Involving Fuel Cell Patents (Class 205/343)
  • Patent number: 11127967
    Abstract: Disclosed is a high temperature-type unitized regenerative fuel cell using water vapor, which exhibits high hydrogen (H2) production efficiency and superior power generation ability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 2020
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: KOREA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Hyun Seo Park, Ahyoun Lim, Ju Sung Lee, Hee-Young Park, So Young Lee, Jin Young Kim, Sung Jong Yoo, Dirk Henkensmeier, Jong Hyun Jang, Hyoung-Juhn Kim
  • Patent number: 11043684
    Abstract: A carbon dioxide capture system for removing carbon dioxide from a flue gas produced by a combustion power plant. The system includes an electrolyzer cell configured to receive a flue gas comprising carbon dioxide and output a first exhaust stream comprising an enriched flue gas comprising carbon dioxide. The system further includes a fuel cell configured to receive the first exhaust stream and output a second exhaust stream comprising carbon dioxide. The second exhaust stream contains a higher concentration of carbon dioxide than the first exhaust stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2021
    Assignee: FuelCell Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Fred C. Jahnke, Matthew Lambrech
  • Patent number: 10995018
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device (10) for treating a liquid with a plasma, wherein the device (10) has a high-voltage electrode (20) as well as a liquid-permeable ground electrode device (30). The ground electrode device (30) has a flat, conductive region (32) and a porous region (34) arranged on the flat, conductive region (32), wherein the conductive region (32) is liquid-permeable along its flat extension. A discharge space (40) is formed between the ground electrode device (30) and the high-voltage electrode (20). A first dielectric (50) is arranged on the high-voltage electrode (20) so that a plasma can be generated in the discharge space (40) by means of a dielectric barrier discharge. Moreover, the device (10) has an initial flow volume (60) into which the liquid (12) can be conducted, and that is surrounded by a wall (62).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: LEIBNIZ-INSTITUT FÜR PLASMAFORSCHUNG UND TECHNOLOGIE E.V.
    Inventors: Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Ronny Brandenburg, Manfred Stieber, Stefan Horn, Michael Schmidt, Thomas Von Woedtke, Jörn Winter
  • Patent number: 10901445
    Abstract: A method and system of controlling the time dependent transfer of electrical power between a first electrical network and a second electrical network is disclosed. The first electrical network is operable to provide instantaneous electrical power to the second electrical network located at a location, the second electrical network includes electrical generating capacity at the location based on stored energy accessible at die location. The method and system involves receiving at the second electrical network pricing information from the first electrical network, the pricing information associated with the future supply of electrical power by the first electrical network to the second electrical network and then modifying substantially in real time the transfer of electrical power between the first and second electrical networks in accordance with the pricing information and the electricity demand characteristics of the location.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2021
    Assignee: Applied Hybrid Energy Pty Ltd
    Inventors: John Charles Ellice-Flint, Petar Branko Atanackovic
  • Patent number: 10900131
    Abstract: Among other things, a device for use in electrolyzing water is described. The device comprises an electrolysis unit that includes a chamber, an ion exchange structure in the chamber, a cathode, an anode, a high pressure chamber, and a reservoir. The chamber is separated by the ion exchange structure into a first compartment and a second compartment. The cathode is in the first compartment and the anode in the second compartment. The reservoir is disposed in the high pressure chamber for storing water to be supplied to the chamber of the electrolysis unit. In some implementations, the ion exchange structure is a proton exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2021
    Assignee: Encite LLC
    Inventors: Stephen Alan Marsh, Donald M. Parker
  • Patent number: 10892505
    Abstract: According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, a power management system (e.g., a power management for a fuel cell or a fuel cell system) includes a fuel cell to generate an electrical power output; a metastable hydrogen carrier to supply hydrogen to the fuel cell; a heater coupled with the metastable hydrogen carrier; and a controller coupled to the heater to control a rate of hydrogen release from the metastable hydrogen carrier. A method of operating a fuel cell system includes controlling an electrical power input to a heater utilizing a controller; heating a metastable hydrogen carrier to a temperature by the heater and to generate hydrogen to feed a fuel cell. The heater is coupled to the controller, and the controller controls the electrical power input to the heater according to a relationship between a rate of hydrogen release and the temperature and a composition of the metastable hydrogen carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2021
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Cullen M. Quine, John J. Vajo, Jason A. Graetz
