Perforated Or Foraminous Electrode Patents (Class 204/283)
  • Patent number: 10233550
    Abstract: A process for manufacturing a catalytic electrode includes depositing an electrocatalytic ink on a carrier, wherein the electrocatalytic ink includes an electrocatalytic material and a product polymerizable into a protonically conductive polymer. The process also includes solidifying the electrocatalytic ink so as to form an electrode wherein the composition of the product polymerizable into a protonically conductive polymer and its proportion in the ink is defined so that the electrode formed has a breaking strength greater than 1 MPa. The process further includes separating the electrode formed from the carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2019
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives
    Inventors: Rémi Vincent, Eric Mayousse
  • Patent number: 10026981
    Abstract: A method of improving the electrical performance of an operating fuel cell catalyst-containing cathode in a fuel cell connected to an electrical load by: reducing the flow of air to the cathode; disconnecting the load from the fuel cell; connecting a potentiostat to the fuel cell; cycling an applied voltage, current, or power to the fuel cell one or more times; disconnecting the potentiostat from the fuel cell; reconnecting the load to the fuel cell; and resuming the flow of air to the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Benjamin D. Gould, Karen Swider-Lyons, Olga A. Baturina
  • Patent number: 9255333
    Abstract: A high pressure proton exchange membrane based water electrolyzer system that may include a series of proton exchange membrane (PEM) cells that may be electrically coupled together and coupled to a proton exchange membrane to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that is spiral wound onto a conductive center post, wherein an innermost PEM cell of the MEA may be electrically connected with the conductive center post, or center electrode, and wherein an outermost PEM cell of the MEA may be electrically coupled to pressure vessel cylinder, or outer electrode. Each PEM cell may include an anode portion and a cathode portion separated by a portion of the PEM membrane. In addition, a non-permeable separator layer may also be spiral wound around the conductive center post and separates the wound portions of the PEM core.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2016
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: David B. Ouwerkerk, Nelson A. Kelly, Thomas L. Gibson
  • Patent number: 9005412
    Abstract: An exemplary electrolyzer includes an electrode plate assembly including a plurality of perforated electrode plates and electrically conductive busbars. The plurality of electrode plates includes one or more positive electrode plates interleaved with one or more negative electrode plates. Each electrode plate has a first aperture and a second aperture, the second aperture being larger than the first aperture and lined with a non-conductive grommet. The plurality of electrically conductive busbars includes a first positive conductive busbar and a first negative conductive busbar. Respective conductive busbars extend through the first aperture of corresponding positive and negative electrodes and through the non-conductive grommet of the second aperture of each corresponding negative and positive electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Hydro Genes Trans Inc.
    Inventor: Wen-Fu Pan
  • Patent number: 8778149
    Abstract: The invention relates to a synthetic diaphragm for chlor-alkali cells with improved energy consumption and gas separation characteristics. The diaphragm comprises a network of polymer fibers bound to a hydrophilic ceramic material containing zirconium chemically bound to hydroxyl groups. The ceramic material is obtained starting from ZrO2 by a process of hydration under vacuum which can be carried out directly in the cell by means of suitable equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2014
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventor: Giovanni Meneghini
  • Patent number: 8734626
    Abstract: An anode (3) and a cathode (5), interposing a solid polymer film (7), are disposed. While supplying purified water from a supply port (13a) of an anode chamber (13), wherein the anode (3) is disposed, and a supply port (15a) of a cathode chamber (15), wherein the cathode (5) is disposed, direct electric current is applied between the anode (3) and the cathode (5). As a result, ozone-water is discharged from an outlet port (13b) of the anode chamber (13). In such an electrolysis cell (1), a free-standing conductive diamond plate, formed by microwave plasma assisted CVD so as to have a thickness of 0.8 mm, is used as the anode (3). The diamond plate is provided with holes, having a diameter of 1 mm and disposed such that a center distance therebetween becomes 2 mm. Therefore, the electrolysis cell (1) can stably produce ozone without causing exfoliation of the anode (3), even when high voltage and large current are applied between the anode (3) and the cathode (5).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: Central Japan Railway Company
    Inventors: Kazuki Arihara, Akira Fujishima
  • Publication number: 20140131197
