Preparing Organic Compound Patents (Class 205/413)
  • Patent number: 10590548
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides systems and methods for producing carbon products via electrochemical reduction from fluid streams containing a carbon-containing material, such as, for example, carbon dioxide. Electrochemical reduction systems and methods of the present disclosure may comprise micro- or nanostructured membranes for separation and catalytic processes. The electrochemical reduction systems and methods may utilize renewable energy sources to generate a carbon product comprising one or more carbon atoms (C1+ product), such as, for example, fuel. This may be performed at substantially low (or nearly zero) net or negative carbon emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2020
    Assignee: Prometheus Fuels, Inc
    Inventor: Robert McGinnis
  • Patent number: 10329676
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a method and system for the reduction of carbon dioxide. The method may include receiving hydrogen gas at an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode, the anode including a gas diffusion electrode, receiving an anolyte feed at an anolyte region of the electrochemical cell, and receiving a catholyte feed including carbon dioxide and an alkali metal bicarbonate at a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode. The method may include applying an electrical potential between the anode and cathode sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to at least one reduction product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: Avantium Knowledge Centre B.V.
    Inventors: Jerry J. Kaczur, Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 9868917
    Abstract: Apparatus and related methods for reacting a natural oil with a short chain alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst and mesh to produce biodiesel, significantly decreasing the amount of time for the glycerol byproduct to settle out of the reaction mixture. The process for the production of biodiesel includes providing animal or vegetable oil to create a first component, combining a short chain alcohol with a strong base to create a second component, and combining the first and second components together in the presence of a mesh, such that the mesh is in contact with the combined components. The combined compositions represent a reaction mixture that undergo a transesterification reaction and produce fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and also a glycerol byproduct. The mesh material that is present during the transesterification reaction decreases the amount of time required for the glycerol byproduct to settle out of the reaction mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Inventors: Jeffery Thompson, John K. Cooper, Mario A. Oyanader
  • Patent number: 9840782
    Abstract: A process and system for the electrochemical production of graphene, graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, graphene/graphene oxide metal composites, graphene/graphene oxide coated substrates and graphene/graphene oxide metal composite coated substrates in a single step process involving no secondary purifications utilizes an electrochemical cell containing electrodes with variable gaps including a zero gap, containing an anode electrode including graphite, a cathode electrode including electrically conductive material with an electrolyte-free electrochemical bath including water and an organic liquid that produces joule heating along with oxygen embrittlement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Kalathur S. V. Santhanam, Satish G. Kandlikar, Valentina Mejia, Yang Yue
  • Patent number: 9625410
    Abstract: Devices and methods are employed to detect substances in a medium. The device comprises an electrogenic bacterium that selectively interacts with a substance to produce electrons. A portion of the electrons provides power to the device and a portion of the electrons generates a signal as an indication of the presence of a substance in the medium. The method comprises contacting the electrogenic bacterium of the device with a medium suspected of containing the substance and measuring the signal generated by the electrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2017
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Jocelyn Hicks-Garner, Adam F. Gross, Tina T. Salguero
  • Patent number: 9598780
    Abstract: Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical cells for the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and/or 2,5-diformylfuran are provided. Also provided are methods of using the cells to carry out the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and/or 2,5-diformylfuran.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Inventors: Kyoung-Shin Choi, Hyun Gil Cha
  • Patent number: 9340420
    Abstract: A reactor comprising a first zone comprising a dehydrogenation catalyst and a second zone separated from said first zone by a proton conducting membrane comprising a mixed metal oxide of formula (I) LnaWbO12?y wherein Ln is Y or an element numbered 57 to 71; the molar ratio of a:b is 4.8 to 6, preferably 5.3 to 6; and y is a number such that formula (I) is uncharged, e.g. y is 0?y?1.8.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: Protia AS
    Inventors: Christian Kjølseth, Per Christian Vestre
  • Patent number: 9234285