  • Patent number: 10797336
    Abstract: An apparatus for an in-vivo power generation comprises a fuel convertor for converting glucose in a fluid to a hydrogen rich, low carbon fuel such as ethanol or methanol by the action of a bioenzyme on the glucose in the CSF. The fluid can be any one of cerebro spinal fluid, urine and glucose solution. The apparatus further comprises a biofuel cell comprising a cathode chamber and an anode chamber with a membrane assembly sandwiched between them. The membrane assembly comprises a cathode, an anode and a proton exchange membrane. The cathode is coated with an enzyme laccase, which enables extraction of oxygen when the fluid is passed through the cathode chamber. The oxygen from the cathode chamber and the hydrogen in the hydrogen rich fuel from the anode chamber diffuses through the proton exchange membrane and reacts at an ionic level to result in water and electrical power.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2020
    Inventor: Tarkeshwar Chandrakant Patil
  • Patent number: 10700375
    Abstract: A biohybrid dual chamber fuel cell and method for producing sustainable electrical power from unprocessed biomass include a microbial fuel cell (MFC) for processing the biomass into a clean fuel, a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) operatively connected to the microbial fuel cell for oxidizing the clean fuel to generate electrical power and a separation barrier in the form of a reverse osmosis membrane disposed intermediate the MFC and the DAFC which prevents the diffusion of impurities from the MFC into the DAFC and the return flow of oxidation by-products from the DAFC into the MFC.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2020
    Assignee: Teledyne Scientific & Imaging, LLC
    Inventors: Rahul Ganguli, Payam Minoofar, Pavan Narain Mehrotra, Peter Malati
  • Patent number: 10662383
    Abstract: A method for generating hydrocarbons using a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) and a Fischer-Tropsch unit in a single microtubular reactor is described. This method can directly synthesize hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and water. The method integrates high temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 and low temperature Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process in a single microtubular reactor by designation of a temperature gradient along the axial length of the microtubular reactor. In practice, methods disclosed herein can provide direct conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons for use as feedstock or energy storage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Assignee: University of South Carolina
    Inventors: Fanglin Chen, Libin Lei, Tong Liu, Shumin Fang
  • Patent number: 10581105
    Abstract: Fuel cells utilizing liquid sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) reducing agent and fuel cell systems including the same. The fuel cells include a housing defining a housing volume and a reducing agent-containment structure defining a reducing agent-containment volume. The fuel cells also include a volume of NaK reducing agent extending within the reducing agent-containment volume and an anode conductor extending in electrical contact with the NaK reducing agent such that the NaK reducing agent forms at least a portion of an anode electrode of the fuel cell. The fuel cells further include a cathode electrode that extends within the housing volume and is spaced-apart from the NaK reducing agent, an electrolyte present within the housing volume, and an oxidizing agent supply structure configured to provide an oxidizing agent to the housing volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2020
    Inventor: Paul E. DuFresne
  • Patent number: 10336944
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon generation system that combines a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) and a Fischer-Tropsch unit in a single microtubular reactor is described. This system can directly synthesize hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and water. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 and low temperature Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process are integrated in a single microtubular reactor by designation of a temperature gradient along the axial length of the microtubular reactor. The microtubular reactor can provide direct conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons for use as feedstock or energy storage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2019
    Assignee: University of South Carolina
    Inventors: Fanglin Chen, Libin Lei, Tong Liu, Shumin Fang
  • Patent number: 10059215
    Abstract: Some embodiments include an energy source supply appliance. The energy source supply appliance can comprise an appliance energy source supply system, which in turn can comprise a first appliance energy source supply subsystem and a second appliance energy source supply subsystem. The first appliance energy source supply subsystem can be configured to receive a first energy source. Meanwhile, the second appliance energy source supply subsystem can be configured to make available a second energy source to a first receiver vehicle, and the second energy source can be different from the first energy source. Further, the first receiver vehicle can comprise a first drive system, and the first drive system can be configured to use the second energy source received by the first receiver vehicle to motively power the first receiver vehicle. Other embodiments of related systems, devices, and methods also are provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Assignee: A3 LABS, LLC
