Utilizing Ac Or Specified Wave Form Other Than Pure Dc Patents (Class 205/341)
  • Patent number: 11584650
    Abstract: A method of producing an electrochemically derived graphene oxide and product produced therefrom. The method comprises locating graphite particles within an electrochemical cell having a working electrode, counter electrode, and an aqueous acid electrolyte, the working electrode being positioned within the electrolyte to contact at least a portion of the graphite particles; agitating the graphite particles within the electrolyte; and applying a potential difference between the working electrode and counter electrode, thereby resulting in electrochemical exfoliation and oxidation of the graphite particles to produce graphene oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2023
    Assignee: BAOSHAN IRON & STEEL CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Yulin Zhong, Dan Li, George Philip Simon
  • Patent number: 11352703
    Abstract: Bipolar electrochemistry (BPE) concepts are used to provide a single-step and controllable process for simultaneously exfoliating a graphite source and depositing both graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide layers on conductive substrates. A bipolar electrochemical cell can be used for a three-in-one deposition and can include two wired pieces of graphite to monitor the amount of current that passes through the bipolar electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2021
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2022
    Inventors: Iman Khakpour, Amin Rabiei Baboukani, Anis Allagui, Chunlei Wang
  • Patent number: 11319637
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a system for superimposing alternating current on direct current flowing through one or more electrolytic cells, for electro-winning or electro-refining processes, in which the terminals of an alternating current source are connected to the first and last electrode of a cell or a group of cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2022
    Assignee: Thor Spa
    Inventor: Juan Pablo Bustos Robledo
  • Patent number: 11261091
    Abstract: A carbon nanosheet, which is a sheet-form carbon nanomaterial having a larger area as compared with that of a similar conventional product and a side length of about 1 ?m, and a method for producing the carbon nanosheet. The carbon nanosheet production method includes a step of mixing a solution of an iron atom-containing compound dispersed in a solvent with an alcohol, to thereby prepare a solution mixture; and a step of irradiating the solution mixture with plasma, to thereby produce a carbon nanosheet. The carbon nanosheet has a side length of 0.5 ?m to 2.5 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 25, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2022
    Inventors: Masaru Hori, Hiroki Kondo, Kenji Ishikawa
  • Patent number: 11028493
    Abstract: A process for the separation of electrolyte from the carbon in a solid carbon/electrolyte cathode product formed at the cathode during molten carbonate electrolysis. The processes allows for easy separation of the solid carbon product from the electrolyte without any observed detrimental effect on the structure and/or stability of the resulting solid carbon nanomaterial.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2020
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2021
    Assignee: C2CNT LLC
    Inventors: Stuart Licht, Gad Licht
  • Patent number: 9881836
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing semiconductor devices comprises: applying a dual pulse power to the semiconductor device during metal electroplating a part of the semiconductor device and applying ultrasonic energy to said semiconductor device during the metal electroplating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2018
    Inventor: Ming Zhou
  • Patent number: 9863055
    Abstract: An apparatus for forming a vacuum in a sealed enclosure through an electrochemical reaction includes an electrochemical cell comprising a cathode and an anode supported on a solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte is a Li-ion non-volatile electrolyte containing a dissolved metal salt. The cathode is constructed of a material with which lithium is known to form alloys. The anode is constructed of a lithium-ion containing material. The cell is operable to expose lithium metal on the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Inventor: Daniel A. Scherson
  • Patent number: 9695521
    Abstract: The invention is directed to a process to prepare metal nanoparticles or metal oxide nanoparticles by applying a cathodic potential as an alternating current (ac) voltage to a solid starting metal object which solid metal object is in contact with a liquid electrolyte comprising a stabilizing cation. The invention is also directed to the use of the nanoparticles as a catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2017
