwest Aluminum Technologies
    Inventors: Donald R. Bradford, Robert J. Barnett, Michael B. Mezner
  • Patent number: 6551473
    Abstract: An arrangement of electrolysis pots suitable for use for the production of aluminum by igneous electrolysis according to the Hall-Héroult process with an electrolysis current with intensity Io is disclosed. The arrangement comprises juxtaposed zones including an inner lateral zone. a central zone, and an outer lateral zone. The arrangement can be used, for example, in an electrolysis plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2003
    Assignee: Aluminium Pechiney
    Inventors: Jean-Marie Gaillard, Jacques Colin de Verdiere, Pierre Homsi
  • Patent number: 6511590
    Abstract: This invention relates to the use of bubble-driven flow to enhance the dissolution and distribution of alumina in an aluminum electrolysis cell operating with inert anodes. By harnessing the driving force of bubbles rising along the sides of a sloped anode to induce circulation in a cell and by using a group of anodes to amplify the effect, alumina distribution can be maintained close to or at saturation without formation of muck/sludge. Alumina fed through point feeders at specific locations can be distributed throughout the entire cell rather than sinking to the bottom of the cell below the feed location. For a given circulation pattern, feeder locations can be optimized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 28, 2003
    Assignee: Alcoa Inc.
    Inventors: R. Lee Troup, Gerald E. Carkin, Don R. Careatti
  • Patent number: 6436274
    Abstract: A non-carbon, metal-based slow-consumable anode of a cell for the electrowinning of aluminium self-forms during normal electrolysis an electrochemically-active oxide-based surface layer (20). The rate of formation (35) of the layer (20) is substantially equal to its rate of dissolution (30) at the surface layer/electrolyte interface (25) thereby maintaining its thickness substantially constant, forming a limited barrier controlling the oxidation rate (35). The anode (10) usually comprises an alloy of iron with at least one of nickel, copper, cobalt or zinc which during use forms an oxide surface layer (20) mainly containing ferrite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2002
    Inventors: Vittorio De Nora, Jean-Jacques Duruz
  • Patent number: 6436272
    Abstract: A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2002
    Assignee: Northwest Aluminum Technologies
    Inventors: Craig W. Brown, Patrick B. Frizzle
  • Patent number: 6409894
    Abstract: The object of the invention is an arrangement of an electrolysis plant for the production of aluminium using the Hall-Heroult process, with which it is possible to limit the pathway length of heavy flows, such as flows of liquid aluminium. According to the invention, the plant comprises: at least one liquid aluminium production zone (H) comprising electrolysis pots arranged in lines, specific operational support zones, including a zone (C) grouping together the supply and recycling installations for anode assemblies, a zone (B) grouping together the supply and recycling installations for electrolysis baths, and a zone (A) grouping together the liquid aluminium processing installations, transport means to convey so-called heavy intermediate products (such as liquid aluminium) between said operational zones, at least one transit zone (101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 110, 111, 112, 113) reserved for all or part of said transport means for the heavy intermediate products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: Aluminium Pechiney
    Inventor: Jean-Pierre Boucard
  • Patent number: 6402911
    Abstract: An apparatus for electrolytic production of magnesium includes a plurality of upright anode elements interspread with a plurality of cathode elements situated within at least one electrolysis compartment. At least one section, defined between two adjacent anodes and having an elongated loading inlet, is provided for receiving and melting of a substantially solid raw material. A gas discharging outlet is formed for discharging of chlorine gas developed at the plurality of anodes. A baffle is supported by the receiving anodes in the vicinity of the gas discharging outlet. The baffle prevents direct flow of a mixture of chlorine gas and fine dust particles resulted from loading of the solid raw material between the section and gas discharging outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: State Research And Design Institute Of Titanium
    Inventors: Igor V. Zabelin, Georgy M. Shehovtsov, Vladimir N. Deviatkin, Irina L. Sikorskaya, Alexander M. Tatakin, Tatiana V. Zabelina
  • Patent number: 6387229
    Abstract: There is disclosed an electroplating bath for depositing zinc/manganese alloys on a substrate characterized in that it comprises an aqueous bath free or substantially free of ammonium halide and of fluoroborate which is made up from 10-150 g/l, alkali metal salt, 30-90 g/l boric acid, 10-200 g/l water soluble zinc salt, 10-50 g/l water soluble manganese salt, 60-140 g/l alkali metal gluconate or tartrate and a base e.g. an alkali metal hydroxide to bring the pH to the range 6.1-7.1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2002
    Assignee: Enthone, Inc.
    Inventor: Wilhemus Maria Johannes Cornelius Verberne
  • Patent number: 6372099
    Abstract: A cell for the electrowinning of aluminium comprising one or more anodes, each having a metal-based anode substrate, comprising a metal core covered with an metal layer, an oxygen barrier layer, one or more intermediate layers and an iron layer. The anode substrate is covered with an electrochemically active iron oxide-based outside layer, particularly a hematite-based layer, which remains dimensionally stable during operation in a cell by maintaining in the electrolyte a sufficient concentration of iron species. The cell operating temperature is sufficiently low so the required concentration of iron species in the electrolyte is limited by the reduced solubility of iron species in the electrolyte at the operating temperature, limiting the contamination of the product aluminium by iron to an acceptable level. The iron oxide-based layer is an applied coating or an oxidised surface of a substrate, the surface of which contains iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Jean-Jacques Duruz, Vittorio de Nora
  • Patent number: 6365018
    Abstract: A non-carbon, metal-based, high temperature resistant, electrically conductive and electrochemically active anode of an aluminum production cell has a metal-based substrate having an adherent coating applied prior to its immersion into the electrolyte and start up of the electrolysis. The coating is obtainable from one or more layers applied from: a liquid solution, a dispersion or suspension in a liquid or a paste, a pasty or non-pasty slurry, and combinations thereof with or without one or more further applied layers, with or without heat treatment between two consecutively applied layers when at least two layers are applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventor: Vittorio de Nora
  • Patent number: 6358393
    Abstract: A cell for the production of aluminium by the electrolysis of an aluminium compound dissolved in a molten electrolyte, in which an outer mechanical structure forming an outer shell (21) houses therein one or more inner electrically-conductive cathode holder shells or plates (31) which contain a cathode mass (32) and is/are connected electrically to the busbar. The cathode mass (32) has an aluminium-wettable top surface (37), preferably at a slope forming a drained cathode. The inner cathode holder shell or shells (31) is/are separated from the outer shell (21) by an electric and thermic insulation (40), the cathode holder shell(s) (31) also serving to distribute current uniformly to the cathode mass (32). The or each cathode (30) formed by the cathode holder shell (31) and cathode mass (32) is removable from the cell as a unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2002
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Georges Berclaz, Vittorio de Nora