    Inventors: David Haberman, Tyler Elm
  • Patent number: 9951430
    Abstract: A method for co-processing H2S and CO2 in an electrolyzer includes feeding a first gas stream having H2S to an anode and feeding a second gas stream having CO2 to a cathode. The H2S is split into hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The hydrogen is transferred from the anode to the cathode, and the CO2 is hydrogenated with the transferred hydrogen. A method for producing electricity in a fuel cell includes feeding a first gas stream having H2S and CO to an anode, and feeding a second gas stream having oxygen to a cathode. The H2S and CO forms hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide. The hydrogen is transferred from the anode to the cathode. The transferred hydrogen is oxidized with the oxygen of the second gas stream, and electricity formed from the oxidation is collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2018
    Assignee: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventors: Stamatios Souentie, Alberto Lozano Ballesteros, Fritz Simeon
  • Patent number: 9917335
    Abstract: Methods and systems for detecting and compensating for expansion of rechargeable batteries over time. An expansion detector may be coupled to or positioned proximate a rechargeable battery to monitor for expansion thereof. After expansion exceeding a selected threshold is detected, the expansion detector may report the expansion to an associated processing unit. The processing unit may undertake to arrest further rechargeable battery expansion by modifying or changing one or more characteristics of charging and/or discharging circuitry coupled to the rechargeable battery. For example, the processing unit may charge the rechargeable battery at a lower rate or with reduced voltage after detecting expansion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2018
    Assignee: APPLE INC.
    Inventors: Daniel W. Jarvis, David M. DeMuro, Hongli Dai, Julian Malinski, Julien Marcil, Meng Chi Lee, Richard Hung Minh Dinh, Rishabh Bhargava, Steven D. Sterz, Richard M. Mank, Soundararajan Manthiri, Vijayasekaran Boovaragavan
  • Patent number: 9843064
    Abstract: The present invention provides a regenerative fuel cell comprising an anionic membrane capable of selectively passing anions, wherein the pH of the anolyte and/or catholyte is at least 10. The present invention also relates to a method of operating a regenerative fuel cell comprising an anionic membrane capable of selectively passing anions, wherein the pH of the anolyte and/or catholyte is at least 10.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: IMPERIAL INNOVATIONS LIMITED
    Inventors: Nigel Brandon, Anthony Kucernak, Vladimir Yufit
  • Patent number: 9777391
    Abstract: The present disclosure describes methods and systems comprising hydrodynamic cavitation, microwave irradiation, and at least one of oxidative sonoelectrolysis and reductive sonoelectrolysis, providing feedstock purification of at least one of water, fluid and mineral. Contaminants, broken down and chemically degraded into smaller and more volatile substances by hydrodynamic cavitation are ultimately destroyed in the course of one or more sonoelectrolysis steps. In various embodiments, at least one of oxidative sonoelectrolysis and reductive sonoelectrolysis is irradiated with microwaves in order to heat the sonoplasma present within acoustic cavitation bubbles to temperatures sufficient to destroy contaminants therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: Chiral Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Francis Anthony Nottke, Randolph Edward Seligmann
  • Patent number: 9353450
    Abstract: An electrolyzer apparatus for the electrolytic manufacture of elemental F2 from an electrolyte/HF-solution, e.g., KF×1.8 HF, comprising at least one electrolytic cell which contains at least two anodes, often 20 to 30 anodes, a metallic cathodic vessel, and at least two rectifiers such that each anode is allocated to one rectifier. In this manner, each anode can be controlled and regulated individually. Failure of each individual anode, e.g., anode break, causes the production of undesired side products, e.g., of CF4. Any faulty anode can be detected easily, and each anode can be shut off individually, if needed, and repaired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2016
    Assignee: SOLVAY SA
    Inventors: Philippe Morelle, Joachim Lange, Christoph Sommer
  • Patent number: 9303324
    Abstract: The present disclosure includes a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include a step of contacting the first region with a catholyte comprising carbon dioxide. The method may include another step of contacting the second region with an anolyte comprising a sulfur-based reactant. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region. An additional step of the method may include removing the second product and an unreacted sulfur-based reactant from the second region and recycling the unreacted sulfur-based reactant to the second region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2016
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Jerry J. Kaczur, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 9297082
