Organic Material Prepared, Recovered, Or Treated Patents (Class 204/541)
  • Patent number: 10836695
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for treating a glycerol solution comprising fatty acid soaps obtained in a biodiesel production process, to obtain a glycerol enriched phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2020
    Assignee: A & C FREEMAN
    Inventor: Andrew Freeman
  • Patent number: 8940146
    Abstract: A device for electro membrane extraction has a syringe holder adapted to hold a syringe having an acceptor solution, and a sample vial holder adapted to hold a sample vial having a vial cap, where the vial cap includes an inside funnel to be equipped with a prewetted hollow fiber membrane having a tube like shape sealed at the end opposite the funnel and forming a lumen, and steering guides for at least two electrodes, a first electrode to be immersed in a donor solution placed in the sample vial, a second electrode to be immersed, through the funnel in the vial cap, into the lumen of the hollow fiber membrane, and a positioning device for sliding the first electrode in and out of the donor solution in the sample vial and for sliding the second electrode in and out of the lumen of the hollow fiber membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: Greibrokk & Trones Septech AS
    Inventors: Roger Trones, Trond Lovli
  • Publication number: 20140027285
    Abstract: A process for purifying polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers (PGDE) based absorbent (known as Selexol®) having acidic contaminants and salts thereof, this process being particularly useful in an acid gas removal loop process (known as Selexol® process). A base, such as ammonium hydroxide (NH3OH), is added to the absorbent to partly of fully convert the acid into simple salts. The salts are removed in an electrodialysis cell. The base can be added directly to the absorbent either from a fresh chemical feed or as base contained in the re-generator's generator's reflux stream. Alternatively the base can be added directly into the electrodialysis unit. The solution is diluted before electrodialysis. The absorbent can be simultaneously diluted and neutralized using reflux from the regeneration section that contains dissolved ammonia. The purified solution can be used again to remove carbon dioxide, hydrogen suphide, sulfur dioxide, mercaptans and other acid gases from a gas stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 10, 2012
    Publication date: January 30, 2014
    Applicant: ELECTROSEP TECHNOLOGIES INC.
    Inventor: Paul Parisi
  • Publication number: 20130277221
    Abstract: The invention relates to industrial preparation of contrast agents, and further to an improved process for the purification of contrast agents. In particular, it relates to a process for reducing the salt content of compositions comprising an MR contrast agent or an X-ray contrast agent, such as a non-ionic iodinated monomeric compound or a non-ionic iodinated dimeric compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2011
    Publication date: October 24, 2013
    Applicant: GE HEALTHCARE AS
    Inventor: Aslaug Birkeland
  • Patent number: 8551312
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the production of an amino acid having at least one secondary or tertiary amino group and three or more carboxyl groups or its salt with less than an equivalent of alkaline metal based on the number of carboxyl groups, said process comprising reducing alkali metal ions from an aqueous solution of an alkali metal salt of an amino acid having at least one secondary or tertiary amino group and three or more carboxyl groups and acidifying the amino carboxylate starting material by first performing a chemical acidification step using an organic or inorganic acid to get a compound in which at least one of the groups is protonated, and in a subsequent step further acidifying the amino carboxylate starting material and reducing alkali metal ions from an aqueous solution of the partially acidified alkali metal salt of the amino acid having at least one secondary or tertiary amino group and three or more carboxyl groups by electrodialysis, wherein the electrodialysis is performed
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: Akzo Nobel N.V.