    Inventors: Alexei Yanson, Marcus Koper, Paramaconi Rodriguez, Nuria Garcia-Araez
  • Patent number: 9644275
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for preparing graphene using a spontaneous process, and particularly, to a method for mass-producing high-quality graphene composed of a single layer or several layers by using lithium intercalation of a graphite electrode occurring during the process of charging a lithium ion battery and a lithium ion capacitor in the preparation of graphene to form a graphite intercalation compound, and performing exfoliation through a reaction with water (or alcohol).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Inventors: Chong Min Koo, Soon Man Hong, Seung Sang Hwang, Min Ho Kim, Hyun Chul Park, Jin Hong Lee, Won Jun Na, Seung Gun Yu, Jang Woo Lee, Kyung Youl Baek
  • Patent number: 9419282
    Abstract: A rechargeable battery includes a compound having at least two active sites, R1 and R2; wherein the at least two active sites are interconnected by one or more conjugated moieties; each active site is coordinated to one or more metal ions Ma+ or each active site is configured to coordinate to one or more metal ions; and “a” is 1, 2, or 3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Inventors: Ali Abouimrane, Wei Weng, Khalil Amine
  • Patent number: 9169568
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a method for fabricating graphene, and comprises at least the following steps. First, a first electrode and a second electrode are inserted into an electrolyte without contacting. The first electrode is graphite, and the electrolyte comprises at least an ionic liquid. A potential difference will be produced between the first electrode and the second electrode to let the ionic liquid enter into each layer of the first electrode to form a plurality of graphene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2015
    Inventors: Yong-Chien Ling, Chih-Ping Wang, Jen-Yu Liu
  • Patent number: 9023663
    Abstract: The object of the present invention is to provide a method for preparing a nano-sheet array structure of a Group V-VI semiconductor, comprising: (A) providing an electrolyte containing a hydrogen ion and disposing an auxiliary electrode and a working electrode in the electrolyte, wherein the working electrode comprises a Group V-VI semiconductor bulk; and (B) applying a redox reaction bias to the auxiliary electrode and the working electrode to form a nano-sheet array structure on the bulk.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: National Tsing Hua University
    Inventors: Yu-Lun Chueh, Hung-Wei Tsai, Tsung-Cheng Chan
  • Publication number: 20140367272
    Abstract: A hydrolysis system for a vehicle engine includes an electrolysis unit having a plurality of spaced, generally parallel, conductive plates and an electrolyte between the plates that produce fuel gas including hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis; a reservoir that receives the fuel gas from the electrolysis unit and stores the fuel gas and electrolyte; an electric pump that pumps the electrolyte from the reservoir to the electrolysis unit; a pulse width modulator that provides DC power to the conductive plates and to the pump; a dryer having a filter that removes water from the fuel gas; an expansion tank having an interior cavity that expands the fuel gas and a conduit within the cavity that heats the fuel gas with circulating hot water; and a spray tube that outputs the fuel gas. Methods include preparing and using the hydrolysis system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 21, 2014
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventor: Jim Harold Haywood
  • Patent number: 8858776
    Abstract: A method of preparing graphene sheets. The method includes: immersing a portion of a first electrode and a portion of a second electrode in a solution containing an acid, an anionic surfactant, a salt, an oxidizing agent, or any combination thereof as an electrolyte, the immersed portion of the first electrode including a first carbon material and the immersed portion of the second electrode including a second carbon material or a metal; causing a potential to exist between the first and second electrodes; and recovering, from the solution, graphene sheets exfoliated from the carbon material(s). Also disclosed is a method of preparing a graphene film electrode. The method includes: dissolving graphene sheets in an organic solvent to form a solution, applying the solution on a substrate, adding deionized water to the solution on the substrate so that a graphene film is formed, and drying the graphene film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Academia Sinica
    Inventors: Lain-Jong Li, Ching-Yuan Su
  • Publication number: 20140116887