    Abstract: A method of using clathrate hydrates (including ammonia clathrates), in electrochemical transformations. Noted are converting clathrate guest molecules such as CO2, CH4, alkanes, and alkenes; and, optionally, the use of clathrates-promoting molecules such as tetra hydro furan, to produce higher value carbon molecules including propane and formic acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2016
    Assignee: Brown University
    Inventors: Christoph Rose-Petruck, G. Tayhas R. Palmore, Daniel DeCiccio, Steven Ahn
  • Patent number: 9209476
    Abstract: The invention concerns the use as a redox a catalyst and/or mediator in a fuel cell catholyte solution of the compound of Formula (I) wherein: X is selected from hydrogen and from various functional groups; R1-8 are independently selected from hydrogen and various functional groups; wherein R1 and X and/or R5 and X may together form an optionally substituted ring structure; wherein R1 and R2 and/or R2 and R3 and/or R3 and R4 and/or R4 and R8 and/or R8 and R7 and/or R7 and R6 and/or R6 and R5 may together form an optionally substituted ring structure; wherein (L) indicates the optional presence of a linking bond or group between the two neighboring aromatic rings of the structure, and when present may form an optionally substituted ring structure with one or both of R4 and R8; and wherein at least one substituent group of the structure is a charge-modifying substituent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2015
    Assignee: ACAL ENERGY LIMITED
    Inventors: Kathryn Knuckey, David Rochester, Andrew Martin Creeth
  • Publication number: 20150144499
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrochemical cell, particularly useful in electrochemical processes carried out with periodic reversal of polarity. The cell is equipped with concentric pairs of electrodes arranged in such a way that, in each stage of the process, the cathodic area is equal to the anodic area.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 16, 2013
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventor: Mariachiara Benedetto
  • Patent number: 8961775
    Abstract: Oils from plants and animal fats are hydrolyzed to fatty acids for a Kolbe reaction. The invention relates to a high productivity Kolbe reaction process for electrochemically decarboxylating C4-C28 fatty acids using small amounts of acetic acid to lower anodic passivation voltage and synthesizing C6-C54 hydrocarbons. The C6-C54 undergo olefin metathesis and/or hydroisomerization reaction process to synthesize heavy fuel oil, diesel fuel, kerosene fuel, lubricant base oil, and linear alpha olefin products useful as precursors for polymers, detergents, and other fine chemicals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Altranex Corporation
    Inventors: Chandrashekhar H. Joshi, Graham Thomas Thornton Gibson, Dzmitry Malevich, Michael Glenn Horner
  • Patent number: 8858777
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to organic products including formate and formic acid are provided. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce an acidic anolyte to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce a bicarbonate-based catholyte saturated with carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a high surface area cathode including indium and having a void volume of between about 30% to 98%. At least a portion of the bicarbonate-based catholyte is recycled. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to reduce the carbon dioxide to at least one of a single-carbon based product or a multi-carbon based product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Jerry J. Kaczur, Theodore J. Kramer, Kunttal Keyshar, Paul Majsztrik, Zbigniew Twardowski
  • Publication number: 20140303056
    Abstract: Methods for generating aldehyde-containing compounds in organic seed oils utilizing ozone and direct current without the use of added electrolytes and reducing compounds are disclosed, as are compositions generated by such methods. The reactions can be performed efficiently at ambient temperatures and pressures. These compositions have particular utility as additives to fuels and lubricating oils derived from petrochemical sources.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2014
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Applicant: Colorado Energy Research Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Wayne J. Powell
  • Patent number: 8845876
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include a step of contacting the first region with a catholyte comprising carbon dioxide. The method may include another step of contacting the second region with an anolyte comprising a recycled reactant and at least one of an alkane, haloalkane, alkene, haloalkene, aromatic compound, haloaromatic compound, heteroaromatic compound or halo-heteroaromatic compound. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur
  • Patent number: 8845875
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole, Paul Majsztrik, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Publication number: 20140251821
    Abstract: Methods, equipment, and reagents for preparing organic compounds using custom electrolytes based on different ionic liquids in electrolytic decarboxylation reactions are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby, Patrick McGuire, Mukund Karanjikar, Daniel Taggart, Jacob Staley
  • Patent number: 8821709
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8808529
