Solid Sorption Or Desorption Patents (Class 204/551)
  • Patent number: 10486167
    Abstract: A fuel and/or lubricant system for an engine can include an engine component configured to be in fluid communication with the fuel and/or lubricant, and an alternating current (AC) source electrically connected to the engine component to create an electric field of alternating polarity to subject particles within the fuel and/or lubricant to dielectrophoresis as the fuel and/or lubricant passes through the electric field to prevent deposits from forming on the engine component. In certain embodiments, the engine component can be a filter screen configured to filter the fuel and/or lubricant to subject particles within the fuel and/or lubricant to dielectrophoresis as the fuel and/or lubricant passes through the filter screen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2019
    Assignee: Delavan Inc.
    Inventors: Rhonda R. Willigan, Haralambos Cordatos
  • Patent number: 10287191
    Abstract: Apparatus with flow-through capacitors for the purification of a liquid, which comprises: at least one cell (2) provided with at least one flow-through capacitor (4) provided with two or more electrodes facing each other, between which a liquid to be treated is susceptible to flow; electrical power supply means (13) adapted to supply a direct supply voltage (VA); a modulation circuit (14) connected in input to the electrical power supply means (13) in order to receive the supply voltage (VA) and provided with switches (22?, 22?; 23?, 23?) actuatable to apply at least one operating voltage between the facing electrodes of each capacitor (4).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2019
    Assignee: IDROPAN DELL'ORTO DEPURATORI S.R.L.
    Inventor: Tullio Servida
  • Patent number: 10026982
    Abstract: Embodiments described herein provide for water reclamation from the exhaust stream of a RSOFC while the RSOFC operates in fuel cell mode. The reclaimed water is stored for use by the RSOFC while in electrolysis mode. An embodiment includes a RSOFC, a condensate tank, a condenser, and a controller. The RSOFC generates electrical power and water vapor by consuming hydrogen gas in the fuel cell mode, and consumes electrical power and water to generate the hydrogen gas in the electrolysis mode. The condenser condenses the water vapor into water, and directs the water to the condensate tank. The controller, responsive to transitioning the RSOFC from the fuel cell mode to the electrolysis mode, supplies the water to the RSOFC from the condensate tank, and supplies the electrical power to the RSOFC to electrolyze the water and to generate the hydrogen gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: The Boeing Company
    Inventors: Joshua M Mermelstein, Catherine Cannova
  • Patent number: 9644277
    Abstract: An electrolyzer or unitized regenerative fuel cell has a flow field with at least one channel, wherein the cross-sectional area of the channel varies along at least a portion of the channel length. In some embodiments the channel width decreases along at least a portion of the length of the channel according to a natural exponential function. The use of this type of improved flow field channel can improve performance and efficiency of operation of the electrolyzer device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: Loop Energy Inc.
    Inventors: Sean Michael MacKinnon, Matthew Paul Paone, Raoul Jacob Kingma, Greg John Montie
  • Publication number: 20130284600
    Abstract: A medium for isolating or releasing an electrostatically charged component from or into an aqueous composition. The medium has a polyelectrolyte film on at least one surface of an article wherein the polyelectrolyte film is characterized by an interpenetrating network of a predominantly positively charged polymer and a predominantly negatively charged polymer. The predominantly positively charged polymer, the predominantly negatively charged polymer or both contain (i) a pH sensitive imidazole repeat unit having a pKa between 3 and 9, or (ii) a redox sensitive repeat unit selected from the group consisting of quaternized bipyridine repeat units, coordinated metal repeat units, pyrrole repeat units, aniline repeat units, thiophene repeat units and combinations thereof having a redox potential between +1.2 volts and ?1.2 volts versus a standard hydrogen electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 28, 2013
    Publication date: October 31, 2013
    Inventors: Joseph B. Schlenoff, Zhijie Sui, David S. Salloum, Hassan Rmaile
  • Patent number: 8496797
    Abstract: Electrodeionization methods and apparatus wherein ion exchange membranes are not utilized. Instead, ion exchange materials such as beads, fibers, etc., are disposed in alternating layers of anion exchange (AIX) materials and cation exchange (CIX) materials between opposite polarity electrodes. In a regeneration stage, a current is applied across the electrodes with water splitting occurring along at least one of the interfacial areas between neighboring AIX and CIX materials. The H+ and OH? ions formed via water splitting migrate in response to the electrical current and displace the salt ions in the respective AIX and CIX. The stack is flushed during the regeneration stage to remove the concentrated salt solution. During a deionization phase, the electrical current is terminated with influent fed to the stack for deionization. The salt ions in the influent are depleted via ion exchange as the influent contacts the AIX and CIX.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: John H. Barber