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide enrichment device includes first and second gas diffusion electrodes; an anion exchange membrane; and an electrolytic solution partitioned by the anion exchange membrane. The electrolytic solution contains solvent and solute, and the solute is dissolved to form a dissolved inorganic carbon containing carbonic acid, hydrogen carbonate ions, or carbonic acid ions. The oxygen is consumed by an oxygen reduction reaction on the first gas diffusion electrode, whereby, a dissolved inorganic carbon is formed by a dissolution and ionization reaction of carbon dioxide in the solvent. The dissolved inorganic carbon from the solute or the dissolved inorganic carbon is transported to the second gas diffusion electrode through the anion exchange membrane, and oxygen is formed from the solvent near the second gas diffusion electrode by an oxidation reaction of the solvent on the second gas diffusion electrode, and carbon dioxide is formed from the dissolved inorganic carbon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2012
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Inventors: Michio Suzuka, Ryo Kamai, Shuji Nakanishi, Takeyuki Yamaki, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Adam Heller, Yong Zhao
  • Patent number: 8685594
    Abstract: A cathode catalyst for a fuel cell includes a carrier, and an active material including M selected from the group consisting of Ru, Pt, Rh, and combinations thereof, and Ch selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and combinations thereof, with the proviso that the active material is not RuSe when the carrier is C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Alexey AlexandrovichSerov, Chan Kwak, Myoung-Ki Min, Si-Hyun Lee
  • Publication number: 20130240372
    Abstract: An oxygen-consuming electrode for use in chloralkali electrolysis, having a novel coating, the production thereof, an electrolysis cell comprising the oxygen-consuming electrode and parameters for the startup and shutdown of the electrolysis apparatus, compliance with which prevents damage to the cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2013
    Publication date: September 19, 2013
    Applicant: BAYER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY GMBH
    Inventors: Andreas BULAN, Jürgen KINTRUP
  • Publication number: 20130153437
    Abstract: A cathode assembly, a system including the cathode assembly, and method of using the assembly and system are disclosed. The cathode assembly includes a conductive element and a barrier element proximate the conductive element. The assembly, system and method provide for improved metal powder formation. The system may be stationary or portable.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2011
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Applicant: FREEPORT-MCMORAN CORPORATION
    Inventors: Scot P. Sandoval, Gerald Moen, Jason M. Morgan, Mark Peabody
  • Publication number: 20130101919
    Abstract: Provided are a MEA, a fuel cell, and a gas detoxification apparatus that allow at high efficiency a general electrochemical reaction causing gas decomposition or the like and are excellent in cost efficiency; and a method for producing a MEA. In this MEA 7, a porous base 3, a porous anode 2, an ion-conductive solid electrolyte 1, and a porous cathode 5 are stacked. The anode 2 or the cathode 5 is in contact with a surface of the porous base 3. The porous anode 2 includes a metal deposit body 21 having catalysis for gas decomposition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 27, 2011
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES, LTD.
    Inventors: Chihiro Hiraiwa, Masatoshi Majima, Tetsuya Kuwabara, Tomoyuki Awazu
  • Publication number: 20130087465
    Abstract: An electrode of an electrolysis cell for gas-producing electrochemical processes, which includes a plurality of horizontal lamella elements which in the manner of a flat C-profile consist of a flat central part and one or more flank parts, where one or more transition regions of any shape are arranged between the flat central part and the one or more flank parts, where the lamella elements have a plurality of through-openings, where the lamella elements have a flat surface without structural raised regions and depressions and the flat central part has a plurality of through-openings which are arranged in rows and arranged diagonally to one another.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Publication date: April 11, 2013
    Applicant: THYSSENKRUPP UHDE GMBH
    Inventor: THYSSENKRUPP UHDE GMBH
  • Publication number: 20130089810
    Abstract: Provided is a gas decomposition component that employs an electrochemical reaction to reduce the running cost and can have high treatment performance. A gas decomposition component includes a cylindrical-body MEA 7 including an anode 2 on an inner-surface side, a cathode 5 on an outer-surface side, and a solid electrolyte 1; and a porous metal body 11s that is inserted on the inner-surface side of the cylindrical-body MEA and is electrically connected to the anode 2, wherein a metal mesh sheet 11a is disposed between the anode 2 and the porous metal body 11s. Another gas decomposition component includes the cylindrical MEA 7 and silver-paste-coated wiring 12g formed on the cathode 5, wherein the silver-paste-coated wiring 12g is a porous body.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 6, 2011
    Publication date: April 11, 2013
    Applicant: SUMITOMO ELECTRIC INDUSTRIES, LTD.
