Hydrocarbon Produced Patents (Class 205/462)
  • Patent number: 10458024
    Abstract: An electrochemical reaction device in an embodiment includes: a reaction vessel including a first accommodating part to accommodate a first electrolytic solution containing carbon dioxide, and a second accommodating part to accommodate a second electrolytic solution containing water; a reduction electrode disposed in the first accommodating part; an oxidation electrode disposed in the second accommodating part; a power supply electrode connected to the reduction electrode and the oxidation electrode; and a third accommodating part to mix a first gas component produced in the first accommodating part with the first electrolytic solution after the first gas component is produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2019
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Ryoto Kitagawa, Satoshi Mikoshiba, Akihiko Ono, Yuki Kudo, Jun Tamura, Eishi Tsutsumi, Yoshitsune Sugano, Asahi Motoshige, Masakazu Yamagiwa, Arisa Yamada
  • Patent number: 9845539
    Abstract: A chemical process captures and convert hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas into elemental sulfur, polysulfide, sulfur dioxide and/or sulfuric acid while regenerating sodium hydroxide capture agent for further use in an initial H2S capture step. Processing may include initial sodium hydroxide scrubbing of gas streams containing H2S, electrochemical regeneration of the sodium hydroxide from sodium hydrosulfide or sodium sulfide, recovery of sulfur and/or sulfur dioxide from the electrochemical processing, and production of sulfuric acid from such sulfur and/or sulfur dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2017
    Inventors: C. Deane Little, Joseph Victor Kosmoski, Yongan Yang, Ryan Patrick O'Hayre, Tim S. Olson
  • Patent number: 9315910
    Abstract: Devices and methods are described for converting a carbon source and a hydrogen source into hydrocarbons, such as alcohols, for alternative energy sources. The influents may comprise carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen gas or water, obtainable from the atmosphere for through methods described herein, such as plasma generation or electrolysis. One method to produce hydrocarbons comprises the use of an electrolytic device, comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte. Another method comprises the use of ultrasonic energy to drive the reaction. The devices and methods and related devices and methods are useful, for example, to provide a fossil fuel alternative energy source, store renewable energy, sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, counteract global warming, and store carbon dioxide in a liquid fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2016
    Assignee: Principle Energy Solutions Inc.
    Inventors: Craig D. Eastman, Douglas R. Hole
  • Patent number: 9109293
    Abstract: An electrocatalyst for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons is provided. The electrocatalyst for the electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide includes copper material supported on carbon nanotubes. The copper material may be pure copper, copper and ruthenium, copper and iron, or copper and palladium supported on the carbon nanotubes. The electrocatalyst is prepared by dissolving copper nitrate trihydrate in deionized water to form a salt solution. Carbon nanotubes are then added to the salt solution to form a suspension, which is then heated. A urea solution is added to the suspension to form the electrocatalyst in solution. The electrocatalyst is then removed from the solution. In addition to dissolving the copper nitrate trihydrate in the deionized water, either iron nitrate monohydrate, ruthenium chloride or palladium chloride may also be dissolved in the deionized water to form the salt solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2015
    Assignees: KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERALS, KING ABDULAZIZ CITY FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Saleem Ur Rahman, Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi, Shakeel Ahmed, Sk Safdar Hossain
  • Publication number: 20150122666
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device and method which, with the use of dopamine in an alkaline aqueous medium, can be used to obtain nitrogen from moist air and to generate other gases, hydrogen in the free or combined state, such as ammonium. The reaction medium is ionic and reinforced by means of electrolysis, using electrodes of different metals and at a temperature and pressure close to ambient conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 5, 2012
    Publication date: May 7, 2015
    Inventor: Marcelo Acosta Estrada
  • Publication number: 20150119542
    Abstract: An electrochemical conversion method for converting at least a portion of a first mixture comprising hydrocarbon to C2+ unsaturates by repeatedly applying an electric potential difference, V(?1), to a first electrode of an electrochemical cell during a first time interval ?1; and reducing the electric potential difference, V(?1), to a second electric potential difference, V(?2), for a second time interval ?2, wherein ?2??1. The method is beneficial, among other things, for reducing coke formation in the electrochemical production of C2+ unsaturates in an electrochemical cell. Accordingly, a method of reducing coke formation in the electrochemical conversion of such mixtures and a method for electrochemically converting carbon to C2+ unsaturates as well as an apparatus for such methods are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2014