  • Patent number: 8491768
    Abstract: Nanoparticles in a colloid are purified, with the colloid including a fluid, unwanted matter, and the nanoparticles to be purified. An electric field is applied that is substantially spatially uniform over a distance that is at least equal to a characteristic dimension of the nanoparticles, so that at least some of the nanoparticles move towards at least one collection surface as a result of the force arising between their electrical charge and the electric field, whereupon nanoparticles are collected on said at least one collection surface. The collection surface(s) may be one or more electrodes to which a voltage potential is applied. The collected nanoparticles are then removed from the collection surface, e.g., by dispersing them into another fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Xin Ai, John David Bass, Ho-Cheol Kim, Robert Dennis Miller, John Campbell Scott, Qing Song
  • Publication number: 20120273358
    Abstract: The invention provides a method of inhibiting biological damage to a cellulosic structural element exposed to environmental moisture, said method comprising applying a pulsed asymmetric electrical voltage to a decay-prone region of a said element over a prolonged time period.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 28, 2010
    Publication date: November 1, 2012
    Applicant: MILJOTEKNOLOGI AS
    Inventors: Erik Larnoy, Andreas Treu, Hasse V. Halvorsen
  • Patent number: 8246804
    Abstract: A method for the treatment of an aqueous stream containing both anionic and cationic species is provided. The method comprises the following steps. Circulating water continuously through an essentially closed loop, the loop incorporating an ion adsorption unit which, in turn, comprises a water permeable layer of an ion adsorbing material. Feeding an aqueous solution containing the anionic and the cationic species to the essentially closed loop. Passing the circulating water, including the aqueous solution containing the ionic and the cationic species, through the ion adsorbing material in the ion adsorption unit in a continuous manner. While at the same time applying an electric potential across the thickness of the layer of ion adsorbing material and removing from the ion adsorption unit more concentrated aqueous solutions of the separate ionic species. Discharging each of the aqueous solutions from the ion adsorption unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2012
    Assignee: Edwards Limited
    Inventors: Christopher Peter Jones, Peter James Mawle
  • Patent number: 8133380
    Abstract: A method and device for regenerating an ion exchanger can regenerate an ion exchanger easily and quickly, and can minimize a load upon cleaning of the regenerated ion exchanger and disposal of waste liquid. A method for regenerating a contaminated ion exchanger includes: providing a pair of a regeneration electrode and a counter electrode, a partition disposed between the electrodes, and an ion exchanger to be regenerated disposed between the counter electrode and the partition; and applying a voltage between the regeneration electrode and the counter electrode while supplying a liquid between the partition and the regeneration electrode and also supplying a liquid between the partition and the counter electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2012
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Takayuki Saito, Tsukuru Suzuki, Yuji Makita, Kaoru Yamada, Masayuki Kumekawa, Hozumi Yasuda, Osamu Nabeya, Kazuto Hirokawa, Mitsuhiko Shirakashi, Yasushi Toma, Itsuki Kobata
  • Patent number: 7780834
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for electrochemically modifying the retention of a species on a chromatography material is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a housing having an effluent flow channel adapted to permit fluid flow therethrough. The effluent flow channel comprises chromatography material. The apparatus further comprises first and second electrodes positioned such that at least a portion of the chromatography material is disposed between the first and second electrodes, and fluid flow through the apparatus is between, and in contact with, the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Anderson, Jr., Raaidah Saari-Nordhaus, Carl W. Sims, Yuri E. Gerner
  • Patent number: 7718046
    Abstract: A method and device are provided for affinity gradient focusing for directing at least one analyte in a solution containing a pseudostationary phase and located in a channel such as a capillary or a microchannel. The method includes establishing a steady-state spatial gradient in a retention factor of the pseudostationary phase for the at least one analyte. The analyte is caused to be moved within the channel whereby the concentration of the at least one analyte changes at one or more positions along the gradient. The pseudostationary phase is charged and the analyte is either neutral or charged or alternatively, the pseudostationary phase is neutral and the analyte is charged. The device may include a fluid channel, a pseudostationary phase having a retention factor gradient, an electrical current source and a pump system for establishing the bulk flow in the solution in the channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Commerce, the National Institute of Standards & Technology
    Inventors: David J. Ross, Peter B. Howell, Wyatt N. Vreeland
  • Patent number: 7531075