    Inventors: Chihiro Hiraiwa, Masatoshi Majima, Tetsuya Kuwabara, Toshiyuki Kuramoto, Toshio Ueda, Tomoyuki Awazu
  • Publication number: 20130032491
    Abstract: This invention is to provide a membrane-electrode assembly, an electrolytic cell using the same, a method and an apparatus for producing ozone water, a method for disinfection and a method for wastewater or waste fluid treatment, by using which allow electrolysis reaction products or decomposition products to be produced at a high efficiency, channel pressure drop to be minimized, and the apparatus to be designed compact in size without sacrificing the production capacity. This invention relates to a membrane-electrode assembly, comprising an anode having a plurality of through-holes of 0.1 mm or more in diameter; a cathode having a plurality of through-holes of 0.1 mm or more in diameter at the same sites as in the anode; and a solid polymer electrolyte membrane coated on one face or the entire face of at least one of the anode and the cathode with the through-holes being maintained, wherein the anode, the solid polymer electrolyte membrane and the cathode are tightly adhered.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2010
    Publication date: February 7, 2013
    Applicants: PERMELEC ELECTRODE LTD., AQUAECOS LTD.
    Inventors: Hideo Nitta, Masashi Hosonuma
  • Publication number: 20130026096
    Abstract: This invention is to provide a membrane-electrode assembly, an electrolytic cell using the same, a method and an apparatus for producing ozone water, a method for disinfection and a method for wastewater or waste fluid treatment, by using which electrolysis reaction products or decomposition products obtained at the anode are produced at a high efficiency; channel pressure drop is minimized; and the apparatus is designed in compact size without sacrificing the production capacity. This invention relates to a membrane-electrode assembly comprising a solid polymer electrolyte membrane having a cation exchange membrane, an anode and a cathode tightly adhered to the respective surfaces of the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, with a plurality of through-holes with 0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 29, 2010
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicants: PERMELEC ELECTRODE LTD., AQUAECOS LTD.
    Inventors: Hideo Nitta, Masashi Hosonuma
  • Patent number: 8343321
    Abstract: The invention relates to membrane-electrode assemblies for the electrolysis of water (electrolysis MEAs), which contain an ion-conducting membrane having a front and rear side; a first catalyst layer on the front side; a first gas diffusion layer on the front side; a second catalyst layer on the rear side, and a second gas diffusion layer on the rear side. The first gas diffusion layer has smaller planar dimensions than the ion-conducting membrane, whereas the second gas diffusion layer has essentially the same planar dimensions as the ion-conducting membrane (“semi-coextensive design”). The MEAs also comprise an unsupported free membrane surface that yields improved adhesion properties of the sealing material. The invention also relates to a method for producing the MEA products. Pressure-resistant, gastight and cost-effective membrane-electrode assemblies are obtained, that are used in PEM water electrolyzers, regenerative fuel cells or in other electrochemical devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2013
    Assignee: Umicore AG & Co. KG
    Inventors: Ralf Zuber, Klaus Schaack, Sandra Wittpahl, Holger Dziallas, Peter Seipel, Pia Braun, Lutz Rohland
  • Patent number: 8323463
    Abstract: A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Praxair Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Gervase Maxwell Christie, Jamie Robyn Wilson, Bart Antonie van Hassel
  • Patent number: 8277623
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a conductive diamond electrode, comprising a substrate having a plurality of convex and concave part disposed over the entire surface of the conductive diamond electrode, and a diamond film coated on the surface of said substrate, wherein the width of each convex part of said convex and concave part is in a range from 0.2 mm to 1 mm. The present invention can provide a conductive diamond electrode, applying a thin film of conductive diamond and a thick substrate, being less expensive than a self-supported type conductive diamond electrode and also having mechanical strength enough to be used in the zero-gap electrolysis, functioning stably for a long time with smooth water supply or gas liberation, and an ozone generator using the conductive diamond electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaaki Kato, Rie Kawaguchi
  • Publication number: 20120234676
    Abstract: The invention relates to a cathode for electrolytic processes provided with a catalytic coating based on ruthenium crystallites with highly controlled size falling in a range of 1-10 nm. The coating can be produced by physical vapour deposition of a ruthenium or ruthenium oxide layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 1, 2012
    Publication date: September 20, 2012
    Applicant: Industrie De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Giovanni Meneghini, Corrado Mojana, Felix Prado
  • Publication number: 20120193242