    Abstract: The present invention relates to processes for making calcium oxide electrolytically using calcium carbonate as a starting material. In a direct process, the present invention involves heating calcium carbonate to a temperature greater than its melting point or heating a molten mixture containing calcium carbonate; and subjecting the molten calcium carbonate or molten mixture to electrolysis to generate calcium oxide and oxygen, and a reduced carbon product. In an indirect process, the present invention involves heating solid calcium carbonate in a closed container to cause thermal decomposition to calcium oxide, and directing the evolved hot carbon dioxide byproduct into a molten carbonate solution, and subjecting the hot carbon dioxide molten mixture to electrolysis to generate solid carbon and oxygen, and a reduced carbon product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2016
    Assignee: The George Washington University
    Inventor: Stuart Licht
  • Publication number: 20150129429
    Abstract: A method for producing electric power from hydrogen and hydrogen from electric power, comprising: a reversible electric power-hydrogen conversion stage comprising a fuel cell stack to produce electric power from stored hydrogen and an electrolytic cell stack to produce hydrogen from electric power; a hydrogen pressure modification stage to modify the pressure of hydrogen supplied to or produced from the reversible electric power-hydrogen conversion stage; an electric power management and conditioning stage to condition electric power from/to the reversible electric power-hydrogen conversion stage; and a management stage to differentially manage the operation of the reversible electric power-hydrogen conversion stage, the hydrogen pressure modification stage and the electric power management and conditioning stage according to whether the system produces electric power from hydrogen or hydrogen from electric power and on a user-settable operation management strategy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 23, 2015
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Applicant: ELECTRO POWER SYSTEMS, S.P.A.
    Inventors: Pierpaolo Cherchi, Luca Baldini, Simone Silvini, Giuseppe Gianolio
  • Publication number: 20150118592
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a reversible electrochemical cell, such as an electrolysis cell for water splitting or for conversion of carbon dioxide and water into fuel. The present invention relates also to an electrochemical cell that when operated in reverse performs as a fuel cell. The electrochemical cell comprises gas5 diffusion electrodes and a porous layer made of materials and having a structure adapted to allow for a temperature range of operation between 100-374° C. and in a pressure range between 3-200 bars.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 11, 2013
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Inventors: Frank Allebrod, Christodoulos Chatzichristodoulou, Pia Lolk Mollerup, Mogens Bjerg Mogensen
  • Publication number: 20150099196
    Abstract: The present invention relates to sodium oxygen cells comprising (A) at least one anode comprising sodium, (B) at least one gas diffusion electrode comprising at least one porous support, and (C) a liquid electrolyte comprising at least one aprotic glycol diether with a molecular weight Mn of not more than 350 g/mol. The present invention further relates to the use of the invention sodium oxygen cells and to a process for preparing sodium supperoxide of formula NaO2.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 20, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Applicant: BASF SE
    Inventors: Arnd Garsuch, Anna Katharina Duerr, Juergen Janek, Philipp Adelhelm, Pascal Hartmann
  • Publication number: 20150017089
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for nitrogen recovery from an ammonium including fluid and a bio-electrochemical system for the same. In an embodiment, the method includes providing an anode compartment including an anode; providing a cathode compartment including a cathode, wherein the compartments are separated by at least one ion exchange membrane; providing the ammonium comprising fluid in the anode compartment and a second fluid in the cathode compartment; applying a voltage between the anode and the cathode; and extracting nitrogen from the cathode compartment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 10, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventors: Philipp Kuntke, Tomas Hubertus Sleutels, Hubertus Victor Hamelers, Machiel Saakes, Cees Jan Buisman
  • Patent number: 8840764
    Abstract: An electrolysis apparatus comprises an electrolysis cell to electrolyze a first fluid to generate a product fluid. The electrolysis apparatus also comprises a fuel cell to electrolyze an electrolytic fluid and to heat a second fluid. The electrolysis apparatus also includes a fluid transfer arrangement to transfer the heated second fluid from the fuel cell to the electrolysis cell to provide heat to drive the electrolysis of the first fluid in the electrolysis cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Cristiano Balestrino, Gerard D. Agnew, Michele Bozzolo
  • Patent number: 8834700
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus of reacting reaction components. The method comprises electro-chemically reacting reaction components on opposite sides of at least one membrane with at least one catalyst encompassing a respective volume. In another embodiment, the method includes conducting electrolysis, such as electrolysis of water. The apparatus includes at least one membrane with first and second sides encompassing a respective volume. The apparatus further includes at least one catalyst coupled to the first and second sides to electro-chemically react reaction components on the first and second sides in gaseous communication with the at least one catalyst, and a cover coupled to the at least one membrane to separate flow paths on the first and second sides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Encite, LLC