    Abstract: Described herein is an apparatus comprising an electrochemical cell that employs a capacitive counter electrode and a faradaic working electrode. The capacitive counter electrode reduces the amount of redox products generated at the counter electrode while enabling the working electrode to generate redox products. The electrochemical cell is useful for controlling the redox products generated and/or the timing of the redox product generation. The electrochemical cell is useful in assay methods, including those using electrochemiluminescence. The electrochemical cell can be combined with additional hardware to form instrumentation for assay methods.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 28, 2013
    Publication date: May 1, 2014
    Applicant: Board of Regents of the University of Texas System
    Inventors: Allen J. Bard, Chong-Yang Liu
  • Publication number: 20140097093
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for electrolysis that does not require the use of a transformer to operate. The apparatus comprises one or more electrolytic cells which comprise the number of intermediate electrodes sufficient to enable the cell or cells to operate at the rectified line voltage without any need for voltage regulation, or near the rectified line voltage with only some voltage regulation, such as less than 20% of the rectified line voltage. Such regulation is achieved by using a buck or boost converter rather than a transformer, and can be varied to accommodate fluctuations in the line voltage and/or conductivity of the electrolyte, or varied to produce different chemistries in the same apparatus.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 7, 2013
    Publication date: April 10, 2014
    Inventors: Geofrey Showalter, Justin Sanchez
  • Patent number: 8647490
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a micro wire, a sensor including the micro wire, and a method for manufacturing the sensor, having improved production efficiency. According to an embodiment of the present invention, a method for manufacturing a micro wire includes applying a three-dimensional electric field to a solution for forming a micro wire. The method for manufacturing the micro wire may further include providing an electrode assembly comprising a substrate, a first electrode and a second electrode formed on the substrate, and providing the solution to a space. The first electrode and the second electrode may form the space therebetween, and the space may have a first width and a second width that is smaller than the first width. The three-dimensional electric field is applied to the solution by applying a voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Postech Academy-Industry Foundation
    Inventors: WooSeok Choi, Guenbae Lim, Tae-Chang An
  • Patent number: 8591717
    Abstract: This is a process to generate alternating current without an external source for cell-houses in electrowinning or electrorefining of copper or other products in which the electric source consists of a conventional rectifier-transformer group that supplies continuous electrical current to the cell-house, which is connected in parallel to a device characterized by having the capacity to extract an electrical current from the cell-house for a period of time and then return it in another period of time, whether periodically or semiperiodically and without changing the average value of the electrical current, supplied to the cell-house by the rectifier-transformer. This results in a electrical current in the cell-house that is the superimposition of a continuous and alternating current. This process is designed to overcome the barrier of electric potential produced by the presence of the pure continuous electric field in cell-houses through the electric agitation of an ion-rich electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Hecker Electronica de Potencia y Procesos S.A.
    Inventor: Juan Pablo Bustos Robledo
  • Patent number: 8580089
    Abstract: A system is submitted here that permits superimposing an alternating current in the process of electrolytic refining of metals based on the use of power semiconductors without requiring an external source and which minimizes the utilization of passive elements, achieving a high efficiency solution applicable to high power industrial processes. The invention consists of the division of the cells involved in the metals electrolysis process in two groups of cells (3a) and 3b, both comprising a similar number of anode-cathode pairings, and with both groups linked by a common point for electrical connection (6), and interconnected by means of a bidirectional power converter (7). Said power converter (7) is connected to the common point for electrical connection 6 of the groups of cells (3a, 3b) and to the other two connection points of each group of cells, so that its operation permits transferring power from one group to the other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Ingenieria Y Desarrollo Technologico S.A.