    Inventors: Martin Heus, Hans Lammers, Arie Volmer
  • Patent number: 8317991
    Abstract: Device and Process for isolating, purifying, concentrating and/or enriching at least one organic compound by electrokinetic migration through liquid membranes by use of an electronic potential and chambers with a preset pH value is described in the present application. The liquid membranes contain an organic solvent capable of transporting an ionized form of said at least one organic compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Inventors: Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard, Knut Einar Rasmussen
  • Patent number: 8241482
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a process for recovering acids from mixtures containing them, in particular organic acids and amino acids, such as acids produced by fermentation in a fermentation broth. The process of the invention comprises contacting a loaded extractant with a solution containing hydroxide ions in the presence of at least one cathode and at least one anode, wherein said hydroxide ions are produced by using said cathode, whereby said acid is converted to its anionic form, by which it can be removed from said extractant and can migrate in the direction of the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignee: Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast-natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek TNO
    Inventors: Joost Van Erkel, Earl Lawrence Vincent Goetheer
  • Patent number: 8142633
    Abstract: A treatment system and method for continuous deionization of a biologically derived feed stream includes a plurality of electrodialysis units (3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) arranged in stages along a treatment line, and stages are controlled such that the feed stream attains a certain quality before entering the next stage. The feed and concentrate streams move in generally opposite sense along the line, matching fluid characteristics of dilute and concentrate cells. The treatment line has two or more stages. Systems may have phased staging operations, and cell constructions may adapt the electrodialysis units for enhanced processing of difficult process fluids. A controller sets operating potentials in different electrical stages, and simple control parameters optimize ion removal and current efficiency without polarization of the fluid. The invention also includes phased staging of reversal operation, and cell constructions or fillings that adapt the treatment cells for enhanced processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: GE Ionics, Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce Batchelder, Li Zhang, William W. Carson
  • Publication number: 20090308745
    Abstract: A system and process for enhancing total organic carbon (“TOC”) removal from raw, untreated water while maintaining optimum membrane filter performance. The present invention overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art water filtration systems by controlling the pH level of the water, prior to the water being directed through said membrane filter, so that the particulate charge of the water aligns with the electromagnetic surface charge of membrane filter. Maintaining the particulate charge of the water within an optimum charge window for the particular membrane filter enhances the membrane filter's performance by decreasing the fouling rate of the membrane filter.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 21, 2009
    Publication date: December 17, 2009
    Inventor: Gregg A. McLeod
  • Publication number: 20090178928
    Abstract: Processes for desalting glycerol-rich solutions or process streams using electrodialysis are provided. The glycerol-rich process streams are typically byproducts from the production of biodiesel. Following electrodialysis, the resulting aqueous salt solution is placed in a water splitting cell to recover the acid and base components of the salt. These acid and base components, in turn, can be reused in other processes, such as biodiesel production.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 30, 2008
    Publication date: July 16, 2009
    Applicant: Archer-Daniels-Midland Company
    Inventors: Jeremie Ray GROOS, Ahmad K. Hilaly, Krishnamurthy Mani, Rishi Shukla
  • Patent number: 7544278
    Abstract: The invention includes novel anion exchange membranes formed by in situ polymerization of at least one monomer, polymer or copolymer on a woven support membrane and their methods of formation. The woven support membrane is preferably a woven PVC membrane. The invention also includes novel cation exchange membranes with or without woven support membranes and their methods of formation. The invention encompasses a process for using the membranes in electrodialysis of ionic solutions and in particular industrial effluents or brackish water or seawater. The electrodialysis process need not include a step to remove excess ions prior to electrodialysis and produces less waste by-product and/or by-products which can be recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: Seventy-Seventh Meridian Corporation, LLC
    Inventors: Tejraj Aminabhavi, Padmakar V. Kulkarni, Mahadevappa Y. Kariduraganavar
  • Patent number: 7217349
    Abstract: The invention pertains to a method of separating multivalent ions and lactate ions from a fermentation broth comprising a multivalent ion lactate salt by using an electrodialysis or electrolysis apparatus, comprising the steps of introducing the broth wherein the multivalent ion concentration is at least 0.1 mole/l, the lactate ion concentration is less than 300 g/l, and less than 10 mole % of the lactate ion are other negatively charged ions, into a first compartment of the electrodialysis or electrolysis apparatus, which compartment is limited by an anion-selective or non-selective membrane and a cathode, and wherein the multivalent ion is converted to obtain a residual stream comprising the hydroxide of the multivalent ion, and the lactate ion is transported through the anion-selective or non-selective membrane into a second compartment limited by the anion-selective or non-selective membrane and an anode, after which the lactate ion is neutralized to lactic acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2007
    Assignee: Purac Biochem B.V.