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Inventors: Walter Weissman, Sumathy Raman, Mark A. Greaney
  • Publication number: 20150068916
    Abstract: The catalyst for electrochemical dechlorination of hydrocarbons, such as chlorobenzenes, is a d-block transition metal supported by rice husk ash (RHA), preferably rice husk ash-supported platinum or titanium. The catalysts are prepared from rice husk ash by the sol-gel method. In order to dechlorinate chlorinated organic compounds, such as 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, a capillary microreactor is at least partially filled with the d-block transition metal supported by rice husk ash catalyst, a buffer solution having a pH preferably between 7 and 10, and the chlorinated organic compound. An electrical potential of approximately 3 kV is then applied across the capillary microreactor to initiate the dechlorination reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 11, 2013
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Applicant: KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERALS
    Inventors: CHANBASHA BASHEER, ABDULELAH AHMED ALI THABET
  • Publication number: 20150060296
    Abstract: A method for upgrading bio-mass material is provided. The method involves electrolytic reduction of the material in an electrochemical cell having a ceramic, oxygen-ion conducting membrane, where the membrane includes an electrolyte. One or more oxygenated or partially-oxygenated compounds are reduced by applying an electrical potential to the electrochemical cell. A system for upgrading bio-mass material is also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 2, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Elangovan, Mukund Karanjikar
  • Patent number: 8961775
    Abstract: Oils from plants and animal fats are hydrolyzed to fatty acids for a Kolbe reaction. The invention relates to a high productivity Kolbe reaction process for electrochemically decarboxylating C4-C28 fatty acids using small amounts of acetic acid to lower anodic passivation voltage and synthesizing C6-C54 hydrocarbons. The C6-C54 undergo olefin metathesis and/or hydroisomerization reaction process to synthesize heavy fuel oil, diesel fuel, kerosene fuel, lubricant base oil, and linear alpha olefin products useful as precursors for polymers, detergents, and other fine chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Altranex Corporation
    Inventors: Chandrashekhar H. Joshi, Graham Thomas Thornton Gibson, Dzmitry Malevich, Michael Glenn Horner
  • Publication number: 20150014183
    Abstract: A support device for carrying a selectively permeable membrane is disclosed along with apparatuses and methods of removing long chain hydrocarbons from a stream of gas. The gas cleaning apparatus uses, individually or in combination, plasma, catalyst and electrodes containing catalysts to perform the cleaning of the gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 21, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventors: Galip Akay, Wail S. S. Al-Harrasi, Ahmed M. A. El-Naggar, Abdulaziz H. Mohamed, Kui Zhang
  • Publication number: 20150008138
    Abstract: An electrochemical reduction device is provided with an electrode unit, a power control unit, an organic material storage tank, a water storage tank, a gas-liquid separator, and a control unit. The electrode unit has an electrolyte membrane, a reduction electrode, and an oxygen evolving electrode. The electrolyte membrane is formed of an ionomer. A reduction catalyst used for the reduction electrode contains at least one of Pt and Pd. The oxygen evolving electrode contains catalysts of noble metal oxides such as RuO2, IrO2, and the like. The control unit controls the power control unit such that a relationship, VHER?20 mV?VCA?VTRR, can be satisfied when the potential at a reversible hydrogen electrode, the standard redox potential of an aromatic hydrocarbon compound or an N-containing heterocyclic aromatic compound, and the potential of the reduction electrode are expressed as VHER, VTRR, and VCA, respectively.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 23, 2014
    Publication date: January 8, 2015
    Applicant: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Yasushi SATO, Kota MIYOSHI, Kojiro NAKAGAWA, Yoshihiro KOBORI
  • Publication number: 20150008139
    Abstract: A process and related electrode composition are disclosed for the electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived bio-oil components by the production of hydrogen atoms on a catalyst surface followed by the reaction of the hydrogen atoms with the organic compounds in bio-oil. The catalyst is a metal supported on a monolithic high surface area material such as activated carbon cloth. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation stabilizes the bio-oil under mild conditions to reduce coke formation and catalyst deactivation. The process converts oxygen-containing functionalities and unsaturated bonds into chemically reduced forms with an increased hydrogen content. The process is operated at mild conditions, which enables it to be a good means for stabilizing bio-oil to a form that can be stored and transported using metal containers and pipes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2013
