Alkali Metal Compound Patents (Class 208/230)
  • Patent number: 9856422
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the removal of naphthenic acids from crude oils and crude oil distillates by use of supported basic ionic liquids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2018
    Assignee: The Queen's University of Belfast
    Inventors: Christopher Hardacre, Peter Goodrich, Azlan Hussain, David Rooney
  • Patent number: 9828557
    Abstract: A reaction system and method for removing heteroatoms from oxidized-heteroatom-containing hydrocarbon streams and products derived therefrom are disclosed. An oxidized-heteroatom-containing hydrocarbon feed is reacted in a reaction system thereby forming non-ionic hydrocarbon products. The products derived therefrom are useful as transportation fuels, lubricants, refinery intermediates, or refinery feeds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignee: AUTERRA, INC.
    Inventors: Jonathan Rankin, Sarah Clickner, Kyle Erik Litz, Larry Neil Lewis, John Faherty, Eric Kolibas, Stephen Hemberger, John Richardson, Mark Rossetti
  • Patent number: 9394490
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for removing carbonyl sulfide (COS) from a hydrocarbon stream have been developed. The design allows removal of COS in the regeneration stream to less than 10 wppm, even at high concentrations of COS. The spent bed is regenerated using a portion of the treated product stream. The COS regeneration column provides increased contact and residence time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2016
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Jessy E. Trucko, Jonathan A. Tertel, Luigi Laricchia, Javier Rios
  • Patent number: 8900446
    Abstract: In a catalytic treatment process, mercaptans in sour hydrocarbon are oxidized to disulfide oils using an aqueous treatment solution containing a chelated polyvalent metal catalyst, alkali metal hydroxide, and the alkali metal salt of at least one alcohol in a non-dispersive mixing apparatus wherein an upgraded hydrocarbon containing the disulfide oils is produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Merichem Company
    Inventors: Tiejun Zhang, K. Michael Hardy, V. Keith Turner, Ignacio C. Bincaz, Tom Varadi
  • Publication number: 20140224709
    Abstract: A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350° C. to 400° C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 15, 2014
    Publication date: August 14, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: John Howard Gordon, Javier Alvare, Dennis Larsen, Jeff Killpack
  • Publication number: 20140138285
    Abstract: The present invention describes a liquid-liquid extraction column with perforated plates and overflows, the plates also being equipped with an additional friction element which makes it possible to increase the thickness of the layer of coalesced matter and to guarantee a counter-current flow of the continuous and dispersed phases.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 19, 2013
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Applicant: IFP ENERGIES NOUVELLES
    Inventors: Damien LEINEKUGEL LE COCQ, Frederic AUGIER
  • Patent number: 8696890
    Abstract: Hydrocarbon feedstreams are desulfurized using an alkali metal reagent, optionally in the presence of hydrogen. Improved control over reaction conditions can be achieved in part by controlling the particle size of the alkali metal salt and by using multiple desulfurization reactors. After separation of the spent alkali metal reagent, the resulting product can have suitable characteristics for pipeline transport and/or further refinery processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Jorge L. Soto, Michael Raterman, Daniel P. Leta, Walter D. Vann, Lu Han, Jonathan M. McConnachie, James R. Bielenberg, William C. Baird, Jr., Roby Bearden, Jr.