    Inventors: Peter Baets, Willem Jacob Groot
  • Patent number: 7141154
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for continuously making an organic ester from a lower alcohol and an organic acid is disclosed. An organic acid or salt is introduced or produced in an electrode ionization (EDI) stack with a plurality of reaction chambers each formed from a porous solid ion exchange resin wafer interleaved between anion exchange membranes or an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane or an anion exchange membrane and a bipolar exchange membranes. At least some reaction chambers are esterification chambers and/or bioreactor chambers and/or chambers containing an organic acid or salt. A lower alcohol in the esterification chamber reacts with an anion to form an organic ester and water with at least some of the water splitting with the ions leaving the chamber to drive the reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2006
    Assignee: UChicago Argonne LLC
    Inventors: YuPo J. Lin, Michael Henry, Jamie Hestekin, Seth W. Snyder, Edward J. St. Martin
  • Patent number: 6800185
    Abstract: Herein are disclosed a method for producing a basic amino acid solution which comprises subjecting a solution of a basic amino acid salt to electrodialysis with the use of an electrodialyser equipped with cation exchange membranes and anion exchange membranes in combination, wherein an alkali aqueous solution is added to the solution of a basic amino acid salt during the electrodialysis, whereby not only desalting is caused but also the counter anions of the basic amino acid are removed to such degree that the said counter anions remain in an amount of 40 mol % or smaller based on the basic amino acid, as well as a method for producing a basic amino acid solution which comprises subjecting a solution of a basic amino acid salt to electrodialysis with the use of an electrodialyser equipped with anion exchange membrane alone, wherein an alkali aqueous solution is added to the solution of a basic amino acid salt to adjust the pH of the solution to 7 to 10 during the electrodialysis, whereby the counter anions ar
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2004
    Assignee: Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Hasegawa, Toshiya Tanabe, Yasuhiro Maruta
  • Publication number: 20030121787
    Abstract: This invention relates to a process for improving the purity of an aqueous onium hydroxide solution. In particular, the invention relates to a process for improving the purity of aqueous onium hydroxide solutions containing undesirable amounts of anions. The invention also relates to the improved high purity onium hydroxide solutions obtained by the above method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Publication date: July 3, 2003
    Inventors: Robert J. Reiter, Kelly Hefner
  • Publication number: 20030070928
    Abstract: A process for preparing salts of methallylsulfonic acid in which the reaction mixture produced from the sulfonation is diluted with water and neutralized with a base.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 24, 2002
    Publication date: April 17, 2003
    Inventors: Claus York Werninger, Lothar Kerker, Hartmut Steinbeisser, Wilfried Bueschken, Franz-Felix Kuppinger, Peter Ernst Esser
  • Patent number: 6527932
    Abstract: Methods of preparing or purifying onium hydroxides of the elements N, S or P by electrodialysis involve an electrodialysis apparatus comprising one or more cell units, each cell unit comprising a bipolar membrane and an anion-selective membrane, and a bipolar membrane or a cation-selective membrane being located on the anode side between the last anion-selective membrane and the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jörg Botzem, Reiner Kober, Markus Frede
  • Patent number: 6471844
    Abstract: Processes are provided for the electrodialysis of a (di)alkali metal salt of an aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid to produce a free aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid and the alkali metal hydroxide, in the presence of a selected alkali metal salt. These various embodiments represent efficient and economical methods for recovering the alkali metal hydroxide, as well as the parent organic compound, from these dialkali metal salts. These processes also desirably prevent overvoltage during the electrodialysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2002
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Michael Robert Samuels, Ronald M. Yabroff
  • Patent number: 6444108
    Abstract: A first process involves the partial electrodialysis of a dialkali metal salt of an aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid to produce the approximate monoalkali metal salt and the alkali metal hydroxide. The monoalkali metal salt is then treated with an acid such as a bisulfate to recover the aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid or dicarboxylic acid. The resulting inorganic salt such as sodium sulfate may then be electrolyzed to sodium bisulfate and NaOH. A second process involves the electrodialysis at elevated temperatures of a (di)alkali metal salt of p-hydroxybenzoic acid produce free p-hydroxybenzoic acid and the alkali metal hydroxide. These are efficient and economical methods for recovering the acid and alkali metal hydroxide values, as well as the parent organic compound, from these dialkali metal salts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2002
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Joel David Citron, Michael Robert Samuels
  • Publication number: 20020079233