    Publication date: January 8, 2015
    Inventors: Christopher M. Saffron, Zhenglong Li, Dennis J. Miller, James E. Jackson
  • Publication number: 20140367274
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole, Paul Majsztrik, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Publication number: 20140353163
    Abstract: Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuels and other products may be produced by a process employing a combination of fermentation and electrochemical stages. In the process, a biomass contained within a fermentation medium is fermented with an inoculum comprising a mixed culture of microorganisms derived the rumen contents of a rumen-containing animal. This inoculated medium is incubated under anaerobic conditions and for a sufficient time to produce volatile fatty acids. The resultant volatile fatty acids are then subjected to electrolysis under conditions effective to convert said volatile fatty acids to hydrocarbons and hydrogen simultaneously. The process can convert a wide range of biomass materials to a wide range of volatile fatty acid chain lengths and can convert these into a wide range of biobased fuels and biobased products.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2014
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Inventors: Anthony B. Kuhry, Paul J. Weimer
  • Publication number: 20140336418
    Abstract: Hydrocarbons may be formed from six carbon sugars. This process involves obtaining a quantity of a hexose sugar. The hexose sugar may be derived from biomass. The hexose sugar is reacted to form an alkali metal levulinate, an alkali metal valerate, an alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or an alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. An anolyte is then prepared for use in a electrolytic cell. The anolyte contains the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. The anolyte is then decarboxylated. This decarboxylating operates to decarboxylate the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate to form radicals, wherein the radicals react to form a hydrocarbon fuel compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 2, 2014
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar
  • Publication number: 20140326610
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell has an electrolyte membrane, a reduction electrode, and an oxygen evolving electrode. The electrolyte membrane is formed of a material having protonic conductivity (ionomer). A reduction catalyst used for the reduction electrode is composed of a composition containing a first catalyst metal (noble metal) that contains at least one of Pt and Pd and containing one or more kinds of second catalyst metals selected from among Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ru, Sn, W, Re, Pb, and Bi. The oxygen evolving electrode contains catalysts of noble metal oxides such as RuO2, IrO2, and the like.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2014
    Publication date: November 6, 2014
    Applicant: JX NIPPON OIL & ENGERGY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yasushi SATO, Kota MIYOSHI, Kojiro NAKAGAWA, Yoshihiro KOBORI
  • Publication number: 20140323784
    Abstract: Oils from plants and animal fats are hydrolyzed to fatty acids for a Kolbe reaction. The invention relates to a high productivity Kolbe reaction process for electrochemically decarboxylating C4-C28 fatty acids using small amounts of acetic acid to lower anodic passivation voltage and synthesizing C6-C54 hydrocarbons. The C6-C54 undergo olefin metathesis and/or hydroisomerization reaction process to synthesize heavy fuel oil, diesel fuel, kerosene fuel, lubricant base oil, and linear alpha olefin products useful as precursors for polymers, detergents, and other fine chemicals.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 15, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Inventors: Chandrashekhar H. Joshi, Graham Thomas Thornton Gibson, Dzmitry Malevich, Michael Glenn Horner
  • Publication number: 20140305805
    Abstract: The invention provides a catalytic electrode for converting molecules, the electrode comprising a predetermined number of single catalytic sites supported on a substrate. Also provided is a method for oxidizing water comprising contacting the water with size selected catalyst clusters. The invention also provides a method for reducing an oxidized moiety, the method comprising contacting the moiety with size selected catalyst clusters at a predetermined voltage potential.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2013
    Publication date: October 16, 2014
    Applicant: UChicago Argonne, LLC
    Inventors: Stefan Vajda, Larry A. Curtiss, Michael J. Pellin
  • Patent number: 8853463