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for electrochemically modifying the retention of a species on a chromatography material is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a housing having an effluent flow channel adapted to permit fluid flow therethrough. The effluent flow channel comprises chromatography material. The apparatus further comprises first and second electrodes positioned such that at least a portion of the chromatography material is disposed between the first and second electrodes, and fluid flow through the apparatus is between, and in contact with, the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2009
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Anderson, Jr., Raaidah Saari-Nordhaus, Carl W. Sims, Yuri E. Gerner
  • Patent number: 7402283
    Abstract: An acid or base is generated in an aqueous solution by the steps of: (a) providing a source of first ions adjacent an aqueous liquid in a first acid or base generation zone, separated by a first barrier (e.g., anion exchange membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow and transporting ions only of the same charge as said first ions, (b) providing a source of second ions of opposite charge adjacent an aqueous liquid in a second acid or base generation zone, separated by a second barrier transporting ions only of the same charge as the second ions, and (c) transporting ions across the first barrier by applying an electrical potential through said first and second zones to generate an acid-containing aqueous solution in one of said first or second zones and a base-containing aqueous solution in the other one which may be combined to form a salt. Also, electrolytic apparatus for performing the above method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2008
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Patent number: 7364646
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for electrochemically modifying the retention of a species on a chromatography material is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a housing having an effluent flow channel adapted to permit fluid flow therethrough. The effluent flow channel comprises chromatography material. The apparatus further comprises first and second electrodes positioned such that at least a portion of the chromatography material is disposed between the first and second electrodes, and fluid flow through the apparatus is between, and in contact with, the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2008
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Anderson, Jr., Raaidah Saari-Nordhaus, Carl W. Sims, Yuri E. Gerner
  • Patent number: 7291271
    Abstract: The invention provides a non-cyclic, meso-frequency traveling wave electro-kinetic system capable of use in purification/separation and/or refrigeration/heat pump processes. In particular, the invention provides an adsorption system that can be used for fine or bulk chemical separations of liquid and gaseous materials. Similarly, the adsorption system can be readily adapted to function as a refrigeration/heat pump unit for use in heating and cooling systems. This reusable adsorption system provides high efficiency purification and/or cooling/heating with low energy demands and no moving parts. The invention can function in parallel or in series with other similar such adsorption units (though it can also operate as a single unit).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2007
    Assignee: Separation Design Group, LLC
    Inventor: S. Douglas Galbraith
  • Patent number: 7288176
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is provided for generating a high purity eluant suitable for use in chromatography. The high purity eluant may be generated by providing water and a first stationary phase comprising exchangeable cations. Electrolysis ions are generated by the electrolysis of water. The electrolysis ions are selected from the group consisting of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. The hydronium ions are passed through the first stationary phase so that the hydronium ions replace the cations in the first stationary phase. Thereafter, a source of desired ions is combined with the cations to form a high purity eluant containing the desired ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2007
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Anderson, Jr., Raaidah Saari-Nordhaus
  • Patent number: 7153476
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2006
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Patent number: 7138042
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The batter further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2006
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, David J. Lenz
  • Patent number: 6955922
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2005
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Publication number: 20040067301
    Abstract: The medical devices of the invention comprise a portion having a porous surface for release of at least one biologically active agent therefrom. The porous surface is made of a material such as a polymer having a plurality of voids. To load the porous surface with a biologically active agent or drug, an electrophoresis method is employed. In this method, a device having a porous surface is placed into a drug solution or suspension, along with an electrode. An electric current is applied to the device and electrode. Under such a current, the drug, which has a positive or negative charge, will be loaded into the pores or voids of the porous surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2003
    Publication date: April 8, 2004
    Applicant: Schneider (USA), Inc.