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for improving the purity of a composition comprising a quaternary ammonium hydroxide comprising the steps of (a) providing an electrolysis cell which comprises an anolyte compartment containing an anode, a catholyte compartment containing a cathode, and at least one intermediate compartment, said at least one intermediate compartment being separated from the anolyte and catholyte compartments by cation selective membranes, (b) charging water, optionally containing a supporting electrolyte, to the anolyte compartment, charging water, optionally containing a quaternary ammonium hydroxide, to the catholyte compartment, and charging the composition comprising the quaternary ammonium hydroxide to be purified to the intermediate compartment, (c) passing a current through the electrolysis cell to produce a purified aqueous quaternary ammonium hydroxide solution in the catholyte compartment, and (d) recovering the purified aqueous quaternary ammonium hydroxide solution from
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 16, 2001
    Publication date: June 27, 2002
    Inventors: Anna Giatti, Fred Korpel, Roger Keranen Rains, Gerrit Jan Boerman
  • Publication number: 20020046427
    Abstract: An amino acid-N,N-diacetic acid (AADA) or its salt with an equivalent or less of an alkali metal is produced by reducing, through electrodialysis, alkali metal ions from an aqueous solution of the alkali metal salt of an AADA. By this configuration, an AADA salt can be produced in a much higher yield than conventional equivalents without requiring a regeneration operation of a resin as in the use of an ion exchange resin or without requiring crystallization-separation of crystals of the AADA salt as in the addition of an organic solvent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2001
    Publication date: April 25, 2002
    Applicant: SHOWA DENKO K.K., CHELEST CORPORATION
    Inventors: Nobuyoshi Nambu, Masanori Furukawa, Makoto Saito, Tohru Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 6312578
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method for extracting by electrodialysis a compound comprising at least amine functions capable of protonation from a liquid medium. More particularly it concerns a method for extracting, and separating at least the monomers comprising amine functions capable of protonation from a liquid medium derived from the hydrolysis of polyamides. The method of extraction from a liquid medium consists in subjecting to protonation the amine function(s) of the compounds to be extracted by adjusting the pH of the medium and in separating the compounds by passing them through a cationic membrane under the effect of an electric current. The invention is particularly applicable in processes for the chemical stabilisation of polyamides such as the PA 66 PA 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2001
    Assignee: Rhodia Fiber & Resin Intermediates
    Inventors: Edith Canivenc, Dominique Horbez
  • Patent number: 6214190
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for isolating, by membrane electrodialysis, a catalyst from a solution containing it. More precisely, it relates to the isolation of a catalyst used in a homogeneous phase molecular oxidation reaction. The invention consists of a process for isolating a homogeneous catalyst dissolved in a mixture also containing at least one aliphatic diacid, characterized in that the catalyst contains cobalt and the isolation is performed by membrane electrodialysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Rhodia Fiber and Resin Intermediates
    Inventors: Eric Fache, Dominique Horbez, Philippe Leconte
  • Patent number: 6159352
    Abstract: The process comprises: (A) obtainment of N-acetyl-cysteine from L-cystine, by means of the following steps:(i) acetylation of L-cystine to produce N-acetyl-cystine;(ii) electroreduction and desalination by electrodialysis of the N-acetyl-cystine thus produced to give N-acetyl-cysteine; or (B) obtainment of N-acetyl-cysteine from L-cystine, by means of the following steps:(i) acetylation and desalination of L-cystine to produce N-acetyl-cystine;(ii) electroreduction of N-acetyl-cystine which may or may not come from the preceding step (i) to produce N-acetyl-cysteine; (C) obtainment of N-acetyl-cysteine from L-cystine by means of the following steps:(i) electroreduction of L-cystine to produce L-cysteine;(ii) acetylation and desalination by electrodialysis of L-cysteine, which may or may not come from the preceding step (i) to produce N-acetyl-cysteine.The N-acetyl-cysteine thus obtained has important uses in the pharmaceutical sector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Universidad de Alicante
    Inventors: Antonio Aldaz Riera, Vicente Montiel Leguey, Vicente Garcia Garcia, Jose Gonzalez Garcia
  • Patent number: 6139714
    Abstract: A process for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid includes an electrochemical mechanism for adjusting the pH of an aqueous flowable fluid and a mechanism for then electrochemically stabilizing the adjusted pH of the fluid. A device for performing the process is also included. The device includes an inlet and a channel in fluid communication with the inlet. The channel has the appearance and properties of a U-shaped connected vessel. The U-shaped connected vessel includes an inlet accumulating passage in fluid communication with an active zone between two spaced electrodes wherein the active zone has a small volume relative to the passage for accelerating fluid flow from the passage through the active zone complying with the physics of connected vessels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: Gemma Industrial Ecology Ltd.