  • Patent number: 8696889
    Abstract: The present invention is a process for desulfurizing hydrocarbon feedstreams with alkali metal compounds and regenerating the alkali metal compounds via the use of a transition metal oxide. The present invention employs the use of a transition metal oxide, preferably copper oxide, in order to convert spent alkali metal hydrosulfides in the regeneration of the alkali hydroxide compounds for reutilization in the desulfurization process for the hydrocarbon feedstreams. Additionally, in preferred embodiments of the processes disclosed herein, carbonates which may be detrimental to the overall desulfurization process and related equipment are removed from the regenerated alkali metal stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2014
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: James R. Bielenberg, Jonathan M. McConnachie, Daniel P. Leta, Chris A. Wright, Leo D. Brown
  • Publication number: 20140084206
    Abstract: There is provided, in one form, a method for at least partially deactivating a sulfur species from a stream, such as but not limited to a hydrocarbon stream, an aqueous stream, and mixtures thereof. A treating mixture may be introduced into the stream in an amount effective to at least partially deactivate the sulfur species from the stream. The treating mixture may include a compound having the general formula: and combinations thereof. R1 may be a C1-C4 hydrocarbyl group. R2 may be a C1-C4 hydrocarbyl group that is the same or different as R1. R3 may be an ethanol or an isopropanol moiety. R4 may be an ethylene oxide moiety, propylene oxide moiety, butylene oxide moiety, and combinations thereof. n may be an integer from 1 to 100. M may be a hydrogen or a metal ion.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 27, 2012
    Publication date: March 27, 2014
    Applicant: BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Jianzhong Yang, James Michael Brown
  • Patent number: 8673132
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for regeneration of alkali metal salt reagent used in desulfurization of heavy oil feedstreams. In particular, the present invention relates to a process utilizing potassium hydroxide as an external supply reagent to a heavy oil conversion process and in-situ conversion of the spent reactants utilized in such process into a potassium sulfide reagent for reintroduction into the heavy oil conversion process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Daniel P. Leta, Jonathan M. McConnachie, William C. Baird, Jr., Walter D. Vann, Jorge L. Soto
  • Patent number: 8658028
    Abstract: A process for removing elemental sulfur from liquid hydrocarbon steams such as transportation fuel streams, e.g. gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and jet, by contacting such streams with an immiscible aqueous solution under static mixing conditions. The aqueous solution contains a caustic and an effective amount of a Group I or Group II metal sulfide or polysulfide. The elemental sulfur in the stream is converted to a polysulfide that is not soluble in the hydrocarbon stream but is soluble in the aqueous solution, thus resulting in a hydrocarbon product stream having a substantially lower level of elemental sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Ashok Uppal, Ramesh R. Hemrajani, Robert J. Falkiner, Lawrence J. Lawlor, Joseph L. Feimer
  • Publication number: 20130334102
    Abstract: The invention is directed towards a method of removing mercury bearing species from a hydrocarbon containing fluid. The method comprises the steps of: i) adding dithiocarbamate polymer to the fluid in an amount such that the number of mercury bonding sites on the polymer exceeds the amount of mercury atoms by at least 10% and ii) removing the mercury bearing dithiocarbamate polymer with a water/oil separation device. The invention relies upon an unexpected reversal in the solubility of dithiocarbamate polymer at very high concentrations. Because of the high solubility the polymer remains within the water phase of the hydrocarbon fluid and can be removed without the need for cumbersome precipitation methods and complicated solid liquid separation devices. As a result, the invention allows mercury contaminated crude oil to be easily rid of its mercury with easy to use equipment already present in a typical oil refinery.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2013
    Publication date: December 19, 2013
    Applicant: Nalco Company
    Inventors: Michael L. Braden, Samuel A. Lordo
  • Patent number: 8597501
    Abstract: One exemplary embodiment can be a process for removing one or more disulfide compounds from a caustic stream. The process can include passing the caustic stream, previously contacted with a hydrocarbon stream for removing one or more mercaptans, through a column to remove the one or more disulfide compounds downstream of a mercaptan oxidation zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Steven Lee Krupa, Cedric R. Freeman, Jessy E. Trucko, Jonathan Andrew Tertel
  • Patent number: 8574428
    Abstract: In some embodiments, the invention is a method of removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed using the steps of dissolving metallic sodium in a first solvent, combining the sodium/first solvent solution with a sulfur-free alkane or cycloalkane second solvent, vaporizing the first solvent from sodium/first solvent/second solvent combination to transfer the dissolved metallic sodium into the second solvent, and then combine the resultant liquid with a liquid hydrocarbon feed containing an organosulfur species. The resulting stream is combined with a hydrogen donor. The combination is heated and pressurized to form a liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide is then cooled, and the sodium sulfide is extracted. The extracted sodium sulfide is then processed in a sodium sulfur cell to regenerate the sodium and recycle it to the feed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Trans Ionics Corporation
    Inventor: Robert C. Schucker
  • Patent number: 8574429
    Abstract: A one-step process for desulfurizing an oxidized sulfone-containing fuel stream, such as a diesel stream, is disclosed where mass transfer and conversion of sulfone occurs simultaneously such that the sulfur atom in sulfone molecule is removed as sulfite to provide a low-sulfur diesel stream. The diesel stream for treatment is obtained as a result of the oxidation of a thiophene-rich diesel stream with an oxidant to provide a sulfone-containing diesel stream. The one-step process uses a single vessel having a shroud of vertical hanging fibers to affect the mass transfer of sulfones in diesel into contacting with an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide where it is converted to sulfite and biphenyls. The sulfite-rich aqueous solution and low sulfur diesel are then separately removed from the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Merichem Company
    Inventors: Tiejun Zhang, Nachiketa Anand, Theodore Sidney Hoover
  • Patent number: 8404106
    Abstract: After desulfurizing a hydrocarbon feedstream using an alkali metal reagent, the hydrocarbon feedstream can include particles of spent alkali metal salts. The spent alkali metal salts can be separated from the hydrocarbon feedstream and regenerated to form an alkali metal reagent, such as a alkali hydroxide or alkali sulfide. The regeneration process can pass through an intermediate stage of forming an alkali carbonate by successive reactions with carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. The calcium oxide can also be regenerated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Jorge L. Soto, Daniel P. Leta, Lu Han, Walter D. Vann, Mark A. Greaney, James R. Bielenberg, Paul D. Oldenburg, Jonathan M. McConnachie, Leo D. Brown, William C. Baird, Jr., Roby Bearden, Jr.