    Inventor: Ni Ding
  • Patent number: 6706196
    Abstract: A method and apparatus provide fluid treatment at a plurality of distinct points using a length of energized magnetically conductive conduit in fluid communication with non-magnetic coupling devices. The instant invention prevents the formation and accumulation of contaminants within conduits and on equipment utilized in the transportation, delivery and processing of fluid columns. It may also be utilized to accelerate the separation of oil and water and increase the efficiency of oil/water separation equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2004
    Inventor: Herbert W. Holland
  • Patent number: 6687638
    Abstract: An inspection equipment integrity system uses independent sensors and processing capabilities to determine the integrity of inspection equipment. The sensors detect the presence of packages at predetermined positions. The system further receives input from the inspection equipment regarding decisions made during inspection of the packages. The system uses the position information and inputs from the inspection equipment to determine the integrity of the inspection equipment. A further sensor determines the integrity of inspection equipment used to redirect packages based on decisions made by the inspection equipment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Assignee: General Hills, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael G. Poterek, Mike E. Geddis, Martin Lymn, Mike Teasdale
  • Patent number: 6682701
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2004
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Publication number: 20030209439
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for electrochemically modifying the retention of a species on a chromatography material is disclosed. The apparatus comprises a housing having an effluent flow channel adapted to permit fluid flow therethrough. The effluent flow channel comprises chromatography material. The apparatus further comprises first and second electrodes positioned such that at least a portion of the chromatography material is disposed between the first and second electrodes, and fluid flow through the apparatus is between, and in contact with, the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 1, 2003
    Publication date: November 13, 2003
    Applicant: Alltech Associates, Inc.
    Inventors: James M. Anderson, Raaidah Saari-Nordhaus, Carl W. Sims, Yuri E. Gerner
  • Publication number: 20030159933
    Abstract: The one and two-dimensional separation of proteins extending through the membrane (membrane proteins) is a prerequisite for a complete analysis of the proteome of a functionally intact cell organelle. A substantial drawback of prior art methods for separating is that their applicability is limited to peripheral water-soluble proteins. The aim of the novel method is to electrophoretically separate membrane proteins in one or two dimensions. To this end, membranes from cell organelles, whose membrane protein stock should be separated, are placed on planar supports whose surface was modified using suitable methods in such a manner that the membrane proteins maintain their ability to laterally diffuse in the membrane plane after being placed on the support. By subsequently applying electrical fields, the proteins can be electrophoretically displaced in the membrane plane and, as a result, can be separated in one or two dimensions according to their different charge characteristics.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2003
    Publication date: August 28, 2003
    Inventors: Thomas Bayerl, Erich Sackmann
  • Publication number: 20020182741
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 21, 2002
    Publication date: December 5, 2002
    Applicant: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Publication number: 20020177233
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 21, 2002
    Publication date: November 28, 2002
    Applicant: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Publication number: 20020148731
    Abstract: A method for dehydrating a porous material using electro-osmosis, includes applying a pattern of D.C. voltage pulses to an anode system embedded in the porous material, wherein the anode system is electrically interactive with a cathode structure embedded in earth, and wherein the pattern of D.C. voltage pulses, has a pulse period T in a range from about 3 to about 60 seconds, and each pulse period T includes a positive pulse duration of T+ from about 0.7 T to about 0.97 T, a negative pulse duration of T− from about 0.01 T to about 0.05 T, and a neutral pulse duration of Tp from about 0.02 T to about 0.25 T. In another embodiment, each pulse period includes two or more positive pulses separated by at least one of either a negative pulse or a neutral pulse, with the positive pulse duration being the combined duration of the two positive pulses.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2002
    Publication date: October 17, 2002
    Inventors: Egil Bjerek, Henning Olson
  • Patent number: 6423199
    Abstract: An electrochemical ion exchange cell comprises a metal carbollide as ion exchange material. The carbollide is preferably a polynuclear cobalt dicarbollide and is typically substituted by chlorine. Also novel are polynuclear metal carbollides comprising a substituted carbollide cage, as well as metal carbollides comprising a carbollide cage substituted by a moiety having a —COOH or —SH group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2002
    Assignee: British Nuclear Fuels plc
    Inventors: Nigel Dennis Tinker, James Darcy McKinney, Simon James Richards
  • Publication number: 20020084188
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The battery further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Publication date: July 4, 2002
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of California.