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a system for providing a renewable source of material resources is provided comprising: a first source of renewable energy; first stream of materials from a first materials source; an electrolyzer coupled to the first source of renewable energy and the first stream of materials, wherein the electrolyzer is configured to produce a first material resource by electrolysis; a processor for further processing or use or the material resource to produce a second material resource, wherein the processor comprises a solar collector and where the solar collector is configured to provide heat to the first materials resource for disassociation; and a material resource storage coupled to the electrolyzer for receiving the material resource from the electrolyzer or providing the material resource to the processor for further processing or use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignee: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy E. McAlister
  • Publication number: 20140124380
    Abstract: A method for producing organic liquid fuels and other valuable products in which an organic compound is provided to an anode electrode having a metal oxide catalyst disposed on an anode side of an electrolyte membrane, thereby producing an organic liquid fuel and/or other valuable organic product and electrons on the anode side. The electrons are conducted to a cathode electrode disposed on a cathode side of the electrolyte membrane, thereby transforming water provided to the cathode side to H2 gas and hydroxide ions. The method is carried out at a temperature less than or equal to about 160° C., preferably at room temperature.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Publication date: May 8, 2014
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Patent number: 8647490
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing a micro wire, a sensor including the micro wire, and a method for manufacturing the sensor, having improved production efficiency. According to an embodiment of the present invention, a method for manufacturing a micro wire includes applying a three-dimensional electric field to a solution for forming a micro wire. The method for manufacturing the micro wire may further include providing an electrode assembly comprising a substrate, a first electrode and a second electrode formed on the substrate, and providing the solution to a space. The first electrode and the second electrode may form the space therebetween, and the space may have a first width and a second width that is smaller than the first width. The three-dimensional electric field is applied to the solution by applying a voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Postech Academy-Industry Foundation
    Inventors: WooSeok Choi, Guenbae Lim, Tae-Chang An
  • Publication number: 20140034506
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8641885
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Patent number: 8617477
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed includes a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments, wherein one compartment is communicated with a hydrogen source and the other compartment is communicated with the hydrocarbon feed to be treated, wherein the membrane comprises a palladium membrane which is modified to have an additional amount of a mix of palladium and other metals (Ni, Ag, Co and Au) between about 4.62*10?3 and 1.62*10?2 g/cm2; and a power source connected across the hydrogen source compartment to generate a current across same, whereby atomic hydrogen is formed from the hydrogen source at a surface of the membrane and diffuses across the membrane to react with the hydrocarbon feed. A process using this apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Intevap, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez, Luiz Felipe D'Elia, Gaudy Rodriguez, Yolimar Gandica
  • Patent number: 8617375
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode (21), a counter electrode (23) and a vessel (28). The vessel (28) stores an electrolytic solution (27). The working electrode (21) contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution (27) contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode (21) and the counter electrode (23) are in contact with the electrolytic solution (27). A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi
  • Publication number: 20130327654
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for a photocatalytic and electrolytic catalyst includes in various aspects one or more catalysts, a method for forming a catalyst, an electrolytic cell, and a reaction method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: December 12, 2013
    Inventors: Tara Cronin, Ed Ite Chen
  • Patent number: 8568581
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8506789
    Abstract: A method that produces coupled radical products from biomass. The method involves obtaining a lipid or carboxylic acid material from the biomass. This material may be a carboxylic acid, an ester of a carboxylic acid, a triglyceride of a carboxylic acid, or a metal salt of a carboxylic acid, or any other fatty acid derivative. This lipid material or carboxylic acid material is converted into an alkali metal salt. The alkali metal salt is then used in an anolyte as part of an electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell may include an alkali ion conducting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). When the cell is operated, the alkali metal salt of the carboxylic acid decarboxylates and forms radicals. Such radicals are then bonded to other radicals, thereby producing a coupled radical product such as a hydrocarbon. The produced hydrocarbon may be, for example, saturated, unsaturated, branched, or unbranched, depending upon the starting material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar, Ashok V. Joshi, David Joel Hunt, Pallavi Chitta