  • Publication number: 20120241361
    Abstract: The use of neutral aqueous solutions of glyoxal (pH approximately 6 to 8.5) scavenges H2S that is present in natural gas and in oil better than glyoxal alone or base alone. The resulting scavenger combination significantly increases the reaction rate and the overall scavenging efficiency, i.e. capacity over glyoxal used alone. A buffer may be optionally used. In another embodiment, the combination of non-nitrogen-containing surfactants and glyoxal results in a significant increase in the reaction rate and the overall scavenging efficiency, i.e. capacity as compared to glyoxal used alone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 29, 2012
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Applicant: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Sunder Ramachandran, Vladimir Jovancicevic, Kyle C. Cattanach, Michael P. Squicciarini
  • Patent number: 8173856
    Abstract: One exemplary embodiment can be a process for reducing corrosion during removal of one or more sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from a gas. Generally, the process includes producing an effluent including a caustic, one or more hydrocarbons, one or more sulfur compounds, and a gas from an oxidation vessel; sending the effluent to a stack of a disulfide separator; passing the gas, including oxygen and one or more sulfur compounds, through the stack; and passing a stream including one or more hydrocarbons to the stack at a temperature of less than about 38° C. for absorbing the one or more sulfur compounds. Typically, the stack includes one or more walls surrounding a void and adapted to receive a fluid including one or more phases, a packed bed positioned within the void, and a distributor including one or more risers and one or more compartments coupled to a substantially horizontal member forming a plurality of apertures there-through.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2012
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventor: Jonathan Andrew Tertel
  • Publication number: 20120091040
    Abstract: A method for desulfurization of heavy fuel oil using ferrate compounds by mixing fuel oil containing sulfur compounds with a solvent and forming a fuel oil solvent mixture, dissolving the sulfur compounds present in the fuel oil solvent mixture. Adding a liquid ferrate solution to the fuel oil solvent mixture produces oxidized sulfur compounds, in solution. An absorbing agent is added to remove thed oxidized sulfur compounds from said solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Publication date: April 19, 2012
    Applicant: Florida Institute of Technology, Attention Office for Research and Technology Transfer
    Inventors: Virender K. Sharma, Abdullah Al-Abduly
  • Publication number: 20120048779
    Abstract: A one-step process for desulfurizing an oxidized sulfone-containing fuel stream, such as a diesel stream, is disclosed where mass transfer and conversion of sulfone occurs simultaneously such that the sulfur atom in sulfone molecule is removed as sulfite to provide a low-sulfur diesel stream. The diesel stream for treatment is obtained as a result of the oxidation of a thiophene-rich diesel stream with an oxidant to provide a sulfone-containing diesel stream. The one-step process uses a single vessel having a shroud of vertical hanging fibers to affect the mass transfer of sulfones in diesel into contacting with an aqueous solution of alkali metal hydroxide where it is converted to sulfite and biphenyls. The sulfite-rich aqueous solution and low sulfur diesel are then separately removed from the vessel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2010
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicant: MERICHEM COMPANY
    Inventors: Tiejun Zhang, Nachiketa Anand, Theodore Sidney Hoover
  • Patent number: 8097149
    Abstract: Oil soluble catalysts are used in a process to hydrodesulfurize petroleum feedstock having a high concentration of sulfur-containing compounds and convert the feedstock to a higher value product. The catalyst complex includes at least one attractor species and at least one catalytic metal that are bonded to a plurality of organic ligands that make the catalyst complex oil-soluble. The attractor species selectively attracts the catalyst to sulfur sites in sulfur-containing compounds in the feedstock where the catalytic metal can catalyze the removal of sulfur. Because the attractor species selectively attracts the catalysts to sulfur sites, non-productive, hydrogen consuming side reactions are reduced and greater rates of hydrodesulfurization are achieved while consuming less hydrogen per unit sulfur removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2012