    Inventors: Patricio Clemente Lagos Lehuede, Ricardo Armando Feuntes Fuentealba, Jorge Luis Estrada Gonzalez
  • Publication number: 20130256148
    Abstract: The selective electrochemical reduction of halogenated 4-aminopicolinic acids is improved by activating the cathode at a final potential from about +1.0 to about +1.8 volts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2013
    Publication date: October 3, 2013
    Inventors: Chen Wang, Scott Lee Haynes, Carey L. Scortichini
  • Publication number: 20130233720
    Abstract: The present invention provides a substantially inert environment within a cathode chamber that is capable of generating a metallic element M from a metal ion Mz+.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 29, 2012
    Publication date: September 12, 2013
    Inventor: Gagik Martoyan
  • Publication number: 20130217089
    Abstract: A method for producing hydrogen from organic material. Organic material and hydrogen-producing microorganisms are provided in a completely mixed bioreactor for breaking down the organic material into H2, CO2, fatty acids, and alcohols. H2, CO2, and a first liquid effluent are recovered from the completely mixed bioreactor. The first liquid effluent includes hydrogen-producing microorganisms, fatty acids, and alcohols. The first liquid effluent is provided into a gravity settler for separating the first liquid effluent into a concentrated biomass (including hydrogen-producing microorganisms) and a second liquid effluent (including at least a portion of the fatty acids and the alcohols). The concentrated biomass is provided into the completely mixed bioreactor. An input voltage is applied to at least one of the completely mixed bioreactor and the gravity settler for facilitating an electrohydrogenesis process therein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 15, 2013
    Publication date: August 22, 2013
  • Patent number: 8487627
    Abstract: A system and method for controlling a power storage device through the Stimulation and Intensification of Interfacial Processes (SIIP) is provided. A signal generator can provide a low voltage sinusoidal AC signal across a battery terminal, or other reactor vessel, during charging and discharging states. For example, the battery/reactor vessel can be of Li-ion and NiMH designs, a fuel cell, a Zn—O cell, or other devices that have features of rechargeable batteries. The output of the signal generator (i.e., voltage, wave type, and frequency) can be controlled based on battery parameters (e.g., internal resistance, output power, temperature). The internal resistance of the battery can be reduced, and the discharge time can be increased. Elastic waves can also be provided to a battery/reactor vessel to stimulate the interfacial processes. The signal generator can be an integrated circuit which is packaged with the battery and can be powered by the battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Inventor: Victor Stancovski
  • Publication number: 20130161199
    Abstract: An apparatus for large-scale production of graphene and graphene oxide is provided. The apparatus includes a first electrode, a second electrode, an electrobath, a power supply, and a module for filtering and separating the graphene products. Large amounts of graphene and graphene oxide can be produced rapidly using electrochemical exfoliation. High-quality graphene and graphene oxide can be produced under the room temperature in a simple and cost-effective way.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 17, 2012
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Applicant: ACADEMIA SINICA
    Inventor: Academia Sinica
  • Patent number: 8404096
    Abstract: The invention relates to methods of preparation of highly sensitive potentiometric sensors with an electroconductive polymer film as a sensing element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Sensortec Limited
    Inventors: Duncan Ross Purvis, Olga Leonardova, Dmitri Alexandrovich Farmakovski, Vladimir Rurikovich Tcherkassov
  • Publication number: 20120325674
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for improving the performance of nickel electrodes in alkali chloride electrolysis by adding water-soluble platinum compounds to the catolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 4, 2012
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Applicant: Bayer Material Science AG
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Rainer Weber, Richard Malchow, Rolf Spatz, Hermann-Jens Womelsdorf
  • Publication number: 20120318678
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing metal nanoparticles using granule type electrodes, in which the metal nanoparticles having a uniform shape and nano-size are continuously mass-produced at low cost by filling metal granules in a pair of electrode housings spaced by a certain interval and electrolyzing the granules with alternating-current voltage. The apparatus includes a reaction vessel containing an electrolytic solution, first and second electrodes that are formed by filling a number of granules or flakes, in first and second electrode housings that are spaced by a gap in the reaction vessel, and a power supply that applies an alternating-current power between the first and second electrodes for electrolysis reaction, in which the first and second electrode housings comprise a number of holes or slits on at least two surfaces facing each other so that metal ions dissolved from the first and second electrodes can be discharged depending on the electrolysis reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2012
    Publication date: December 20, 2012
    Applicant: AMOGREENTECH CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Min Young CHOI, Yun Jae KANG, Yong Sul SONG
  • Patent number: 8062499
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for energizing an electrolysis cell receiving a liquid to be electrochemically activated and contacting the liquid with an exposed, conductive tip of a voltage detector. The voltage detector generates a humanly-perceptible indicator as a function of charge movement sensed by the voltage detector through the liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 22, 2011
    Assignee: Tennant Compnay