    Inventor: Stephen A. Marsh
  • Publication number: 20140183054
    Abstract: An efficient method and system for the electrochemical treatment of waste water comprising organic and/or inorganic pollutants is disclosed. The system comprises an electrolytic cell comprising a solid polymer, proton exchange membrane electrolyte operating without catholyte or other supporting electrolyte. The cell design and operating conditions chosen provide for significantly greater operating efficiency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2012
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Applicant: AXINE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventor: Colleen Legzdins
  • Publication number: 20140076730
    Abstract: A method of harvesting Group I metals from waste materials, including agitating Group I metal-containing materials in water to define a Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, removing any solid material from the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, and filling the cathode portion of an electrochemical cell with the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution. A current collector is introduced into the Group I metal-rich aqueous solution, a steel electrode is operationally connected to the cathode portion, and the cathode portion is operated to deposite Group I metal onto the steel electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2013
    Publication date: March 20, 2014
    Inventor: Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation
  • Patent number: 8674152
    Abstract: The one-step hydrolysis of diverse biomaterials including coal, cellulose materials such as lumber and forestry waste, non-food crop waste, lignin, vegetable oils, animal fats and other source materials used for biofuels under mild processing conditions which results in the formation of a liquid fuel product along with the recovery of a high purity CO2 product is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC
    Inventor: Xin Xiao
  • Publication number: 20140008237
    Abstract: A method of producing a hydrocarbon comprises providing electrical energy to a first fuel cell comprising an anode, cathode, and polymer electrolyte membrane; electrocatalytically oxidizing a hydrogen source by a first catalyst disposed on the anode to produce protons; and electrocatalytically reducing a hydrocarbonaceous source by the protons and a second catalyst disposed on the cathode to produce a hydrocarbon fuel composition, wherein the first and second catalysts are each a solid catalyst, and the anode and cathode are separated by the polymer electrolyte membrane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 6, 2012
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Applicant: THE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS
    Inventors: George W. Huber, Geoffrey A. Tompsett, Sara K. Green, Won Bae Kim, Hyung Ju Kim
  • Patent number: 8617477
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed includes a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments, wherein one compartment is communicated with a hydrogen source and the other compartment is communicated with the hydrocarbon feed to be treated, wherein the membrane comprises a palladium membrane which is modified to have an additional amount of a mix of palladium and other metals (Ni, Ag, Co and Au) between about 4.62*10?3 and 1.62*10?2 g/cm2; and a power source connected across the hydrogen source compartment to generate a current across same, whereby atomic hydrogen is formed from the hydrogen source at a surface of the membrane and diffuses across the membrane to react with the hydrocarbon feed. A process using this apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Intevap, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez, Luiz Felipe D'Elia, Gaudy Rodriguez, Yolimar Gandica
  • Patent number: 8617766
    Abstract: A method for simultaneous co-generation of electric energy and hydrogen by totally electrochemical means which includes an electricity storage phase by electrolysis of an electrolysable metal solution and formation of a hydrogen-electrolysable metal battery cell and, an electricity recovery and hydrogen generation phase by operation of said battery cell. The electrolysable metal is chosen from zinc, nickel and manganese.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Ergosup
    Inventor: Gerard Bienvenu
  • Patent number: 8574422
    Abstract: A process and apparatus are provided for producing hydrogen from a hydrocarbon fuel by combining the fuel with a gas comprising both oxygen and steam, and passing the resulting mixture through a plasma generated by a microwave plasma generator between opposed electrodes. At least one of the electrodes defines a duct for outflow of gaseous material from the vicinity of the plasma, and the gas mixture emerging from the outflow duct contains hydrogen. The fuel undergoes partial oxidation and steam reforming, the reactions being initiated by the plasma rather than by a catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventors: Philip Michael Beech, Stuart Leigh Jones, James Timothy Shawcross
  • Publication number: 20130248376