    Assignee: Headwaters Technology Innovation, LLC
    Inventors: Zhihua Wu, Zhenhua Zhou, Bing Zhou
  • Patent number: 7985331
    Abstract: The liquid hydrocarbon stream including COS is introduced via line 1 into membrane contactor CM to be placed in contact, through membrane M, with the aqueous alkanolamine solution arriving via line 3. The COS contained in the hydrocarbon stream is absorbed by the aqueous alkanolamine solution. The liquid hydrocarbons from which the COS has been removed are evacuated from CM via line 2. The aqueous solution containing COS is sent via line 4 to zone R to be regenerated. The compounds released during regeneration, particularly COS and COS-derived products, are evacuated from zone R via line 5. The regenerated aqueous alkanolamine solution is recycled via line 3 into membrane contactor CM.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 26, 2011
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Arnaud Baudot, Renaud Cadours, Raphaël Huyghe, Elsa Jolimaitre, Pascal Mougin, Eszter Toth
  • Patent number: 7981276
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing hydrocarbon streams utilizing a multi-ring aromatic hydrocarbon complex containing an alkali metal ion. Preferably, the sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream is comprised of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as a low API gravity, high viscosity crude, tar sands bitumen, an oil derived from shale, or heavy refinery intermediate stocks such as atmospheric resids or vacuum resids which are typically difficult to desulfurize and contain relatively high amounts of sulfur. However, intermediate refinery streams and refinery product streams may also be treated by the process of the current invention to achieve very low sulfur concentrations to meet environmental specification for fuels sulfur content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2011
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Michael Siskin, Ronald D Myers, Roby Bearden, Jr., Thomas B. Rauchfuss
  • Publication number: 20110147274
    Abstract: After desulfurizing a hydrocarbon feedstream using an alkali metal reagent, the hydrocarbon feedstream can include particles of spent alkali metal salts. The spent alkali metal salts can be separated from the hydrocarbon feedstream and regenerated to form an alkali metal reagent, such as a alkali hydroxide or alkali sulfide. The regeneration process can pass through an intermediate stage of forming an alkali carbonate by successive reactions with carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. The calcium oxide can also be regenerated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Publication date: June 23, 2011
    Applicant: EXXONMOBIL RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY
    Inventors: Jorge L. Soto, Daniel P. Leta, Lu Han, Walter D. Vann, Mark A. Greaney, James R. Bielenberg, Paul D. Oldenburg, Jonathan M. McConnachie, Leo D. Brown, William C. Baird, JR., Roby Bearden, JR.
  • Patent number: 7892418
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for reducing sulfur content in petroleum fuel, such as diesel fuel, and raising the Cetane Number to a value above 50.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: Oil Tech SARL
    Inventor: Hassan Agha
  • Publication number: 20110021341
    Abstract: A method for separating organosulfur compounds from a liquid is provided. The method of this embodiment comprises contacting the liquid with the microporous coordination polymer to form a MCP-organosulfur inclusion compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 2, 2008
    Publication date: January 27, 2011
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
    Inventors: Adam J. Matzger, Antek G. Wong-Foy, Katie Cychosz
  • Patent number: 7862708
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for desulfurizing bitumen and other heavy oils such as low API gravity, high viscosity crudes, tar sands bitumen, or shale oils with alkali metal compounds under conditions to promote in-situ regeneration of the alkali metal compounds. The present invention employs the use of superheated water and hydrogen under conditions to improve the desulfurization and alkali metal hydroxide regeneration kinetics at sub-critical temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Michael Siskin, Rustom M. Billimoria, David W. Savage, Roby Bearden, Jr.