    Inventor: Bruce F. Field
  • Patent number: 8043485
    Abstract: An electrolysis system (100) and method of using same is provided. In addition to an electrolysis tank (101) and a membrane (105) separating the tank into two regions, the system includes at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (115/116) of a first type, at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (117/118) of a second type, and at least one pair of high voltage electrodes (121/122). The low voltage applied to the low voltage electrodes (115/116/117/118) and the high voltage applied to the high voltage electrodes (121/122) is pulsed with the pulses occurring simultaneously with the same pulse duration. Low voltage is also applied to the low voltage electrodes (115/116/117/118) during part, or all, of the period of each cycle occurring between pulses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2011
    Assignee: Nehemia Davidson
    Inventor: Nehemia Davidson
  • Publication number: 20110233067
    Abstract: An electrochemical process and device for the controlled and uniform heating of electrically-conductive fluids, the process or device having at least one reactor and at least one power source with at least one electrode and at least one additional conductive material for direct heating of the fluid and for producing electrochemical changes of the fluid to result in at least one property change of the fluid and at least one product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2010
    Publication date: September 29, 2011
    Inventors: Arthur C. Lind, Ru T. Wang, Clyde Parrish, Neil Ginther, Jed Aten, Jan Surma, Jerry Weinberg, William R. Aten
  • Patent number: 7964084
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for activation of a low reactivity, non-polar chemical compound. In one example embodiment, the method comprises introducing the low reactivity chemical compound to a catalyst. At least one of (a) an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent and (b) a polar compound is provided to the catalyst and the chemical compound. An alternating current is applied to the catalyst to produce an activation reaction in the chemical compound. This activation reaction produces a useful product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignees: Catelectric Corp., The University of Connecticut
    Inventors: Victor Stancovski, Steven Lawrence Suib, Boxun Hu
  • Publication number: 20110114499
    Abstract: To provide a simple process for producing graphene. A graphene production apparatus 100 has a vessel 10 and, attached thereto, an immersion electrode 20 and a non-immersion electrode 30. The immersion electrode has an electrode covering 20c and an electrode main body 20e, and the non-immersion electrode has a covering 30c and an electrode main body 30e. An argon-feeding conduit 40 is disposed so as to inject argon into the vessel 10 around the electrode main body 30e. Ethanol is supplied in such an amount that the liquid surface completely covers the electrode main body 20e of the immersion electrode 20 and does not reach the electrode main body 30e of the non-immersion electrode 30. The electrode main body 20e is formed from, for example, iron, nickel, or cobalt. Thus, a 60-Hz AC voltage is applied to the electrode main body 20e immersed in the liquid; i.e.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2009
    Publication date: May 19, 2011
    Inventors: Masaru Hori, Hiroyuki Kano
  • Publication number: 20110068013
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are a method and apparatus for preparing metal nanoparticles using alternating current (AC) electrolysis, in which the yield of metal nanoparticles obtained can be greatly improved by maintaining the concentrations of a reducing agent and a dispersing agent at constant levels in proportion to the intensity of an electric current during the production of the metal nanoparticles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2010
    Publication date: March 24, 2011
    Applicant: AMOGREENTECH CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Min Young CHOI, Byung Sun HAN, Tae Gyun KIM, Yun Jae KANG, Sung Keun BAE, Ki Woong MOON, Yong Sul SONG
  • Patent number: 7611618
    Abstract: A method of operating an electrolysis system (100) to achieve high hydrogen output flow rates is provided. At least three types of electrodes are positioned within an electrolysis tank (101), the three types including at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (115/117) comprised of a first material, at least one pair of low voltage electrodes (117/118) comprised of a second material different from the first material, and at least one pair of high voltage electrodes (121/122). The low voltage and high voltage cathode electrodes are positioned within one region of the tank (101) while the low voltage and high voltage anode electrodes are positioned within the second region of the tank (101), the two regions separated by a membrane (105). The tank (101) is filled with an electrolyte containing water (103). The power supplied to the low and high voltage electrodes is simultaneously pulsed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2009
    Inventor: Nehemia Davidson
  • Publication number: 20090229991
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a device for supplying current to at least one silicon rod (3) during precipitation of silicon with the Siemens process, wherein the device has at least one input (E) suitable and configured for connecting the device to an electric power grid (N) for supplying electric energy, at least one output (A) to which the at least one silicon rod (3) can be connected, at least one AC current regulator (1) which is suitable and configured to supply the at least one silicon rod (3) connected to the at least one output (A) with electric current from the electric power grid (N), wherein the device further includes at least one frequency converter (2) which is suitable and configured to supply the at least one silicon rod (3) connected to the at least one output (A) with electric current from the electric power grid (N), wherein the electric current has a higher frequency than the current provided by the AC current regulator (1).