    Abstract: A process is provided for producing electrolytic decomposition products of water by effecting a DC potential across a membrane comprising ripstop nylon interposed between an anode and a cathode. In electrolyzer mode, the electrochemical process produces hydrogen as well as oxygen products. In fuel-cell mode, the electrochemical process produces electricity from hydrogen and oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2013
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Inventors: Christopher M. McWhinney, David C. Erbaugh
  • Publication number: 20130240369
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for providing an energy supply using a renewable energy source is provided comprising: providing a first source of renewable energy, wherein the first source of renewable energy is intermittent or does not provide a sufficient amount of energy; providing energy from the first source of renewable energy to an electrolyzer to produce an energy carrier through electrolysis; selectably reversing the electrolyzer for use as a fuel cell; and providing the energy carrier to the electrolyzer for the production of energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 2, 2013
    Publication date: September 19, 2013
    Applicant: MCALISTER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
    Inventor: Roy Edward McAlister
  • Publication number: 20130188171
    Abstract: A system and method for determining the pH value of a liquid. The system and method excite the liquid molecules in the liquid by light with a predetermined wavelength and an intensity component, transmitted through the liquid in a predetermined wavelength range, of the light used for excitation is captured. This intensity component is used to produce a wavelength/intensity absorption characteristic and this absorption characteristic is related to a reference absorption characteristic associated with a specific pH value of the liquid. The system and method thus can be used to obtain drinking water from a fuel for aircraft.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 22, 2013
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Applicant: EADS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
    Inventor: EADS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
  • Publication number: 20130186769
    Abstract: In one aspect, the present invention is directed to liquid anodes and fuels for production of metals from their oxides. In one aspect, the invention relates apparatuses for producing a metal from a metal oxide comprising a cathode in electrical contact with an electrolyte, a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, a fuel inlet, and a power supply for establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a fuel inlet, delivering a gaseous fuel comprising hydrogen to the liquid metal anode via the fuel inlet, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2012
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Inventors: Adam Clayton POWELL, Soobhankar PATI, Uday B. PAL, Steven J. DEREZINSKI, III, Steve R. TUCKER
  • Publication number: 20130161200
    Abstract: In the magnesium recovery method and magnesium recovery apparatus, anode electrolyzed water (7a) and cathode electrolyzed water (7b) produced by electrolysis of seawater are separated, alkaline material is inputted into the anode electrolyzed water to adjust pH, magnesium is precipitated as magnesium hydroxide in the cathode electrolyzed water, and recovered, and the anode electrolyzed water after pH adjustment and cathode electrolyzed water after carbonate fixation are intermixed, and discharged in a state where a pH of the intermixed water is identical to a pH of the seawater. As a result, magnesium can be recovered from seawater while minimizing impact on the environment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 6, 2011
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Inventors: Tatsushi Iwamoto, Kenichi Akamine, Junichi Okuyama
  • Publication number: 20130146470
    Abstract: A method for electrochemically converting a carbon dioxide gas into expected products includes using a member reactor. In the method, a membrane reactor includes a cavity, a solid electrolyte membrane separator, a cathode, an anode, and a fuel cell is provided. A cathode electrolyte and the carbon dioxide gas are passed through the cathode, and an anode electrolyte and an anode active material are passed through the anode chamber at the same time. An electrolytic voltage is applied to decompose the carbon dioxide gas into expected products. The expected products include a hydrogen gas and an oxygen gas which are fed back to the fuel cell to generate electric power.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 6, 2012
    Publication date: June 13, 2013
    Applicants: HON HAI PRECISION INDUSTRY CO., LTD., TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: CHENG WANG, CHEN-CHEN ZHAO, ZHI-XIANG LIU, JIAN-WEI GUO, XIANG-MING HE
  • Publication number: 20130146471
    Abstract: A membrane-electrode assembly for use in a reversible fuel cell comprises an ion conductive membrane having first and second surfaces; a first electrocatalyst layer in contact with the first surface of the membrane, such first electrocatalyst layer comprising at least one discrete electrolysis-active area (ELE1i) and at least one discrete energy generation-active area (EG1i). A second electrocatalyst layer is placed in contact with the second surface of the membrane, such second electrocatalyst layer comprising at least one discrete electrolysis-active area (ELE2i) and at least one discrete energy generation-active area (EG2i).