    Abstract: Ketones, specifically Methyl ethyl ketone (“MEK”) and octanedione, may be formed from six carbon sugars. This process involves obtaining a quantity of a six carbon sugar and then reacting the sugar to form levulinic acid and formic acid. The levulinic acid and formic acid are then converted to an alkali metal levulinate and an alkali metal formate (such as, for example, sodium levulinate and sodium formate.) The alkali metal levulinate is placed in an anolyte along with hydrogen gas that is used in an electrolytic cell. The alkali metal levulinate within the anolyte is decarboxylated to form MEK radicals, wherein the MEK radicals react with hydrogen gas to form MEK, or MEK radicals react with each other to form octanedione. The alkali metal formate may also be decarboxylated in the cell, thereby forming hydrogen radicals that react with the MEK radicals to form MEK.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2014
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Mukund Karanjikar, Sai Bhavaraju
  • Publication number: 20140251822
    Abstract: A NaSICON cell is used to convert carbon dioxide into a usable, valuable product. In general, this reaction occurs at the cathode where electrons are used to reduce the carbon dioxide, in the presence of water and/or hydrogen gas, to form formate, methane, ethylene, other hydrocarbons and/or other chemicals. The particular chemical that is formed depends upon the reaction conditions, the voltage applied, etc.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby
  • Publication number: 20140257002
    Abstract: Provided are processes for producing a lube basestock or wax from a feedstock of biological origin, the method including: providing a fatty acid originated from the feedstock of biological origin and an aromatic acid in a solvent comprising a base; and electrically coupling the fatty acid and the aromatic acid to produce a hydrocarbon, wherein the molar concentration of the fatty acid is greater than the molar concentration of the aromatic acid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2013
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY
    Inventors: Kun Wang, Liena Tan
  • Publication number: 20140251821
    Abstract: Methods, equipment, and reagents for preparing organic compounds using custom electrolytes based on different ionic liquids in electrolytic decarboxylation reactions are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby, Patrick McGuire, Mukund Karanjikar, Daniel Taggart, Jacob Staley
  • Patent number: 8828216
    Abstract: Liquid phase processes for producing fuel in a reactor comprising the step of combining at least one oxidizable reactant with liquid water and at least one electrolyte to form a mixture and conducting a fuel-producing reaction in the presence of an electron transfer material, wherein the mixture permits the movement or transport of ions and electrons to facilitate the efficient production of the fuel. An alternative embodiment produces fuel in an electrochemical cell, the reaction characterized by an overall thermodynamic energy balance according to the half-cell reactions occurring at the anode and cathode. Energy generated and/or required by the system components is directed according to the thermodynamic requirements of the half-cell reactions, thereby realizing improved fuel production efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: GRDC, LLC
    Inventor: Maureen A. Grimes
  • Patent number: 8821710
    Abstract: Hydrocarbons may be formed from six carbon sugars. This process involves obtaining a quantity of a hexose sugar. The hexose sugar may be derived from biomass. The hexose sugar is reacted to form an alkali metal levulinate, an alkali metal valerate, an alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or an alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. An anolyte is then prepared for use in a electrolytic cell. The anolyte contains the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. The anolyte is then decarboxylated. This decarboxylating operates to decarboxylate the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate to form radicals, wherein the radicals react to form a hydrocarbon fuel compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar
  • Patent number: 8815074
    Abstract: A method for reducing carbon dioxide with use of a device for reducing carbon dioxide includes steps of (a) preparing the device. The device includes a vessel, a cathode electrode and an anode electrode. An electrolytic solution is stored in the vessel, the cathode electrode contains a copper rubeanate metal organic framework, the copper rubeanate metal organic framework is in contact with the electrolytic solution, the anode electrode is in contact with the electrolytic solution, and the electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The method further includes step of (b) applying a voltage difference between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode so as to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Reiko Taniguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi
  • Patent number: 8808529