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 10, 2009
    Publication date: September 17, 2009
    Inventor: Peter WALLMEIER
  • Publication number: 20090205971
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method and apparatus for producing combustible fluid at an efficiency rate of above 65%. The apparatus 10 comprises an electrolysing cell 12 for electrolysing the aqueous electrolytic solution; a separator 16 where the combustible fluid and the solution is separated; a power supply 14 for supplying a DC voltage of from 1 V to 6 V; and a pump for circulating the solution through the apparatus 10. The electrolysing cell 12 includes a first electrode 18 and a second electrode 20 spaced from the first electrode 18 and a plurality of intermediate electrodes 22 disposed between the first and second electrodes 18 and 20 respectively. The power supply 14 applies the DC voltage across the electrodes 18, 20 and 22 to electrolyse the solution, while the solution is circulated through the apparatus 10.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 8, 2007
    Publication date: August 20, 2009
    Inventors: Jacobus Alwyn Pentz, George Anagnostopoulos
  • Publication number: 20090134038
    Abstract: In the method at least two electrodes (1, 2) and fluid reagents (4) are placed in the reaction vessel (3). At least one fluid substrate (11) of the fluid reagents (4) is capable of electric polarization. The reagents (4) are subjected to electric voltage in the form of a series of short electric pulses in such way that unipolar or bipolar electric field pulses are generated. The minimum duration time of electric pulses is from 50 ns and the maximum is 20 ms. The pause between the consecutive pulses is from 0.5 ?s to 3 s. In the reactor at least two electrodes (1, 2) are connected to the electric power adaptor delivering unipolar or bipolar pulses of direct or alternating voltage which constitutes the source of the electric field with amplitude exceeding 100V/cm. The electrodes (1, 2) are placed in the reaction vessel (3) filled with fluid reagents (4) which contains at least one liquid substrate (11) capable of electric polarization.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 5, 2006
    Publication date: May 28, 2009
    Inventors: Tadeusz Chudoba, Edward Reszke, Witold Lojkowski, Janusz Fidelus
  • Publication number: 20090134037
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for activation of a low reactivity, non-polar chemical compound. In one example embodiment, the method comprises introducing the low reactivity chemical compound to a catalyst. At least one of (a) an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent and (b) a polar compound is provided to the catalyst and the chemical compound. An alternating current is applied to the catalyst to produce an activation reaction in the chemical compound. This activation reaction produces a useful product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Publication date: May 28, 2009
    Applicants: Catelectric Corp. c/o Updike, Kelly & Spellacy, P.C., The University of Connecticut
    Inventors: Victor Stancovski, Steven Lawrence Suib, Boxun Hu
  • Patent number: 7442287
    Abstract: A method of preparing a material surface, such as palladium, to facilitate desirable reactions, especially exothermic reactions in a liquid medium, involves placing the material whose surface is to be treated into an electrolytic cell as at least one of the electrodes and then concurrently stimulating the material electrically, vibrationally and photonically. The electrolytic cell includes a solution in water of an electrolyte, a siliceous surfactant and a pH-adjusting agent, all heated and maintained at or just below its boiling point. A series of voltage pulses are applied to the electrodes over an extended time period while also being illuminated with intensity-modulated light pulses. The material surface thus treated exhibits crater sites and silica coatings, evidencing a change in bonding of the palladium surface, as well as a sustained exothermic reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2008