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2011
    Publication date: June 13, 2013
    Applicant: SOLVAY SA
    Inventors: Eric Dubois, Hugo Vandenborre
  • Patent number: 8445146
    Abstract: A fuel purification system includes a fuel cell stack and a fuel purification unit, such as a distillation unit. The fuel cell stack is adapted to provide heat to the fuel purification unit, and the fuel purification unit is adapted to provide a purified fuel to the fuel cell stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Bloom Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Matthias Gottmann
  • Publication number: 20130112569
    Abstract: An energy storage device for a reversible storage of energy has a reversibly designed metal/metal oxide storage unit for indirectly storing energy in form of a fluid material and a reversibly designed electrolysis device for providing and using the fluid material in an electrolysis reaction. The metal/metal oxide storage unit is disposed spatially separated from the electrolysis device. A fluid exchanging unit is provided for exchanging the fluid material between the reversibly designed metal/metal oxide storage unit and the electrolysis device, and a heat exchanging unit is provided for exchanging thermal energy between the metal/metal oxide storage unit and the electrolysis device. Further, a method for a reversible storage of energy is provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 19, 2011
    Publication date: May 9, 2013
    Inventors: Martin Ise, Harald Landes
  • Patent number: 8394252
    Abstract: Provided is a fuel cell or a fuel cell stack, wherein a means for reducing the concentration of unreacted alcohol is disposed on the cathode exhaust gas side. This means comprises in particular an additional electrochemical cell, to which a voltage is applied and which at least partially converts the unreacted alcohol into CO2 and hydrogen or water by way of an electrochemical reduction reaction. Since the concentration of unreacted alcohol is generally low, the loss of power required for the additional reduction reaction does not result in any notable impairment of the efficiency of the fuel cell stack. The invention is thus not limited to direct-methanol fuel cells, but may also be similarly applied to high-temperature fuel cells, and particularly to high-temperature PEM fuel cells, in which the additional electrochemical cell disposed on the cathode exhaust gas side is advantageously able to convert the residual CO.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2013
    Assignee: Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH
    Inventors: Markus Staehler, Martin Mueller
  • Publication number: 20130052548
    Abstract: Process for operating a high temperature fuel cell stack, the process comprising the following steps: b) connecting the fuel cell stack in parallel to a power supply unit at a predefined temperature and/or voltage of the fuel cell stack, h) applying a voltage from the power supply unit of between 700 to 1500 mV per fuel cell across the fuel cell stack irrespective of the electro-motive force of the fuel cell stack, i) heating up the fuel cell stack from the predefined temperature to operation temperature while maintaining the voltage per fuel cell the power supply unit, j) maintaining the fuel cell stack at or above a predetermined operation temperature and/or above a predetermined voltage until the fuel cell stack is to be put into operation, k) supplying fuel to the fuel cell stack, l) disconnecting the power supply unit followed by m) connecting a power-requiring load to the fuel cell stack.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 5, 2010
    Publication date: February 28, 2013
    Applicants: TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK, TOPSOE FUEL CELL A/S
    Inventors: Thomas Nedergaard Clausen, Thomas Rostrup-Nielsen, Rasmus Gottrup Barfod, Peter Vang Hendriksen, Johan Hjelm, Joachim Jacobsen, John Bøgild Hansen
  • Publication number: 20120301801
    Abstract: A system and method for converting, receiving, and/or storing energy to, amongst other things, (i) generate hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide using, for example, a chlor-alakali processing apparatus; (ii) generate hydrochloric Acid (HCl) using, for example, a novel HCl fuel cell; (iii) utilize HCl as a catalyst to hydrolyze cellulosic material into basic sugar water and HCl solution; (iv) utilize an acid/base neutralization combined with electrolysis as a precursor to separating HCl from a sugar water and HCl solution; (v) convert HCl to hydrogen and chlorine gas; (vi) provide a method by which HCl and heated water can be used in the transformation of cellulosic materials into sugars for fermentation into ethanol and/or butanol (vii) provide a method by which acidic waste and additional biomass can be processed through a bio-reactor into methane, fatty acids, and fertilizer; and/or (viii) provide for the desalinization of salt water/brine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2012