    Abstract: A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) comprises substantially concentric and tubular-shaped layers of a cathode, an anode and an ion-exchange membrane. The MEAs of the invention can be used in an electrochemical cell, which comprises the following layers which are tubular-shaped, arranged substantially concentrically, and listed from the inner layer to the outer layer; (i) a cylindrical core; (ii) one of the electrodes; (iii) a membrane; (iv) the other of the electrodes; and (v) an outer cylindrical sleeve.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 15, 2010
    Publication date: August 2, 2012
    Inventor: Frederic Marchal
  • Patent number: 8197658
    Abstract: In order to solve various problems such as a reduction in a paint resin with the progress of electrodeposition coating treatment and remelting of a coating film or the occurrence of pinholes caused by an increased concentration of an electrolyte as a result of the reduction, upsizing of a hollow electrode with a membrane for electrodeposition coating combined with a barrier membrane (e.g., an ion exchange membrane) and an increase in the number of components should be avoided. In order to realize this, a barrier membrane 20 such as an ion exchange membrane is attached to the exterior surface of an electrode main body 10, which is in a hollow state made of a conductive material and configured so as to allow a liquid to pass through freely between the inside and outside of the electrode serving as a support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignees: Daiso Co., Ltd., AGC Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shouhei Matsui, Yasushi Yoshida, Nobuyoshi Shoji, Yukio Matsumura
  • Patent number: 8152974
    Abstract: The invention relates to a porous electrode used in an electrochemical cell, containing a carrier and/or catalytic agent, which is characterized by that it consists of two or more layers with different average pore sizes, out of which layers the contact layer with the smallest average pore size is in contact with the membrane, and one or more supporting layers with a greater average pore size are linked to the other side of this contact layer. Furthermore, the invention relates to a procedure for the manufacturing of such electrodes and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2012
    Assignee: ThalesNano Zrt.
    Inventors: Ferenc Darvas, Dániel Szalay, Lajos Gödörházy
  • Patent number: 8147663
    Abstract: A scaffold holding one or more ion-conductive ceramic membranes for use in an electrochemical cell is described. Generally, the scaffold includes a thermoplastic plate defining one or more orifices. Each orifice is typically defined by a first, second, and third aperture, wherein the second aperture is disposed between the first and third apertures. The diameter of the second aperture can be larger than the diameters of the first and third apertures. While at an operating temperature the diameter of the ceramic membrane is larger than the diameters of the first and third apertures, heating the scaffold to a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time causes the third aperture's diameter to become larger than the membrane's diameter. Thus, heating the scaffold may allow the membrane to be inserted into the orifice. Cooling the scaffold can then cause the third aperture's diameter to shrink and trap the membrane within the orifice.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: Cekamatec, Inc
    Inventors: Scott Suarez, Steven Matthew Quist
  • Patent number: 8142625
    Abstract: An electrochemical gas detector includes a superhydrophobic, nanostructured gas porous electrode. The electrode exhibits a physically disrupted porous region. In an embodiment, electrode material can be deposited around a templating material which is removed before use. Such electrodes exhibit repeatable and reproducible characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: Life Safety Distribution AG
    Inventor: Keith Francis Edwin Pratt
  • Publication number: 20120067744
    Abstract: There is provided a sample preparation device and method for preparing a sample of liquid for detection of impurities. First (40) and second (38) electrodes are provided, located for immersion in a liquid under test. A semipermeable membrane (42) is positioned to protect the first electrode (40) from a body of liquid under test (32). The semipermeable membrane allows the liquid under test to pass therethrough to reach the first electrode, while preventing solids carried in the liquid from reaching the first electrode, the first electrode being positioned to affect the liquid under test in the vicinity of a sensor (36). Particular embodiments feature a hydrophilic membrane to protect the electrodes from suspended solids in the sample, a thin electrode assembly to achieve a faster response and the addition of a heater for temperature control to achieve consistent detection conditions and improved anti-fouling properties.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 1, 2011
    Publication date: March 22, 2012
    Inventor: David Robert Vincent
  • Patent number: 8133306