    Inventors: Brian P. Roarty, Carol J. Walker
  • Patent number: 7241390
    Abstract: A system for elimination of unwanted species from contaminated ship ballast water. The apparatus comprises an electrolytic cell containing at least one pair of electrodes, electric alternating current, and parallel perforated electrodes, for providing an effective and safe method to render ballast water or other conductive bodies of water free of aquatic invasive species and/or unwanted biologics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2007
    Assignee: Amergin, LLC
    Inventor: Robert Lyles, III
  • Publication number: 20040217010
    Abstract: The present invention comprises a method for producing microfibers and nanofibers and further fabricating derived solid monolithic materials having aligned uniform micro- or nanofibrils. A method for producing fibers ranging in diameter from micrometer-sized to nanometer-sized comprises the steps of producing an electric field and preparing a solid precipitative reaction media wherein the media comprises at least one chemical reactive precursor and a solvent having low electrical conductivity and wherein a solid precipitation reaction process for nucleation and growth of a solid phase occurs within the media. Then, subjecting the media to the electric field to induce in-situ growth of microfibers or nanofibers during the reaction process within the media causing precipitative growth of solid phase particles wherein the reaction conditions and reaction kinetics control the size, morphology and composition of the fibers.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 29, 2003
    Publication date: November 4, 2004
    Inventors: Michael Z. Hu, David W. DePaoli, Tanya Kuritz, Ogbemi Omatete
  • Patent number: 6743348
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for producing colloidal silver. A large-volume container, such as a fifteen gallon container, includes a hinged lid on which a rotational impeller is mounted along with several sets of electrodes that are electrically connected to a power transformer. The container is partially filled with water, and when the lid is closed, the sets of electrodes are disposed in communication with the water in a predetermined arrangement, and the impeller resides submerged in the water. Certain of the electrodes constitute silver wire. The power transformers convey current to the electrodes, preferably alternating current, at voltages sufficient to cause silver particles to separate from the silver wire and enter the solution in a stable, suspended state. The impeller is rotated, preferably continuously, to prevent the suspended silver from remaining in upper levels of the water, thereby dispersing the silver particles more uniformly throughout the volume of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2004
    Inventors: Robert J. Holladay, Herbert Christensen, William D. Moeller
  • Publication number: 20040007475
    Abstract: There is a control system for a catalytic process. The control system has the following: a) an electroconductive support having a layer of a catalyst thereon; b) a means for applying DC current of one polarity to the catalyst layer and the opposite polarity to the electroconductive support; c) a means for controlling and varying the application of DC current; d) a means for measuring the polarization impedance across the catalyst layer and the electroconductive support; e) a means for comparing the measured polarization impedance with a reference value; and f) a means for varying the application of DC current to the catalyst layer and the electroconductive support when the measured polarization impedance differs from the reference value.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2003
    Publication date: January 15, 2004
    Applicant: Catelectric, Inc.