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a system for providing a renewable source of material resources is provided comprising: a first source of renewable energy; first stream of materials from a first materials source; an electrolyzer coupled to the first source of renewable energy and the first stream of materials, wherein the electrolyzer is configured to produce a first material resource by electrolysis; a processor for further processing or use or the material resource to produce a second material resource, wherein the processor comprises a solar collector and where the solar collector is configured to provide heat to the first materials resource for disassociation; and a material resource storage coupled to the electrolyzer for receiving the material resource from the electrolyzer or providing the material resource to the processor for further processing or use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignee: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy E. McAlister
  • Publication number: 20140183053
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products. The method involves obtaining a sodium salt of a sulfonic acid (R—SO3—Na). The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the sulfonic acid desulfoxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Applicant: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Justin Pendleton
  • Publication number: 20140151240
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a system comprising an absorber; the absorber being operative to extract carbon dioxide from a flue gas stream to form a carbon capture solution that is rich in carbon dioxide; and an electrolytic cell disposed downstream of the absorber; where the electrolytic cell is operative to reduce carbon dioxide present in the carbon capture solution. Disclosed herein too is a method comprising discharging a flue gas stream from a flue gas generator to an absorber; contacting the flue gas stream with a carbon capture solution; extracting carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream to form a carbon dioxide rich carbon capture solution; discharging the carbon dioxide rich carbon capture solution to an electrolytic cell; and reducing the carbon dioxide to a hydrocarbon in the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2012
    Publication date: June 5, 2014
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventors: Stephen Allan Bedell, Michal Bialkowski, Turgay Pekdemir
  • Publication number: 20140154766
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products from biomass. The method involves obtaining a lipid or carboxylic acid material from the biomass. This material may be a carboxylic acid, an ester of a carboxylic acid, a triglyceride of a carboxylic acid, or a metal salt of a carboxylic acid, or any other fatty acid derivative. This lipid material or carboxylic acid material is converted into an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the carboxylic acid decarboxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 5, 2013
    Publication date: June 5, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Mukund Karanjikar, Sai Bhavaraju, Ashok V. Joshi, Pallavi Chitta, David Joel Hunt
  • Publication number: 20140144787
    Abstract: The invention relates to nanotechnology and to producing graphane and graphane-like materials and associated structures, which can be used to create hydrogen fuel cell energy, particularly for transportation systems as well as for creating nanoelectronic systems, based on the use of graphene with controllable electronic properties. The method includes grapheme, or several layers of graphene, placed in water or electrolytic solution, an anode, a cathode, and an adjustable voltage source, where the graphene's potential is lower than the anode's potential. The technical result is an increase in the rate of hydrogenation reactions, which simplifies and lowers the cost of technologies necessary for producing graphane fuel cells and creating conditions to enable their mass production.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 24, 2012
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Inventors: Arkadiy Ilin, Nazim Guseinov, Renata Nemkaeva, Ivan Tsyganov, Boris Borissov
  • Publication number: 20140090985
    Abstract: A process and system for reducing the sulfur content from a mixture of hydrocarbons and oxidized sulfur-containing hydrocarbons is provided by electrochemical decomposition. The electrochemical reactions occur under electrical potential and in the presence of an electrolyte solution that is effective promote decomposition of a portion of the oxidized sulfur compounds, to recover a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content while minimizing loss of hydrocarbon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2013
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Applicant: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventors: Omer Refa Koseoglu, Abdennour Bourane, Adnan Al-Hajji
  • Publication number: 20140090986
    Abstract: Features for an aqueous reactor include a field generator. The field generator includes a series of parallel conductive plates including a series of intermediate neutral plates. The intermediate neutral plates are arranged in interleaved sets between an anode and a cathode. Other features of the aqueous reactor may include a sealed reaction vessel, fluid circulation manifold, electrical power modulator, vacuum port, and barrier membrane. Methods of using the field generator include immersion in an electrolyte solution and application of an external voltage and vacuum to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. The reactor and related components can be arranged to produce gaseous fuel or liquid fuel. In one use, a mixture of a carbon based material and a liquid hydrocarbon is added. The preferred carbon based material is powdered coal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 23, 2012