  • Patent number: 7858834
    Abstract: A method for utilizing a feed comprising condensate and crude oil for an olefin production plant is disclosed. The feed is subjected to vaporization and separated into vaporous hydrocarbons and liquid hydrocarbons. The vaporous hydrocarbons stream is thermally cracked in the plant. The liquid hydrocarbons are recovered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2010
    Assignee: Equistar Chemicals, LP
    Inventor: Donald H. Powers
  • Publication number: 20100276335
    Abstract: In some embodiments, the invention is a method of removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed using the steps of dissolving metallic sodium in a first solvent, combining the sodium/first solvent solution with a sulfur-free alkane or cycloalkane second solvent, vaporizing the first solvent from sodium/first solvent/second solvent combination to transfer the dissolved metallic sodium into the second solvent, and then combine the resultant liquid with a liquid hydrocarbon feed containing an organosulfur species. The resulting stream is combined with a hydrogen donor. The combination is heated and pressurized to form a liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide is then cooled, and the sodium sulfide is extracted. The extracted sodium sulfide is then processed in a sodium sulfur cell to regenerate the sodium and recycle it to the feed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2008
    Publication date: November 4, 2010
    Applicant: Trans Ionics Corporation
    Inventor: Robert C. Schucker
  • Patent number: 7820037
    Abstract: A desulfurizing agent is produced by mixing a copper compound, a zinc compound and an ammonium compound with an aqueous solution of an alkali substance to prepare or precipitate followed by calcitrating the resulting precipitate to form a calcined precipitate into a shape form of a copper oxide-zinc oxide-aluminum oxide mixture. The shaped form is impregnated with iron or nickel and calcined to produce a calcined oxide and reduced with hydrogen to form a sulfur-absorption desulfurizing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Assignee: Osaka Gas Company Limited
    Inventors: Masataka Masuda, Shin-ichi Nagase, Susumu Takami, Osamu Okada
  • Patent number: 7790021
    Abstract: An improved method for desulfurizing a fuel stream such as a diesel stream is disclosed which includes generation of a sulfone oil, the desulfurization of the sulfone oil and the recycling of the resulting biphenyl-rich stream and ultra-low sulfur diesel streams. The method includes combining a thiophene-rich diesel stream with an oxidant to oxidize the thiophenes to sulfones to provide a sulfone-rich diesel stream. Sulfone oil is extracted from the sulfone-rich diesel stream to provide sulfone oil and a first low-sulfur diesel stream The low-sulfur diesel stream is recycled. The sulfone-rich oil stream is combined with an aqueous oxidant-containing stream, such as caustic stream, which oxidizes the sulfones to biphenyls and forms sulfite to provide a second low-sulfur diesel stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2010
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Joseph A. Kocal, Jeffrey C. Bricker, Gavin P. Towler
  • Patent number: 7713409
    Abstract: A method for reducing the level of elemental sulfur from sulfur-containing hydrocarbon streams as well as reducing the level of total sulfur in such streams. Preferred hydrocarbon streams include fuel streams such as naphtha streams that are transported through a pipeline. The sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream is contacted with a mixture of water, a caustic, a surfactant, at least one metal sulfide, and optionally an aromatic mercaptan. This results in an aqueous phase and a hydrocarbon phase containing reduced levels of both elemental sulfur and total sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company
    Inventor: Joseph L. Feimer
  • Publication number: 20090314688
    Abstract: A method for degumming and/or refining crude oil containing impurities involving mixing the crude oil with degumming agents, i.e., water or acid, and subjecting the mixture to flow-through, hydrodynamic cavitation processing. The cavitational processing transfers impurities in the crude oil to a water phase for easier separation. The water phase may be separated from the oil phase by commonly available separation methods.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 15, 2009
    Publication date: December 24, 2009
    Inventors: Roman Gordon, Igor Gorodnitsky, Varvara Grichko
  • Patent number: 7632396
    Abstract: A method for reducing the level of elemental sulfur from sulfur-containing hydrocarbon streams as well as reducing the level of total sulfur in such streams. Preferred hydrocarbon streams include fuel streams such as naphtha and distillate streams that are transported through a pipeline. The sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream is blended with an aqueous solution of water, a caustic, and at least one metal sulfide thereby resulting in an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The blended stream is then passed through a bed of solids having a suitable surface area so that a substantial amount of the sulfur moieties are removed by the aqueous phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2009
    Assignee: Exxonmobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Joseph L. Feimer, David J. LeClair, Lawrence J. Lawlor
  • Patent number: 7588680
    Abstract: In some embodiments, the invention is a method of removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed using the steps of dissolving metallic sodium in a first solvent, combining the sodium/first solvent solution with a sulfur-free alkane or cycloalkane second solvent, vaporizing the first solvent from sodium/first solvent/second solvent combination to transfer the dissolved metallic sodium into the second solvent, and then combine the resultant liquid with a liquid hydrocarbon feed containing an organosulfur species. The resulting stream is combined with a hydrogen donor. The combination is heated and pressurized to form a liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide. The liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide is then cooled, and the sodium sulfide is extracted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2009
    Assignee: Trans Ionics Corporation
    Inventor: Robert C. Schucker
  • Patent number: 7534340
    Abstract: Process for the contemporaneous production of fuels and lubricating bases from synthetic paraffinic mixtures, which includes a hydrocracking step in the presence of a solid bi-functional catalyst comprising: (A) a support of an acidic nature consisting of a catalytically active porous solid, including silicon, aluminum, phosphorus and oxygen bonded to one another in such a way as to form a mixed amorphous solid characterized by an Si/Al atomic ratio of between 15 and 250, a P/Al ratio of at least 0.1, but lower than 5, a total pore volume ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 ml/g, with an average pore diameter ranging from 3 nm. to 40 nm, and a specific surface area ranging from 200 to 1000 M2/g; (B) at least one metal with a hydro-dehydrogenating activity selected from groups 6 to 10 of the periodic table of elements, dispersed on said support (A) in an amount of between 0.05 and 5% by weight with respect to the total weight of the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2009
    Assignees: ENI S.p.A., Institute Francais du Petrole, Enitecnologie S.p.A.