    Abstract: A gas diffusion substrate includes a non-woven network of carbon fibres, the carbon fibres are graphitised but the non-woven network has not been subjected to a graphitisation process. A mixture of graphitic particles and hydrophobic polymer is disposed within the network. The longest dimension of at least 90% of the graphitic particles is less than 100 ?m. A process for manufacturing gas diffusion substrates includes depositing a slurry of graphitised carbon fibres onto a porous bed forming a wet fibre network, preparing a suspension of graphitic particles and hydrophobic polymer, applying onto, and pulling the suspension into, the network, and drying and firing the network. Another process includes mixing a first slurry of graphitic particles and hydrophobic polymer with a second slurry of graphitised carbon fibres and liquid forming a third slurry, depositing the third slurry onto a porous bed forming a fibre-containing layer, and drying and firing the layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2012
    Assignees: Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company, Technical Fibre Products Limited
    Inventors: George Thomas Quayle, Julia Margaret Rowe, Jonathan David Brereton Sharman, Julian Andrew Siodlak, Nigel Julian Walker, Andrew James Fletcher
  • Publication number: 20120012457
    Abstract: The invention relates to membrane-electrode assemblies for the electrolysis of water (electrolysis MEAs), which contain an ion-conducting membrane having a front and rear side; a first catalyst layer on the front side; a first gas diffusion layer on the front side; a second catalyst layer on the rear side, and a second gas diffusion layer on the rear side. The first gas diffusion layer has smaller planar dimensions than the ion-conducting membrane, whereas the second gas diffusion layer has essentially the same planar dimensions as the ion-conducting membrane (“semi-coextensive design”). The MEAs also comprise an unsupported free membrane surface that yields improved adhesion properties of the sealing material. The invention also relates to a method for producing the MEA products. Pressure-resistant, gastight and cost-effective membrane-electrode assemblies are obtained, that are used in PEM water electrolyzers, regenerative fuel cells or in other electrochemical devices.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 13, 2011
    Publication date: January 19, 2012
    Applicant: UMICORE AG & CO. KG
    Inventors: Ralf ZUBER, Sandra WITTPAHL, Klaus SCHAACK, Holger DZIALLAS, Peter SEIPEL, Pia BRAUN, Lutz ROHLAND
  • Patent number: 8088261
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2012
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventors: Qinbai Fan, Renxuan Liu
  • Patent number: 8029654
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a complex material in which an ion conduction film is curved and deformed when a potential difference is applied, which is operated at small electric power, has a large deformation amount, quick response performances, large degree of freedom in shape, and is easy in control of deformation, while having strength and durability necessary for practical use and being excellent in an economical aspect. A conductive cloth (preferably having stretchability), which is made conductive through plating of metal on a cloth or metal complex implantation, is joined as an electrode to both surfaces of the ion conduction film (the film in which an ion exchange film or ion liquid is immersed) made of a fluororesin and the like. When the potential difference is applied, the ion conduction film is deformed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2011
    Assignee: Seiren Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Susumu Takagi, Masakazu Nomura, Eiichi Shoji, Kazuyuki Murase
  • Patent number: 8021799
    Abstract: The embodiments generally relate to a high performance ceramic anode which will increase flexibility in the types of fuels that may be used with the anode. The embodiments further relate to high-performance, direct-oxidation SOFC utilizing the anodes, providing improved electro-catalytic activity and redox stability. The SOFCs are capable of use with strategic fuels and other hydrocarbon fuels. Also provided are methods of making the high-performance anodes and solid oxide fuel cells comprising the anodes exhibiting improved electronic conductivity and electrochemical activity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania
    Inventors: Raymond J. Gorte, John M. Vohs, Michael D. Gross
  • Patent number: 7964068
    Abstract: The present invention provides: a membrane-electrode assembly having a first electrode having a shape of a rod-form or a cylindrical-form, a strip-form diaphragm covering the periphery of the first electrode, and a second electrode disposed on a surface of the strip-form diaphragm; an electrolytic unit containing the membrane-electrode assembly; an electrolytic water ejecting apparatus containing the electrolytic unit; and a method of sterilization using the membrane-electrode assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignees: Permelec Electrode Ltd., Institute of National Colleges of Technology, Japan
    Inventors: Noriyuki Kitaori, Kota Sekido, Genzo Yamane, Katsumi Hamaguchi, Hozumi Tanaka, Yoshinori Nishiki, Tsuneto Furuta
  • Patent number: 7951274
    Abstract: A diamond electrode includes a conductive silicon substrate having a plurality of pores. The diamond electrode also includes a conductive diamond covering the conductive silicon substrate. The inner wall surfaces of the plurality of pores are at an angle of 60° to 85° with respect to a substrate of the conductive silicon substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2011
    Assignee: Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Corp.