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Inventor: Gary J. Bethurem
  • Patent number: 8658016
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capture of carbon dioxide and electrochemical conversion of the captured carbon dioxide to organic products are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce a solvent to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. Step (B) may capture carbon dioxide with at least one of guanidine, a guanidine derivative, pyrimidine, or a pyrimidine derivative to form a carbamic zwitterion. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between an anode and a cathode sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbamic zwitterion to a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8647492
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products from biomass. The method involves obtaining a lipid or carboxylic acid material from the biomass. This material may be a carboxylic acid, an ester of a carboxylic acid, a triglyceride of a carboxylic acid, or a metal salt of a carboxylic acid, or any other fatty acid derivative. This lipid material or carboxylic acid material is converted into an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the carboxylic acid decarboxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Mukund Karanjikar, Sai Bhavaraju, Ashok V. Joshi, Pallavi Chitta, David Joel Hunt
  • Patent number: 8647493
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include a step of contacting the first region with a catholyte comprising carbon dioxide. The method may include another step of contacting the second region with an anolyte comprising a recycled reactant. The method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region. The second product may be removed from the second region and introduced to a secondary reactor. The method may include forming the recycled reactant in the secondary reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur
  • Publication number: 20140034506
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8617375
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode (21), a counter electrode (23) and a vessel (28). The vessel (28) stores an electrolytic solution (27). The working electrode (21) contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution (27) contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode (21) and the counter electrode (23) are in contact with the electrolytic solution (27). A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi
  • Patent number: 8617477
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed includes a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments, wherein one compartment is communicated with a hydrogen source and the other compartment is communicated with the hydrocarbon feed to be treated, wherein the membrane comprises a palladium membrane which is modified to have an additional amount of a mix of palladium and other metals (Ni, Ag, Co and Au) between about 4.62*10?3 and 1.62*10?2 g/cm2; and a power source connected across the hydrogen source compartment to generate a current across same, whereby atomic hydrogen is formed from the hydrogen source at a surface of the membrane and diffuses across the membrane to react with the hydrocarbon feed. A process using this apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Intevap, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez, Luiz Felipe D'Elia, Gaudy Rodriguez, Yolimar Gandica
  • Publication number: 20130327654
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for a photocatalytic and electrolytic catalyst includes in various aspects one or more catalysts, a method for forming a catalyst, an electrolytic cell, and a reaction method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: December 12, 2013
    Inventors: Tara Cronin, Ed Ite Chen
  • Patent number: 8596047
    Abstract: The vehicle electrocatalyzer for recycling carbon dioxide to fuel hydrocarbons includes a main tubular member having a plurality of tubular catalytic cells, electrically connected in series disposed inside and separated from one another by semipermeable membranes allowing the passage of fluids, but not solids. The electrocatalyzer can be attached in the exhaust system where hydrogen could be generated by the electrolysis of water. Metallic copper, iron, carbonaceous materials (such as activated carbon, carbon nanomaterials, or graphite), metal oxides, or metal-supported catalysts may be used in each catalytic cell. A DC current connected across the cells is used to initiate reaction of the carbon dioxide with hydrogen gas. The resulting hydrocarbons are recycled back to the vehicle engine and used as a makeup fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignees: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
    Inventors: Reyad Awwad Khalaf Shawabkeh, Abdalla Mahmoud Abulkibash, Muhammad A. Al-Saleh
  • Patent number: 8597488