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, David J. Lenz
  • Patent number: 6395143
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system, process and apparatus for separating biosorbent and sorbate. Biomass enclosed within a membrane system is coupled to an electrode, which is capable of being placed in contact with the sorbate containing material in the presence of a counter electrode. An electric field may be discharged across the electrodes and ionic species will migrate into the membrane enclosed system. The migrated species within the membrane can be taken up and processed by the biosorbtive processes of the biomass. The system may be used to remove dye stuffs, metal, heavy metals, radionuclides and other pollutants from natural and artificial sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2002
    Assignee: University of Ulster
    Inventors: Anthony McHale, Mark Bustard
  • Publication number: 20020029957
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system, process and apparatus for separating biosorbent and sorbate. Biomass enclosed within a membrane system is coupled to an electrode, which is capable of being placed in contact with the sorbate containing material in the presence of a counter electrode. An electric field may be discharged across the electrodes and ionic species will migrate into the membrane enclosed system. The migrated species within the membrane can be taken up and processed by the biosorbtive processes of the biomass. The system may be used to remove dye stuffs, metal, heavy metals, radionuclides and other pollutants from natural and artificial sources.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 18, 1999
    Publication date: March 14, 2002
    Inventors: ANTHONY MCHALE, MARK BUSTARD
  • Publication number: 20020017463
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for deionization and hydrogen fuel production in a fuel generation mode, and electricity production in a power generation mode. In one embodiment, a capacitive deionization (CDI) device receives water and electrical energy to produce deionized water that is transferred to a proton electrode membrane electrolysis (PEME) device to produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis. A storage system receives the hydrogen. The hydrogen is transferred from the storage system to a proton electrode membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) device that produces electrical energy. In another embodiment, the PEME and the PEMFC are functionally combined in a unitary regenerative fuel cell (URFC). In still another embodiment, a humidification unit and the CDI are functionally combined. In yet another embodiment, a CDI, URFC and the humidification unit are combined in a single unitary assembly.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 5, 2001
    Publication date: February 14, 2002
    Inventor: Walter Roberto Merida-Donis
  • Patent number: 6316270
    Abstract: A method for generating high purity acid or base in an aqueous stream for use as an eluent for chromatography and, particularly, ion chromatography. For generating a base for anion chromatography, the aqueous stream is directed through a cation exchange bed having a first strongly acidic and a second weakly acidic portions. An electrical potential is applied to the bed. Cations on the bed electromigrate into the aqueous stream while hydroxide ions are electrolytically generated to form a base-containing eluent. Anions to be detected and the generated eluent flow through a chromatographic separator. The chromatographic effluent flows past a detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic, Yan Liu
  • Patent number: 6309532
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). A new regeneration method is applied to the cell (30) which includes slowing or stopping the purification cycle, electrically desorbing contaminants and removing the desorbed contaminants. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, Joseph C. Farmer, Laura Murguia
  • Patent number: 6258237
    Abstract: A method of depositing diamond particles on a surface of a substrate is provided. The method is effected by (a) charging the diamond particles by a positive charge to obtain positively charged diamond particles; and (b) electrophoretically depositing the positively charged diamond particles on the surface of the substrate, for obtaining a green diamond particles coat on the surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignees: Cerd, Ltd., Iscer, Ltd.