  • Publication number: 20130140187
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Publication number: 20130036945
    Abstract: CO2-sequestering formed building materials are provided. The building materials of the invention include a composition comprising a carbonate/bicarbonate component. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the CO2-sequestering formed building material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2012
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Applicant: CALERA CORPORATION
    Inventor: CALERA CORPORATION
  • Publication number: 20130008800
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capture of carbon dioxide and electrochemical conversion of the captured carbon dioxide to organic products are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce a solvent to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. Step (B) may capture carbon dioxide with at least one of guanidine, a guanidine derivative, pyrimidine, or a pyrimidine derivative to form a carbamic zwitterion. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between an anode and a cathode sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbamic zwitterion to a product mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Publication date: January 10, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventors: Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8263488
    Abstract: The invention relates to the deposition or attachment of materials to surfaces. It relates to a process for coating a surface with a first material and a second material, comprising the following steps: placing the first material on the said surface, inserting into the first material placed on the said surface precursor molecules of the second material, converting the said precursor molecules of the second material inserted into the first material into the said second material such that this second material becomes formed on the said surface to be coated and within the said first material placed on the said surface. The object of the process of the invention is to allow the deposition of materials of any type onto surfaces of any type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2012
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventors: Pascal Viel, Sami Ameur, Christophe Bureau
  • Publication number: 20120199492
    Abstract: A bioelectrochemical system includes a housing defining an internal chamber. A barrier is disposed within the housing and at least partially separates the internal chamber into first and second compartments. The first compartment including at least one of autotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms disposed therein. A cathode is disposed within the first compartment and is coupled to a power supply, and an anode is disposed within the second compartment and is coupled to the power supply. The carbon dioxide received within the first chamber is transformed into an organic compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2012
    Publication date: August 9, 2012
    Applicant: NEXT FUEL, INC.
    Inventors: Song Jin, Paul Harold Fallgren, Zhiyong (Jason) Ren, Robert H. Craig
  • Patent number: 8183421
    Abstract: A method for producing biofuels from biomass in which a refined biomass material is introduced into a non-Faradaic electrochemical device, preferably at a temperature greater than or equal to about 150° C., and deoxygenated and/or decarboxylated in said device to produce an increased carbon chain fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2012
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Patent number: 8105474
    Abstract: An electrochemical device having a proton exchange membrane disposed between an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, an anode plate adjacent the anode electrode and forming at least one anode flow channel, and a cathode plate adjacent the cathode electrode and forming at least one cathode flow channel, in which a bio-oil is introduced into the at least one anode flow channel, and a carbohydrate is introduced into the at least one cathode flow channel. The bio-oil is oxidized at the anode, producing the biofuel, and protons from the anode electrode migrate to the cathode electrode and are reduced to hydrogen and/or reacted with the carbohydrate at the cathode, producing hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen biofuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2012
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Publication number: 20120000788
    Abstract: An electrolytic method of a fuel capable of suppressing reverse reaction of an enzyme and improving electrolytic rate is provided. In electrolyzing a fuel such as glucose by using an enzyme/electron mediator obtained by immobilizing an enzyme such as gluconate-5-dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase and an electron mediator onto a porous electrode made of a carbon material, electrode reaction is generated only in the enzyme/electron mediator electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 2, 2010