    Inventor: David Livshits
  • Patent number: 6110342
    Abstract: The invention uses a stack of three compartment electrodialysis cells in a process for the production amino acid hydrochloride and an alkali. The electrodialysis cell contains bipolar, cation and anion membranes which are arranged to form acid, base and salt compartments. The process begins with supplying a salt solution to the salt compartment, water to the base compartment, and a liquid comprising an amino acid to the acid compartment. Preferably, the feed salt is sodium chloride or potassium chloride or lithium chloride. A direct current driving force is applied across the cell to convert the salt solution to an alkali in the base compartments and an amino acid hydrochloride in the acid compartment. The acid and alkali solutions and a depleted salt solution are withdrawn from their respective compartments. A chelating agent may be added to the salt solution before it is fed into the electrodialysis cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Archer Daniels Midland Company
    Inventor: K. N. Mani
  • Patent number: 6036830
    Abstract: In order to remove the salts (in particular NH.sub.4 Cl) present in an aqueous sulphonamide solution (in particular CH.sub.3 SO.sub.2 NH.sub.2), the solution is subjected to a two-compartment electrodialysis. By maintaining the pH at a value below 7, the formation of ammonia is avoided. The demineralized solution can be concentrated in order to receover after crystallization, the sulphonamide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: Elf Atochem S.A.
    Inventors: Christian Gancet, Didier Lauranson, Frederic Perie
  • Patent number: 6004445
    Abstract: The present invention relates to electrochemical methods for the recovery of ascorbic acid from an ascorbate salt without the co-generation of a waste salt stream and while maintaining high conductivity of the electrochemical cell thereby providing for quantitative conversion of the salts to ascorbic in both batch and continuous mode processes. In one embodiment the feed stream comprising an ascorbate salt is dissociated under the influence of an electric field and subjected to water splitting electrodialysis. The ascorbate ion combines with a proton and the salt cation combines with a hydroxyl ion to form ascorbic acid and base, respectively. The feed stream further comprises an inorganic salt which maintains high conductivity in the cell, facilitates quantitative conversion of ascorbate salts to ascorbic acid in both batch and continuous mode processes, and promotes precipitation and crystallization of ascorbic acid as a fine powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Electrosynthesis Company, Inc.
    Inventors: J. David Genders, Dan M. Hartsough
  • Patent number: 5980724
    Abstract: Described is a method of electrochemically converting .alpha.-halohydrins, e.g., 1-chloro-2-hydroxypropane and 1,3-dichloro-2-hydroxypropane, to epoxides, e.g., propylene oxide and epichlorohydrin. An electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and a bipolar ion exchange membrane, (2) an anode compartment containing an anode assembly comprising either (a) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode and a current collecting electrode or (b) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode which is fixedly held between a hydraulic barrier and a current collecting electrode, and (3) at least one pair of intermediate compartments separating the catholyte and anode compartments and separated from each other by an anion exchange membrane. The following are introduced into the cell: a first aqueous conductive electrolyte solution into the catholyte compartment; hydrogen gas into the anode compartment; an aqueous solution of .alpha.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: David G. Roberts, Peter C. Foller, Robert H. Tang, Yingchao Zhang
  • Patent number: 5968338
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a process for recovering an onium hydroxide from a solution containing an onium compound, including contacting the solution with a cation exchange material so that at least a portion of onium cations from the onium compound are adsorbed by the cation exchange material; contacting an acid with the cation exchange material to elute an onium salt; charging the onium salt to an electrochemical cell containing at least three compartments, a cathode, an anode, and in order from the anode to the cathode, a bipolar membrane and a cation selective membrane, and passing a current through the cell whereby the onium hydroxide is regenerated; and recovering the onium hydroxide from the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: David R. Hulme, Roger Moulton, Wilfred W. Wilson, Mark Hellums
  • Patent number: 5938907
    Abstract: A process for recovering guanidine salts from diluted and contaminated aqueous solutions is described, wherein the corresponding aqueous solution (diluate) is subjected to electrodialysis and the guanidine salt is concentrated on the concentrate side. The corresponding guanidine salt can thus largely be separated from all contaminants while a relatively highly concentrated product is simultaneously obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1999
    Assignee: NIGU Chemie GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Kiesewetter, Klaus Peter Stengele
  • Patent number: 5928485
    Abstract: A first process involves the partial electrodialysis of a dialkali metal salt of an aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid to produce the approximate monoalkali metal salt and the alkali metal hydroxide. The monoalkali metal salt is then treated with an acid such as a bisulfate to recover the aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acid or dicarboxylic acid. The resulting inorganic salt such as sodium sulfate may then be electrolyzed to sodium bisulfate and NaOH. A second process involves the electrodialysis at elevated temperatures of a (di)alkali metal salt of p-hydroxybenzoic acid produce free p-hydroxybenzoic acid and the alkali metal hydroxide. These are efficient and economical methods for recovering the acid and alkali metal hydroxide values, as well as the parent organic compound, from these dialkali metal salts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Joel David Citron, Michael Robert Samuels