    Publication date: November 29, 2012
    Inventor: Alex Wein
  • Publication number: 20120295172
    Abstract: This disclosure relates to electrochemical systems, e.g., a combination of an electrical energy source and an electrical energy storage system having a regenerative fuel cell system, that exhibit operational stability in harsh environments, e.g., both charging and discharging reactions in a regenerative fuel cell in the presence of an acid or a mixture of acids, or a halogen ion or a mixture of halogen ions. The electrochemical systems are capable of conducting both hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) and hydrogen oxidation reactions (HORs) in the same system. The electrochemical systems have low cost, fast response time, and acceptable life and performance. This disclosure also relates to methods of operating the electrochemical systems containing a regenerative fuel cell system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2011
    Publication date: November 22, 2012
    Inventors: Emanuel Peled, Arnon Blum
  • Publication number: 20120282534
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a reversible solid oxide electrochemical cell that may operate in two modes: a discharge mode (power generation) and a charge mode (electrolytic fuel production). A thermal system that utilizes a SOFB and is inclusive of selection of operating conditions that may enable roundtrip efficiencies exceeding about 80% to be realized is disclosed. Based on leverage of existing solid oxide fuel cell technology, the system concept is applicable to energy storage applications on the kW to MW scale.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2012
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Inventors: Robert J. Braun, Robert J. Kee, Scott Barnett
  • Publication number: 20120267251
    Abstract: Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni—YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 6, 2008
    Publication date: October 25, 2012
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
    Inventors: Steven J. Visco, Craig P. Jacobson, Lutgard C. DeJonghe
  • Publication number: 20120267252
    Abstract: Disclosed are an apparatus for generating hydrogen and a fuel cell power generation system that have the same. The apparatus in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention include: an electrolytic bath configured to contain electrolyte solution; an anode placed inside the electrolytic bath and configured to generate an electron; a cathode placed inside the electrolytic bath and configured to generate hydrogen by receiving the electron from the anode; a controller electrically connected to the anode and the cathode, and configured to control flow of electricity between the anode and the cathode; and a mechanical switch electrically connected to the controller in parallel and configured to flow electricity between the anode and the cathode in order to start the controller.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 26, 2012
    Publication date: October 25, 2012
    Applicant: Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kyoung-Soo CHAE, Jae-Hyuk JANG, Chang-Ryul JUNG, Sung-Han KIM, Hye-Yeon CHA, Jae-Hyoung GIL, Bo-Sung KU
  • Patent number: 8293412
    Abstract: A fuel cell system includes a solid oxide reversible fuel cell (SORFC) stack that is adapted to generate an exhaust stream containing hydrogen and water vapor from an outlet of the SORFC stack when the SORFC stack is operated in an electrolysis mode, a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen pump that is adapted to separate at least a portion of the hydrogen contained in the exhaust stream, a first conduit that is adapted to provide the exhaust stream from the outlet of the SORFC stack into an inlet of the PEM hydrogen pump, and a second conduit that is adapted to provide at least a portion of remaining exhaust stream from an outlet of the PEM hydrogen pump into an inlet of the SORFC stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Bloom Energy Corporation
    Inventor: James F. McElroy
  • Patent number: 8273487
    Abstract: A fuel purification system includes a fuel cell stack and a fuel purification unit, such as a distillation unit. The fuel cell stack is adapted to provide heat to the fuel purification unit, and the fuel purification unit is adapted to provide a purified fuel to the fuel cell stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2012
    Assignee: Bloom Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Matthias Gottmann