    Inventors: Shigeru Yoshida, Katsuhito Yoshida, Toshiya Takahashi, Takahisa Iguchi, Fuminori Higuchi
  • Patent number: 7922879
    Abstract: An ion exchange membrane electrolyzer is provided, which is characterized in that a current is passed through at least one electrode in contact with a plate spring member formed at a portion of an electrode retainer member parallel with a flat plate form of electrode chamber partition, wherein said electrode retainer member is joined at a belt junction to the flat plate form of electrode chamber partition with a space between them, said electrode is provided with a floating mount means at a portion thereof other than a portion of contact with the plate spring member, and said floating mount means is provided with an engaging portion that is engaged with a fixed engaging member to enable said electrode to move in a perpendicular direction to an electrode surface and in a range of displacement of said plate spring member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2011
    Assignees: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd., Tosoh Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Kodama, Shinichiro Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 7914652
    Abstract: The present invention provides an oxygen gas diffusion cathode for sodium chloride electrolysis comprising: a porous conductive substrate comprising silver, a hydrophobic material and a carbon material; a catalyst comprising silver and palladium, coated on the porous conductive substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2011
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yuji Yamada, Yuki Izawa, Yoshinori Nishiki
  • Patent number: 7909969
    Abstract: A gas diffusion layer with a micro protective layer is utilized in the electrochemical cells. The cell mainly includes end plates, current collectors, flow field plates, gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers, a proton exchange membrane and a circuit unit. When the cell functions as a fuel cell, hydrogen reacts with oxygen to generate electricity and water. Reversely, when the cell functions as a water electrolysis cell, water was decomposed electrolytically to produce hydrogen and oxygen gases. In this manner, the present invention particularly has the gas diffusion layer to be coated with a micro protective layer so as to prevent the gas diffusion layer from being corroded by active oxygen species generated within the oxygen electrode under the catalysis during water electrolysis operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Assignee: General Optics Corporation
    Inventors: Wen-Hui Yang, Fu-Chen Kuo, Chao-Yang Liu, Chi-Chia Fan
  • Patent number: 7892408
    Abstract: A cathodic gas diffusion electrode for the electrochemical production of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cathodic gas diffusion electrode comprises an electrically conductive gas diffusion substrate and a cathodic electrocatalyst layer supported on the gas diffusion substrate. A novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer comprises a cathodic electrocatalyst, a substantially water-insoluble quaternary ammonium compound, a fluorocarbon polymer hydrophobic agent and binder, and a perfluoronated sulphonic acid polymer. An electrochemical cell using the novel cathodic electrocatalyst layer has been shown to produce an aqueous solution having between 8 and 14 weight percent hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, such electrochemical cells have shown stable production of hydrogen peroxide solutions over 1000 hours of operation including numerous system shutdowns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: Lynntech, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher P. Rhodes, Charles L. K. Tennakoon, Waheguru Pal Singh, Kelvin C. Anderson
  • Patent number: 7850832
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an inert, non-asbestos separator and method of making same, the separator comprising an inorganic/polymer fibrid and agglomeration composite material containing from about 5 weight percent to about 70 weight percent of organic halocarbon polymer fibers together with from about 30 wt percent to about 95 weight percent of a finely divided non-organic particulate, which non-organic particulate is firmly bound in said composite fibrids and agglomerates; a natural gum thickening agent in an amount to provide a viscosity of about 6270 to about 590 cP at 0.22 sec?1; and an inert inorganic particulate powder whereby the inert inorganic particulate remains unbound from the inorganic/polymer fibrid and agglomeration composite, the inorganic particulate powder having a mean particle size of not greater than 1.0 ?m and being present in an amount to provide a ratio of polymer fiber composite to unbound inorganic particulate in a range from about 1 to 25.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nick J. Tomba, Michael S. Moats, Richard L. Romine, Thomas F. Florkiewicz, Douglas J. Waskovich, Edward S. Kazimir
  • Publication number: 20100276280