  • Patent number: 5910237
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a process for recovering organic hydroxide from contaminated solutions containing the organic hydroxide and impurities including charging the contaminated solution to a first electrochemical cell containing at least two compartments, a cathode, an anode and a size selective divider and passing a current through the first electrochemical cell whereby impurities migrate through the size selective divider; recovering a second solution containing organic ions from the first electrochemical cell and charging the second solution to a second electrochemical cell containing at least two compartments, a cathode, an anode and a divider and passing a current through the second electrochemical cell whereby the organic hydroxide is purified; and recovering the organic hydroxide from the second electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1999
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: Roger D. Moulton, Mark W. Hellums
  • Patent number: 5906722
    Abstract: Describes a method of electrochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., ethyleneamine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. A three compartment electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and an anion exchange membrane, (2) an anode compartment containing an anode assembly comprising either (a) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode and a current collecting electrode or (b) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode which is fixedly held between a hydraulic barrier and a current collecting electrode, and (3) an intermediate compartment separated from the catholyte and anode compartments by the anion exchange membrane and either (i) the hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode or (ii) the hydraulic barrier respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang
  • Patent number: 5904829
    Abstract: Describes a method of electreochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., amine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. An electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and a bipolar ion exchange membrane, (2) an anode compartment containing an anode assembly comprising either (a) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode and a current collecting electrode or (b) a hydrogen consuming gas diffusion anode which is fixedly held between a hydraulic barrier and a current collecting electrode, and (3) at least one pair of intermediate compartments separating the catholyte and anode compartments and separated from each other by an anion exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang
  • Patent number: 5900133
    Abstract: Describes a method of electrochemically converting amine hydrohalide, e.g., ethyleneamine hydrochloride, into free amine, e.g., free ethyleneamine. A three compartment electrolytic cell is provided having (1) a catholyte compartment containing a cathode assembly comprising a cathode and anion exchange membrane, (2) an anolyte compartment containing an anode assembly comprising an anode and a cation exchange membrane, and (3) an intermediate compartment separated from the catholyte and anolyte compartments by the anion and cation exchange membranes respectively. An aqueous solution of amine hydrohalide is charged to the catholyte compartment, while hydrogen halide solutions are charged to the intermediate and anolyte compartments. Direct current is passed through the electrolytic cell and an aqueous solution comprising free amine is removed from the catholyte compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 4, 1999
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter C. Foller, David G. Roberts, Robert H. Tang, James R. Franks
  • Patent number: 5876579
    Abstract: A process for reducing the content of organic and inorganic halogen in an aqueous solution of a nitrogen-containing epihalohydrin-based resin, in which process the aqueous resin solution is subjected to an electrodialysis treatment. The aqueous resin solutions obtained by the process are used as additives in the production of paper, board and paper board, in particular as wet-strength agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Eka Chemicals AB
    Inventor: Marek Gorzynski
  • Patent number: 5868916
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a process for recovering an organic hydroxide from waste solutions containing the organic hydroxide and impurities including the steps of precipitating the organic hydroxide from the waste solution as an insoluble salt; removing the salt from the waste solution and placing the salt in a liquid to form a second solution; charging the second solution to an electrochemical cell containing at least two compartments, a cathode, an anode and a divider and passing a current through the cell whereby the organic hydroxide is regenerated; and recovering the organic hydroxide from the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventor: Roger D. Moulton
  • Patent number: 5833832