    Publication date: January 5, 2012
    Applicant: SONY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Ryuhei Matsumoto, Yoshio Goto, Hideki Sakai, Yuichi Tokita
  • Publication number: 20110315560
    Abstract: A process for producing one or more chemical compounds comprising the steps of providing a bioelectrochemical system having an anode and a cathode separated by a membrane, the anode and the cathode being electrically connected to each other, causing oxidation to occur at the anode and causing reduction to occur at the cathode to thereby produce reducing equivalents at the cathode, providing the reducing equivalents to a culture of microorganisms, and providing carbon dioxide to the culture of microorganisms, whereby the microorganisms produce the one or more chemical compounds, and recovering the one or chemical compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 17, 2009
    Publication date: December 29, 2011
    Applicant: THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND
    Inventors: Korneel P.H.L.A. Rabaey, Rene A. Rozendal
  • Patent number: 8002969
    Abstract: A method for upgrading a petroleum oil by a hydroprocessing reaction in which the oil is hydrogenated, includes the steps of: a. forming a liquid reaction mixture of the oil with water and an amphiphilic liquid in predetermined proportions to thereby render the oil and water miscible; b. introducing the liquid reaction mixture into an electrolytic reactor having one or more cathodic elements formed from a porous high surface area, conductive material; c. operating the reactor to form reactive hydrogen atoms whereby the oil is hydrogenated by the hydrogen atoms; d. removing the liquid mixture from the reactor; and e. separating the hydrogenated upgraded oil from the amphiphilic liquid and any remaining water, e.g., by distillation, recovering and recycling the amphiphilic liquid for use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2011
    Assignee: Saudi Arabian Oil Company
    Inventor: Esam Zaki Hamad
  • Patent number: 7972492
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the electrochemical transformation of a compound to form a product, the process comprising (i) effecting the transformation in the presence of an electrolyte comprising at least one room temperature ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid is air-stable and moisture-stable, (ii) recovering the product, and optionally (iii) recovering the ionic liquid. The process can be used to effect the electrochemical transformation of a wide range of organic compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2011
    Assignee: The Queen's University of Belfast
    Inventors: William R. Pitner, Kenneth R. Seddon, Kenneth M. Stack, Alan Curzons, Richard Freer
  • Patent number: 7964084
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for activation of a low reactivity, non-polar chemical compound. In one example embodiment, the method comprises introducing the low reactivity chemical compound to a catalyst. At least one of (a) an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent and (b) a polar compound is provided to the catalyst and the chemical compound. An alternating current is applied to the catalyst to produce an activation reaction in the chemical compound. This activation reaction produces a useful product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2011
    Assignees: Catelectric Corp., The University of Connecticut
    Inventors: Victor Stancovski, Steven Lawrence Suib, Boxun Hu
  • Patent number: 7950221
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods and apparatus for controlling catalytic processes, including catalyst regeneration and soot elimination. An alternating current is applied to a catalyst layer and a polarization impedance of the catalyst layer is monitored. The polarization impedance may be controlled by varying the asymmetrical alternating current. At least one of water, oxygen, steam and heat may be provided to the catalyst layer to enhance an oxidation reaction for soot elimination and/or to regenerate the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2011
    Assignee: Catelectric Corp.
    Inventor: Victor Stancovski
  • Publication number: 20110070510
    Abstract: In one embodiment of the present invention, a system for providing a renewable source of material resources is provided comprising: a first source of renewable energy; first stream of materials from a first materials source; an electrolyzer coupled to the first source of renewable energy and the first stream of materials, wherein the electrolyzer is configured to produce a first material resource by electrolysis; a processor for further processing or use or the material resource to produce a second material resource, wherein the processor comprises a solar collector and where the solar collector is configured to provide heat to the first materials resource for disassociation; and a material resource storage coupled to the electrolyzer for receiving the material resource from the electrolyzer or providing the material resource to the processor for further processing or use.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 16, 2010
    Publication date: March 24, 2011
    Applicant: McAlister Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Roy E. McAlister
  • Publication number: 20110042229