    Inventors: Victor Stancovski, Sridhar Seetharaman
  • Patent number: 6620305
    Abstract: An electrolytic process for the preparation of a compound having a charged electrolytic cell fitted with at least one anode and at least one cathode in a single compartment with a reaction mixture. An electric potential is applied to the at least one anode and at least one cathode under conditions to promote formation of a compound on one of the cathodes or the anode to define a formation electrode. The formation electrode is then agitated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2003
    Assignee: Cornell Development Corporation LLC
    Inventors: Paul W. Cornell, Stephen W. Cornell
  • Publication number: 20020125144
    Abstract: A plurality of rows of wells are drilled in the soil of the area to be stabilized, and then pairs of electrodes, i.e., an aluminum anode and a copper-graphite cathode connected to a source of a bipolar pulse current, are inserted into each well in such a manner that during operation all anodes of odd wells are connected to a positive terminal (for odd pulses) of the source, while all cathodes of even wells are connected to a negative terminal (for odd pulses) of the source. After a certain period of treatment the anodes and cathodes are reversed so that all anode of even wells are connected to the positive terminals (for even pulses) of the source, whereas the cathodes of the odd wells are connected to the negative terminal of the source. Controlled directional structuring of the soil mass is carried out by adjusting the duration of current pulses, intervals between two sequential bipolar pulses of pulse current, and current density in the pulses.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 8, 2001
    Publication date: September 12, 2002
    Inventors: Alexander Itsekson, Vladimir Itsekson, Boris Itsekson
  • Publication number: 20020092773
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for enhanced biomass production by electrical waveform shaping are disclosed. The invention relates to cultivating a biological source cell in a liquid-medium bioreactor and applying a waveform regulated electric field potential to the source cell, wherein the liquid medium comprises one or more ionizable components. The waveform that regulates the applied field potential comprises a plurality of modes such that at least one mode orders an applied field potential capable of generating an ion from the ionizable component and at least one mode orders an applied field potential capable of inducing migration of the generated ion within the liquid medium. Related apparatus and methods are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 12, 2001
    Publication date: July 18, 2002
    Inventor: David B. Goodson
  • Patent number: 6419815
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen. The apparatus includes a container holding water and at least one pair of closely-spaced electrodes arranged within the container and submerged in the water. A first power supply provides a particular first pulsed signal to the electrodes. A coil may also be arranged within the container and submerged in the water if the production of parahydrogen is also required. A second power supply provides a second pulsed signal to the coil through a switch to apply energy to the water. When the second power supply is disconnected from the coil by the switch and only the electrodes receive a pulsed signal, then orthohydrogen can be produced. When the second power supply is connected to the coil and both the electrodes and coil receive pulsed signals, then the first and second pulsed signals can be controlled to produce parahydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2002
    Assignee: Xogen Power Inc.
    Inventor: Stephen Barrie Chambers
  • Publication number: 20010054559
    Abstract: Halogen substituents in the 5-position of 4-aminopicolinic acids are selectively reduced in the presence of halogen substituents in the 3- and 6-positions by electrolysis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 12, 2001
    Publication date: December 27, 2001
    Inventors: Karl Leopold Krumel, Craig Joseph Bott, Michael Frederick Gullo, Carey Lee Scortichini, John Wesley Hull
  • Patent number: 6267865
    Abstract: Described is a process for the electrochemical fluorination of a substrate, the process comprising the steps of: providing a substrate comprising at least one carbon-bonded hydrogen; preparing a reaction solution comprising the substrate and hydrogen fluoride; passing electric current through the reaction solution sufficient to cause replacement of one or more hydrogens of the substrate with fluorine, the electric current being interrupted through a current cycle defined by current levels comprising an elevated current and a reduced current; wherein the current varies in such a manner that the resistance of the cell operated with interrupted current is lower than the resistance of the cell operated with non-interrupted current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2001
    Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Stephen D. Polson, Jeffrey C. Spangler, Eric N. Wallace, John C. Smeltzer, Charles F. Kolpin, Ludmila M. Groubina, Galina I. Kaurova, Anatoly A. Krasilnikov, Adda E. Gandlina
  • Patent number: 6267864
    Abstract: Methods and devices for transforming less desirable chemical species into more desirable or useful chemical forms are disclosed. The specifications can be used to treat pollutants into more benign compositions and to produce useful chemicals from raw materials and wastes. The methods and devices disclosed utilize continuous or temporary pulse of electrical current induced by electromagnetic field and high surface area formulations. The invention can also be applied to improve the performance of existing catalysts and to prepare novel devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2001
    Assignee: Nanomaterials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Tapesh K. Yadav, Bijan K. Meramadi