    Abstract: In order to solve various problems such as a reduction in a paint resin with the progress of electrodeposition coating treatment and remelting of a coating film or the occurrence of pinholes caused by an increased concentration of an electrolyte as a result of the reduction, upsizing of a hollow electrode with a membrane for electrodeposition coating combined with a barrier membrane (e.g., an ion exchange membrane) and an increase in the number of components should be avoided. In order to realize this, a barrier membrane 20 such as an ion exchange membrane is attached to the exterior surface of an electrode main body 10, which is in a hollow state made of a conductive material and configured so as to allow a liquid to pass through freely between the inside and outside of the electrode serving as a support.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 13, 2007
    Publication date: November 4, 2010
    Applicants: Daiso Co., Ltd., AGC Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shouhei Matsui, Yasushi Yoshida, Nobuyoshi Shoji, Yukio Matsumura
  • Publication number: 20100224506
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for complex treatment of contaminated liquids are provided, by which contaminants are extracted from the liquid. The substances to be extracted may be metallic, non-metallic, organic, inorganic, dissolved, or in suspension. The treatment apparatus includes at least one mechanical filter used to filter the liquid solution, a separator device used to remove organic impurities and oils from the mechanically filtered liquid, and an electroextraction device that removes heavy metals from the separated liquid. After treatment within the treatment apparatus, metal ion concentrations within the liquid may be reduced to their residual values of less than 0.1 milligrams per liter. A Method of complex treatment of a contaminated liquid includes using the separator device to remove inorganic and non-conductive substances prior to electroextraction of metals to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment and provide a reusable liquid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 9, 2008
    Publication date: September 9, 2010
    Inventors: David Livshits, Lester Teichner
  • Patent number: 7785453
    Abstract: An electrode for electrochemical processes for gas production, which in the installed state is located parallel and opposite to an ion exchange membrane and consists of a multitude of horizontal lamellar elements which are structured and three-dimensionally shaped and are in contact with only one surface with the membrane, wherein the lamellar elements have grooves and holes, the major part of the holes being placed in the grooves and the surfaces of such holes or part thereof are located in the grooves or extend into the grooves whereby the holes are ideally placed in the contact area of the respective lamellar element with the membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Uhdenora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Karl Heinz Dulle, Roland Beckmann, Randolf Kiefer, Peter Woltering
  • Patent number: 7785454
    Abstract: A gas diffusion electrode comprising an electrically conductive web, a non-catalyzed gas diffusion layer comprising at least one electroconductive filler and at least one binder, and a noble metal coating obtained by subjecting an electrically conductive web to a first ion beam having an energy not higher than 500 eV, then to a second beam having an energy of at least 500 eV, containing the ions of at least one noble metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: BASF Fuel Cell GmbH
    Inventors: Andrea F. Gulla, Robert J. Allen, Emory De Castro, Enrico Ramunni
  • Patent number: 7763152
    Abstract: There is provided an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer, wherein at least one electrode is energized by coming into contact with plate spring bodies formed on the electrode side of an electrode holding member forming a space with an electrode chamber partition bonded to a plate-like electrode chamber partition by a strip-like bonded portion, the electrode has a connected portion extending from a plane parallel to the ion exchange membrane toward the electrode holding member side in a direction perpendicular to the electrode plane, the connected portion is provided with an engaging opening extending in a direction perpendicular to the electrode plane, and the engaging opening engages with an engaging member, permitting the electrode to move in a direction perpendicular to the electrode plane within the displacement range of the plate spring bodies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2010
    Assignees: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd., Tosoh Corporation
    Inventors: Minoru Suzuki, Masakazu Kameda
  • Publication number: 20100167175
    Abstract: A composition useful in electrodes provides higher power capability through the use of nanoparticle catalysts present in the composition. Nanoparticles of transition metals are preferred such as manganese, nickel, cobalt, iron, palladium, ruthenium, gold, silver, and lead, as well as alloys thereof, and respective oxides. These nanoparticle catalysts can substantially replace or eliminate platinum as a catalyst for certain electrochemical reactions. Electrodes, used as anodes, cathodes, or both, using such catalysts have applications relating to metal-air batteries, hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), direct oxidation fuel cells (DOFCs), and other air or oxygen breathing electrochemical systems as well as some liquid diffusion electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2010
    Publication date: July 1, 2010
    Applicant: QUANTUMSPHERE, INC.