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present disclosure includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode and a vessel. The vessel stores an electrolytic solution. The working electrode contains at least one nitride selected from the group consisting of titanium nitride, zirconium nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, molybdenum nitride and iron nitride. The electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the electrolytic solution. A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masahiro Deguchi, Yuji Zenitani, Reiko Taniguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi
  • Publication number: 20130313127
    Abstract: The invention provides an organic compound(s) hydrogenation device that allows hydrogen derived from water to be stored essentially without generating hydrogen gas. The organic compound hydrogenation device of the invention comprises an oxidation chamber that holds a water-containing electrolyte, a reduction chamber that holds an organic compound(s) with an unsaturated bond, an electrolyte membrane with ion permeability that separates the electrolyte held in the oxidation chamber from the organic compound(s) held in the reduction chamber, an oxidizing electrode that generates protons from the water held in the oxidation chamber, and a reducing electrode that hydrogenates the organic compound(s) held in the reduction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 28, 2011
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Applicants: THE UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO, JX NIPPON OIL & ENERGY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yasushi Sato, Yoshihiro Kobori, Shunsuke Maekawa, Kazunari Domen, Jun Kubota, Masakazu Higuchi, Kazuhiro Takanabe
  • Publication number: 20130233722
    Abstract: In a first aspect, a method for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds comprises: contacting an aqueous electrolyte, a powered electrode including a catalyst, and a gaseous methane feedstock in a reaction area; and activating the methane in an aqueous electrochemical reaction to generate methyl radicals at the powered electrode and yield a Song chained hydrocarbon. In a second aspect, method for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds comprises: contacting an aqueous electrolyte with a catalyst in a reaction area; introducing a gaseous methane feedstock directly into the reaction area under pressure; and reacting the aqueous electrolyte, the catalyst, and the gaseous methane feedstock at temperatures in the range of ?10 C to 1000 C and at pressures in the range of 0.1 ATM to 100 ATM.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Publication date: September 12, 2013
    Applicant: VICEROY CHEMICAL
    Inventor: Ed Ite Chen
  • Publication number: 20130228470
    Abstract: A process for converts carbon-based gases such as non-polar organic gases and carbon oxides to longer chained organic gases such as liquid hydrocarbons, longer chained gaseous hydrocarbons, branched-chain liquid hydrocarbons, branched-chain gaseous hydrocarbons, as well as chained and branched-chain organic compounds. In general, the method is for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds, including chain lengthening, and eventual conversion into liquids including, but not limited to, hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Publication date: September 5, 2013
    Applicant: Viceroy Chemical
    Inventor: Ed Ite Chen
  • Patent number: 8506789
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products from biomass. The method involves obtaining a lipid or carboxylic acid material from the biomass. This material may be a carboxylic acid, an ester of a carboxylic acid, a triglyceride of a carboxylic acid, or a metal salt of a carboxylic acid, or any other fatty acid derivative. This lipid material or carboxylic acid material is converted into an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the carboxylic acid decarboxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar, Ashok V. Joshi, David Joel Hunt, Pallavi Chitta
  • Publication number: 20130157174
    Abstract: Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO?, H2CO, (HCO2)?, H2CO2, CH3OH, CH4, C2H4, CH3CH2OH, CH3COO?, CH3COOH, C2H6, (COOH)2, or (COO?)2, and a specific device, namely, a CO2 sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2012
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Amin Salehi-Khojin
  • Publication number: 20130140187
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Patent number: 8444845
    Abstract: A process for producing a fuel, which comprises the step of performing electrolysis on an alcoholic solution or a melt of a fatty acid or salt thereof or fatty acid ester or other derivative or precursor thereof, to decarboxylate said fatty acid or derivative, and produce a mixture of an ether and an alkene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Inventor: Rainer Busch
  • Publication number: 20130118910
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: May 16, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Patent number: 8409419
    Abstract: The invention provides methods of forming lower alkyls and alcohols from carbon sources thermally and/or electrolytically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Inventor: Paul R. Kruesi