    Abstract: A process is described for preparing onium hydroxides from the respective onium salts and for purifying onium hydroxides in an electrochemical cell. In one example, the present invention relates to a process for preparing onium hydroxides from the corresponding onium salts which comprises the steps of: (A) providing a cell comprising an anode, a cathode and one or more unit cells assembled for operational positioning between the anode and the cathode, each unit cell comprising: (A-1) four compartments defined by, in sequence beginning at the anode, a bipolar membrane, a first divider and a second divider, said bipolar membrane having an anion selective side facing the anode and a cation selective side facing the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher D. Shay, Hossein Sharifian
  • Patent number: 5814197
    Abstract: Improved electrodialysis (ED) stacks are disclosed having one or more components selected from the group:a) cation exchange membranes having ion exchange groups predominantly sulfonic acid groups and a minor amount of weakly acidic and/or weakly basic groups or membranes which are selective to monovalent cations and simultaneously therewith, cation exchange granules selective to monovalent cations as packing in the dilute compartments;b) anion exchange membranes having as ion exchange groups only quaternary ammonium and/or quaternary phosphonium groups and substantially no primary, secondary and/or tertiary amine and/or phosphine groups or membranes which are selective to monovalent anions simultaneously therewith, anion exchange granules selective to monovalent anions as packing in the dilute compartments;c) as packing in the dilute compartment, anion exchange granules which are selective to monovalent anions, or cation exchange granules which are selective to monovalent cations, or cation exchange granules
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Ionics, Incorporated
    Inventors: Bruce T. Batchelder, Irving D. Elyanow, Arthur L. Goldstein, Russell J. MacDonald, Wayne A. McRae, Keith J. Sims, Li Zhang
  • Patent number: 5772013
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for producing di- and more highly oxidized carboxylic acids from a compound selected from a first group consisting of carbohydrates, carbohydrate derivatives and carbohydrate derivatives having more than one primary alcohol group, comprising oxidizing, in an aqueous solution in a concentration between 0.1% and 60%, the compound selected from said first group and a compound selected from a second group consisting of monooxidized carbohydrates, monooxidized carbohydrate derivatives and monooxidized carbohydrate derivatives having more than one primary alcohol group, with one of oxygen and an oxygen-containing gas, on one of a noble metal catalyst and a mixed metal catalyst; electrodialyzing the oxidized compounds in at least one electrodialysis stage; and removing said di- and more highly oxidized carboxylic acids in said at least one electrodialysis stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1998
    Assignee: Sudzucker Akiengesellschaft Mannheim/Ochsenfurt
    Inventors: Markwart Kunz, Andreas Schwarz, Jorg Kowalczyk
  • Patent number: 5753097
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the invention relates to a process for purifying solutions containing a hydroxide compound, including the steps of: (A) providing an electrochemical cell containing an anode, a cathode, a cation selective membrane and a bipolar membrane, the bipolar membrane having an anion selective side facing the anode and a cation selective side facing the cathode, wherein the cation selective membrane is positioned between the anode and the bipolar membrane, and the bipolar membrane is positioned between the cation selective membrane and the cathode, thereby defining a feed compartment between the cation selective membrane and the anode, a recovery compartment between the bipolar membrane and the cation selective membrane, and a water compartment between the bipolar membrane and the cathode; (B) charging a solution of an ionic compound at a first concentration to the water compartment, and water to the recovery compartment; (C) charging a solution containing the hydroxide compound at a second concentra
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1998
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, John E. Mooney
  • Patent number: 5728914
    Abstract: A method and integrated apparatus for disposing of an organic halogen compound comprising phosphorus and at least one element selected from the group consisting of sulfur and a metal, in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, in atomic bond, comprises the steps of ionizing the compound to obtain ionization products, splitting up the ionization products by electrodialysis to obtain ionic end products and residual organic substances, and disposing of the ionic end products and residual organic substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1998
    Assignee: Franz Howorka
    Inventor: Eduard Buzetzki
  • Patent number: 5725749
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the separation of lactulose from a mixture of lactulose and lactose in the presence of a weak acid capable of reversibly forming a complex with lactulose, by using an electrodialysis equipment including an anode and a cathode compartment separated by a plurality of parallel compartments comprising alternating diluate and concentrate compartments, wherein adjacent compartments are separated from each other by permselective membranes; which process is characterized by:(a) continuously passing an alkaline aqueous solution of lactulose, lactose and said complex forming weak acid through the diluate compartments, each diluate compartment being bound by a bipolar membrane at its lateral side facing the cathode and at its opposite lateral side by an anion exchange membrane, separating said compartment from its adjacent concentrate compartment;(b) continuously passing a carrier fluid through the concentrate compartments, each concentrate compartment being bound at its lateral si
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1998
    Assignee: Duphar International Research B.V.