    Inventors: Robert Brian Dopp, Kimberly McGrath, R. Douglas Carpenter
  • Patent number: 7727927
    Abstract: Activation of a tungsten-containing catalyst using water in a PEM-type fuel cell is described as well as cathode operation of the tungsten-containing catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2010
    Assignee: Global Tungsten & Powders Corp.
    Inventor: Joel B. Christian
  • Publication number: 20100126850
    Abstract: An electrode comprising: a least a first, preferably cylindrical, glass body, in which at least a first chamber is formed; at least a first electrolyte, which is located in the first chamber; at least a first potential-forming element, which is arranged in the chamber, and forms a first potential when contacted by the first electrolyte; at least a first closing element, which is axially fixed in the first chamber for enclosing the first electrolyte and the first potential-forming element and sealedly closes the first chamber; wherein, additionally, the first closing element is conductive, the first potential-forming element conductingly contacts the first closing element, and the electrode furthermore includes at least a first electrical conductor, which electrically contacts the first closing element on the side of the first closing element facing away from the first electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 15, 2007
    Publication date: May 27, 2010
    Applicant: Endress + Hauser Conducta Gesellschaft fur Mess- und Regeltechnik mbH - Co. KG
    Inventors: Reiner Franzheld, Katrin Scholz, Ingrid Wunderlich
  • Patent number: 7708867
    Abstract: The present invention provides a gas diffusion electrode having: an electrode substrate; and a catalyst layer containing a hydrophilic catalyst and a hydrophobic binder, which is carried on the electrode substrate, wherein the electrode substrate contains at least one carbon material selected from a carbon cloth, a carbon paper, a foamed carbon material, and a sintered carbon material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2010
    Assignee: Permelec Electrode Ltd.
    Inventors: Yuji Yamada, Takeshi Kasuga, Yoshinori Nishiki, Tsuneto Furuta
  • Patent number: 7704355
    Abstract: The invention describes an improved anode suitable for being installed in chlor-alkali electrolysis cells intercalated to cathode elements provided with a diaphragm. In operation, the anode of the invention is in direct contact with the diaphragm so as to form mutually equivalent vertical channels defined by the surfaces of the plates, of the supporting sheets and of the diaphragm, allowing a predefined and controlled upward motion of the chlorine-brine biphasic mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Industrie De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventor: Giovanni Meneghini
  • Patent number: 7691242
    Abstract: The present invention describes an electrochemical half-cell, comprising a gas space, an electrolyte space and a gas diffusion electrode in the form of a cathode or anode. The gas diffusion electrode separates the gas space from the electrolyte space and comprises an electrically conductive substrate and an electrochemically active coating. The gas diffusion electrode includes a coating-free edge region and is connected to a support structure in the coating-free edge region via an electrically conductive plate, which covers at least the coating-free edge region as well as a coated edge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2010
    Assignee: Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Fritz Gestermann, Peter Fabian
  • Publication number: 20100038243
    Abstract: Nanopore based ion-selective electrodes and methods of their manufacture as well as methods for their use are disclosed and described. The nanopore based ion-selective electrode can include a pore being present in a solid material and having a nanosize opening in the solid material, a metal conductor disposed inside the pore opposite the opening in the solid material, a reference electrode material contacting said metal conductor and disposed inside the pore, a conductive composition in contact with the reference electrode and disposed in the pore, and an ion-selective membrane. The ion-selective membrane can be configured to isolate the metal conductor, reference electrode material, and conductive composition together within the pore.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2007
    Publication date: February 18, 2010
    Inventors: Henry S. White, Ryan J. White, Richard B. Brown, Hakhyun Nam, Jun Ho Shim
  • Publication number: 20090301871
    Abstract: The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 10, 2008
    Publication date: December 10, 2009
    Applicant: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Guillermo Daniel Zappi, Kenneth Paul Zarnoch, Christian Andrew Huntley, Dana Ray Swalla