    Inventors: Leah Gal-Or, Rony Goldner, Nina Sezin, David Brandon, Shai Gilboa, Albir A. Layyous
  • Patent number: 6235219
    Abstract: Compositions useful as desiccants are disclosed. The compositions may be prepared by admixing components comprising a hygroscopic material and an organic polymer in a solvent to form a solution, followed by drying the solution to remove solvent and provide a moisture-deficient hygroscopic material dispersed in the organic polymer. Alternatively, the compositions may be prepared by admixing components comprising a hygroscopic material and molten organic polymer to form a fluid admixture, followed by cooling the fluid admixture to a non-fluid state. The compositions of the present invention may comprise (1) a hygroscopic material dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol, (2) a deliquescent material dispersed in an organic polymer, or (3) hygroscopic material and polymeric material both dissolved in solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Inventor: Thomas Beckenhauer
  • Patent number: 6225129
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for generating an acid or base, e.g. for chromatographic analysis of anions. For generating a base the method includes the steps of providing a cation source in a cation source reservoir, flowing an aqueous liquid stream through a base generation chamber separated from the cation source reservoir by a barrier (e.g. a charged membrane) substantially preventing liquid flow while providing a cation transport bridge, applying an electric potential between an anode cation source reservoir and a cathode in the base generation chamber to electrolytically generate hydroxide ions therein and to cause cations in the cation source reservoir to electromigrate and to be transported across the barrier toward the cathode to combine with the transported cations to form cation hydroxide, and removing the cation hydroxide in an aqueous liquid stream as an effluent from the first base generation chamber. Suitable cation sources include a salt solution, a cation hydroxide solution or cation exchange resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Yan Liu, Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic
  • Patent number: 6214204
    Abstract: An electrode for deionization of water is made of a continuous activated carbon structure. The activated carbon is derived from a synthetic carbon precursor. The structure has openings, inlet and outlet ends such that water entering the inlet end passes through the openings and exits through the outlet end, a conductive coating on at least part of the outer surface of the structure, and a metal wire in contact with the structure. A deionization system is made up of the electrodes in series so that the outlet end of one electrode is next to the inlet end of the nearest downstream electrode. The metal wire of each electrode is connected to a power source to deliver the opposite charge as the charge delivered to its neighboring electrodes. Each of the electrodes is fixedly attached to and sealed within a housing with an air and moisture-tight seal. Openings in the housing between the electrodes, allow air to be removed before use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Kishor P. Gadkaree, Joseph F. Mach, John L. Stempin
  • Patent number: 6096179
    Abstract: A carbon-reinforced electrode is disclosed. The electrode is formed from a high surface area absorptive material ("HSAAM electrode") made from resorcinol, formaldehyde, a carbon reinforcing agent, a catalyst, and reaction products thereof, and is in a carbonized form. This electrode removes ions from a liquid when an electric current is applied. The liquid may be passed through a thickness of the electrode, or may be passed by the surface of the electrode. A method of making the HSAAM electrodes is also disclosed. The HSAAM electrodes are formed from setting a polymerized mixture of resorcinol, formaldehyde and a carbon reinforcing agent supplied in the form of carbon fibers, carbon felt or cellulose under controlled temperature and time constraints, and subsequently firing the resulting product so as to carbonize the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: Southeastern Trading, LLP
    Inventors: James R. Fajt, David A. Caple, Brian B. Elson
  • Patent number: 6090259
    Abstract: An apparatus for deionization of a liquid is disclosed. The apparatus has a number of deionization cells, each cell having two different types of electrodes. The first type of electrode is formed from a high surface area absorptive material ("HSAAM electrode") made from resorcinol, formaldehyde, a carbon reinforcing agent, a catalyst, and reaction products thereof, and is in a carbonized form. This electrode removes ions when an electric current is applied. The second type of electrode, which does not remove ions, is formed from a non-HSAAM material. Each deionization cell has a single HSAAM electrode bordered on either side by a non-HSAAM electrode, and adjacent deionization cells do not share any electrodes of either type. The non-HSAAM electrodes are formed from carbon cloth or carbon felt fixed to one side of a plexiglass sheet, and two such sheets are needed to form a cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Southeastern Trading, LLP
    Inventors: James R. Fajt, David A. Caple, Brian B. Elson
  • Patent number: 6054053
    Abstract: Peak resolution in reversed-phase electrochromatography is improved in either of two alternative ways. The first is by a stepwise increase in the concentration of acetonitrile or other equivalent buffer constituent or modifier after the sample has been loaded, and the second is the inclusion of a surfactant in the mobile phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2000