    Abstract: An electrochemical device having a proton exchange membrane disposed between an anode electrode and a cathode electrode, an anode plate adjacent the anode electrode and forming at least one anode flow channel, and a cathode plate adjacent the cathode electrode and forming at least one cathode flow channel, in which a bio-oil is introduced into the at least one anode flow channel, and a carbohydrate is introduced into the at least one cathode flow channel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 18, 2009
    Publication date: February 24, 2011
    Applicant: GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Publication number: 20100258447
    Abstract: A method for producing biofuels from biomass in which a refined biomass material is introduced into a non-Faradaic electrochemical device, preferably at a temperature greater than or equal to about 150° C., and deoxygenated and/or decarboxylated in said device to produce an increased carbon chain fuel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 9, 2009
    Publication date: October 14, 2010
    Applicant: GAS TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Publication number: 20100252441
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present disclosure include an anode, devices and systems including the anode (e.g., electrochemical devices and photo-electrochemical devices), methods of using the anode, methods of producing H2 and O2 from H2O, Cl2, oxidixed organic feedstocks, oxidation for the detection and quantification of chemical species, and the like.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2010
    Publication date: October 7, 2010
    Inventors: Christopher Elisha Dunn Chidsey, Paul C. McIntyre
  • Patent number: 7767073
    Abstract: Use of an organic compound salt of general formula A-XY??(I) wherein A means an organic residue, X means a charged group and Y means a counter-ion, as a reagent in an electrochemical reaction and organic compound salt corresponding to the formula R1R2ZC-T-Q-XY wherein X is a charged group, Y is a counter-ion, Z is a group capable of being substituted, R1 and R2 mean organic residues, T means a group containing a hetero atom selected among N-R4, O and S, and Q means a connecting group linking the hetero atom and the charged group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignee: Solvay S.A.
    Inventors: Roland Callens, Frank Becu, Frans Borremans, Franky Fant
  • Patent number: 7713401
    Abstract: A method for the electrochemical synthesis of dinitro compounds is disclosed. The method comprises using an anode to oxidize an inactive chemical mediator, such as a ferrocyanide (Fe(CN)6?4) ion, to an active chemical mediator or oxidizing agent, such as a ferricyanide (Fe(CN)6?3) ion, in the presence of a differential voltage. The oxidizing agent reacts with a nitro compound and a nitrite ion to form a geminal dinitro compound. The anode may continuously oxidize ferrocyanide to regenerate active ferricyanide, thus keeping sufficient amounts of ferricyanide available for reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Tedd Edward Lister, Robert Vincent Fox
  • Patent number: 7662270
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrochemical method and reactor in which at least one electrochemical reaction compartment (5, 6) comprises a plurality of microchannels whose grooves have a cross section of at least partially curved contour with a radius of curvature greater than 30 ?m and an area of between 2500 ?m2 and 20000 ?m2. Application to the synthesis of diastereoisomers by continuous regeneration of NADH or NADPH.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2010
    Assignees: Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (C.N.R.S.)
    Inventors: Theodore Tzedakis, Cheikhou Kane, Anne Launay
  • Patent number: 7572426
    Abstract: The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2009
    Assignee: William Marsh Rice University
    Inventors: Michael S. Strano, Monica Usrey, Paul Barone, Christopher A. Dyke, James M. Tour, W. Carter Kittrell, Robert H. Hauge, Richard E. Smalley
  • Patent number: 7550611
    Abstract: High temperature treatment of graphite nanofibers to convert the materials to carbon nanochips and thereby enhance their performance as support media for metal catalytic particles. The carbon nanochips are suitable for supports for metal and metal oxide particles to catalyze chemical reactions such as oxidation, hydrogenation, oxidative-dehydrogenation, and dehydrogenation. In this regard, they function as a new type of highly conductive catalyst support media.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: Catalytic Materials, LLC
    Inventors: Xuejun Xu, R. Terry K. Baker
  • Patent number: 7459223
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods using neutral red to mediate the interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Electrically reduced neutral red has been found to promote cell growth and formation of reduced products by reversibly increasing the ratio of the reduced:oxidized forms of NAD(H) or NADP(H). Electrically reduced neutral red is able to serve as the sole source of reducing power for microbial cell growth. Neutral red is also able to promote conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by facilitating the transfer of electrons from microbial reducing power to a fuel cell cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2008
    Assignee: Board of Trustees of Michigan State University
    Inventors: Joseph Gregory Zeikus, Hyoun S. Shin, Mahendra K. Jain