    Inventor: Hendrik Pluim
  • Patent number: 5725748
    Abstract: In a process for an electrochemical treatment of cellulose waste lye, mass transport takes place through a diaphragm or membrane between a cathode chamber and an anode chamber, and optionally through a middle chamber. Cationogenic components are removed from cellulose waste lye containing lignin sulfonates and being located in at least one of the chambers. Lignin sulfonic acids are produced from the waste lye. In an installation for an electrochemical treatment of cellulose waste lye, at least one diaphragm divides at least one reaction vessel into at least one cathode chamber and at least one anode chamber. At least one cathode electrode is disposed in the at least one cathode chamber, and at least one anode electrode is disposed in the at least one anode chamber. The at least one cathode electrode is formed of iron or aluminum and the at least one anode electrode is formed of special steel, in particular V4A steel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1998
    Assignee: Chemische Werke Zell-Wildhausen GmbH
    Inventors: Burkhard Brandt, Gerhard Born
  • Patent number: 5720865
    Abstract: Keto compounds are prepared by a condensation reaction in which an enolate is formed, and then a protonation in which the free keto compound is produced. In accordance with the invention, both condensation and protonation are carried out in one step by electrodialysis. Transesterification can also be carried out in the same step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1998
    Assignee: Huels Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Srinivasan Sridhar
  • Patent number: 5709790
    Abstract: In one embodiment, the invention relates to a process for purifying solutions containing a hydroxide compound, including the steps of: (A) providing an electrochemical cell containing an anode, a cathode, a cation selective membrane and an anion selective membrane, wherein the cation selective membrane is positioned between the cathode and the anion selective membrane, and the anion selective membrane is positioned between the cation selective membrane and the anode, thereby defining a feed compartment between the cation selective membrane and the anion selective membrane, a recovery compartment between the cathode and the cation selective membrane, and a water compartment between the anion selective membrane and the anode; (B) charging a solution of an ionic compound at a first concentration to the water compartment, and water to the recovery compartment; (C) charging a solution of the hydroxide compound at a second concentration to the feed compartment; (D) passing a current through the cell to produce the
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1998
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: Hossein Sharifian, John E. Mooney
  • Patent number: 5709789
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of preparing hydroxylamine in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: providing an electrochemical cell comprising an anode, a cathode, a bipolar membrane positioned between the anode and the cathode, the bipolar membrane having an anion selective side facing the anode and a cation selective side facing the cathode, and a divider positioned between the bipolar membrane and the anode, thereby defining a feed compartment on the cation selective side of the bipolar membrane, a recovery compartment on the anion selective side of the bipolar membrane, and an anolyte compartment between the divider and the anode; charging the feed compartment with an acidic electrolyte and the recovery and anolyte compartments with a solution; introducing nitrogen containing gas into the feed compartment; passing a current through the electrochemical cell thereby producing hydroxylammonium salt in the feed compartment; transferring at least a portion of the hydroxylammonium salt f
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1998
    Assignee: Sachem, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher D. Shay, Hossein Sharifian
  • Patent number: 5702579
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of ascorbic acid starting from an ascorbate is characterized in that an ascorbate, e.g. sodium ascorbate, dissolved in water is decomposed under the influence of an electric field by means of ion-selective membranes into ascorbate ions and cations and the latter are separated spatially from one another and then, as a result of simultaneous generation of protons and hydroxide ions, the ascorbic acid is prepared from the liberated ascorbate ions and protons and, spatially separated therefrom, the corresponding hydroxide, e.g. sodium hydroxide, is also prepared from the cations and hydroxide ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 30, 1997
    Assignee: Roche Vitamins Inc.
    Inventor: Joachim Veits
  • Patent number: 5643430
    Abstract: A process for reducing the content of organic and inorganic halogen in an aqueous solution of a nitrogen-containing epihalohydrin-based resin, in which process the aqueous resin solution is subjected to an electrodialysis treatment. The aqueous resin solutions obtained by the process are used as additives in the production of paper, board and paper board, in particular as wet-strength agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1997
    Assignee: Eka Nobel AB
    Inventor: Marek Gorzynski