    Assignee: Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Stellan Hjerten, Jia-Li Liao
  • Patent number: 6036921
    Abstract: An apparatus for generating high purity acid or base in an aqueous stream for use as an eluent for chromatography and, particularly, ion chromatography. For generating a base for anion chromatography, the aqueous stream is directed through a cation exchange bed. An electrical potential is applied to the bed. Cations on the bed electromigrate into the aqueous stream while hydroxide ions are electrolytically generated to form a base-containing eluent. Anions to be detected and the generated eluent flow through a chromatographic separator and a detector. In one embodiment, between separation and detection, the separated anion stream flows through a second cation exchange bed with no electrical potential applied. The second bed serves as a suppressor. After completion of the desired number of cycles, flow through the first and second cation exchange beds may be reversed by appropriate valving for the next sample stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: Dionex Corporation
    Inventors: Hamish Small, Nebojsa Avdalovic, Yan Liu
  • Patent number: 6007771
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for holding and cleaning non-permeable contact lenses which includes the application of an electromagnetic field about the contact lenses which are held in a cavity containing a conductive solution and an adsorbent membrane to capture the contaminants being removed from the lenses. Proteins, lipoproteins and other contaminants adhere to the surface of non-permeable lenses. An adsorbent is positioned between the lens and an electric current source so that current flows from the current source through the adsorbent and over the surface of the contact lens so that contaminants on the lens are loosened and migrate to the adsorbent to which they adhere, thus permitting effective removal from the solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Inventors: Theodore H. Rehmeyer, James R. Shultz
  • Patent number: 5980718
    Abstract: A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Richard A. Van Konynenburg, Joseph C. Farmer
  • Patent number: 5954937
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). Two end electrodes (35, 36) are arranged one at each end of the cell (30), adjacent to the end plates (31, 32). An insulator layer (33) is interposed between each end plate (31, 32) and the adjacent end electrode (35, 36). Each end electrode (35, 36) includes a single sheet (44) of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity. In one embodiment, the sheet (44) of conductive material is formed of carbon aerogel composite. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Joseph C. Farmer
  • Patent number: 5944972
    Abstract: A method for producing deionized water by self-regenerating type electrodialysis deionization, which comprises (i) using a deionized water-producing apparatus containing an electrodialyzer comprising cation exchange membranes and anion exchange membranes alternately arranged between an anode compartment provided with an anode and a cathode compartment provided with a cathode, demineralizing compartments compartmentalized with anion exchange membranes on the anode side and compartmentalized with cation exchange membranes on the cathode side, and concentrating compartments compartmentalized with cation exchange membranes on the anode side and compartmentalized with anion exchange membranes on the cathode side, the electrodialyzer having ion exchangers accommodated in the demineralizing compartments, and (ii) applying a voltage while supplying water to be treated to the demineralizing compartments to remove impurity ions in the water to be treated, wherein at least a part of the untreated water or already treate
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignees: Asahi Glass Company Ltd., Glegg Water Conditioning, Incorporated
    Inventors: Hiroshi Toda, Tohru Hoshi, David Florian Tessier
  • Patent number: 5938930
    Abstract: Peak resolution in reversed-phase electrochromatography is improved in either of two alternative ways. The first is by a stepwise increase in the concentration of acetonitrile or other equivalent buffer constituent or modifier after the sample has been loaded, and the second is the inclusion of a surfactant in the mobile phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1999
    Assignee: Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Stellan Hjerten, Jia-Li Liao
  • Patent number: 5925230
    Abstract: An apparatus for deionization of a liquid is disclosed. The apparatus has a number of deionization cells, each cell having two different types of electrodes. The first type of electrode is formed from a high surface area absorptive material ("HSAAM electrode") made from resorcinol, formaldehyde, a carbon reinforcing agent, a catalyst, and reaction products thereof, and is in a carbonized form. This electrode removes ions when an electric current is applied. The second type of electrode, which does not remove ions, is formed from a non-HSAAM material. Each deionization cell has a single HSAAM electrode bordered on either side by a non-HSAAM electrode, and adjacent deionization cells do not share any electrodes of either type. The non-HSAAM electrodes are formed from carbon cloth or carbon felt fixed to one side of a plexiglass sheet, and two such sheets are needed to form a cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: Southeastern Trading, LLP
    Inventors: James R. Fajt, David A. Caple, Brian B. Elson