    Inventors: Vincenzo Calemma, Cristina Flego, Luciano Cosimo Carluccio, Wallace Parker, Roberto Giardino, Giovanni Faraci
  • Patent number: 7527724
    Abstract: The present invention is a method of removing sulphur from a hydrocarbon feed stream, comprising the steps of: (a) dissolving sodium in a liquid solvent to form a solution containing sodium atoms; (b) combining the liquid solution from step (a) with a liquid hydrocarbon feed containing an organosulfur component to form a combined stream at a temperature of addition and at a pressure near or above the vapor pressure of the solvent at the temperature of addition; (c) reacting the combined stream for sufficient reaction time and at sufficient reaction temperature to form a modified composition comprising one or more sulfur-containing species and less of the organosulfur species than had been present in the hydrocarbon feed; (d) extracting a portion of the sulfur-containing species from the modified composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2009
    Assignee: Trans Ionics Corporation
    Inventor: Robert C. Schucker
  • Patent number: 7507327
    Abstract: Refractory or hard sulfur found in a hydrocarbon stream containing refractory sulfur heterocycle compounds, particularly those exhibiting steric hindrance, is removed from the stream by contacting it with a sodium reagent comprising a sodium component, having free sodium, supported on a solid support component. If the hydrocarbon stream contains more labile or easy sulfur, then it is treated, typically by hydrodesulfurization, to remove at least most of the labile sulfur before it is contacted with the sodium reagent. This is useful for bringing the sulfur level of middle distillate fuel streams, such as diesel and jet fuel fractions, down to a level of less than about 10 wppm, employing conventional hydrodesulfurizing catalysts and conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2009
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Jeffrey M. Dysard, Zhigou Hou, Jonathan M. McConnachie, Andrzej Malek, Ramesh Gupta, William E. Lewis
  • Publication number: 20090065399
    Abstract: An improved method for desulfurizing a fuel stream such as a diesel stream is disclosed which includes generation of a sulfone oil, the desulfurization of the sulfone oil and the recycling of the resulting biphenyl-rich stream and ultra-low sulfur diesel streams. The method includes combining a thiophene-rich diesel stream with an oxidant to oxidize the thiophenes to sulfones to provide a sulfone-rich diesel stream. Sulfone oil is extracted from the sulfone-rich diesel stream to provide sulfone oil and a first low-sulfur diesel stream The low-sulfur diesel stream is recycled.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2007
    Publication date: March 12, 2009
    Inventors: Joseph A. Kocal, Jeffrey C. Bricker, Gavin P. Towler
  • Patent number: 7435337
    Abstract: The invention describes the application of caesium-exchanged X, Y or LSX type faujasite zeolites for intense desulphurization of FCC gasoline, and to a method for preparing said zeolites.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Michel Thomas, Alexandre Nicolaos
  • Patent number: 7374666
    Abstract: A method for desulfurizing a hydrocarbon stream (10) containing heterocyclic sulfur compounds, which process comprises contacting the heterocyclic sulfur compounds in the gas phase (60) in the presence of oxygen (70) with a supported metal oxide catalyst, or with a bulk metal oxide catalyst (600) to convert at least a portion of the heterocyclic sulfur compounds to oxygenated products as well as sulfur-deficient hydrocarbons and separately recovering the oxygenated products separately from a hydrocarbon stream with substantially reduced sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2008
    Assignee: Lehigh University
    Inventor: Israel E Wachs
  • Patent number: 7326822
    Abstract: Metal hydride compounds, which are prepared by mixing together from about 1 to about 10 parts by molecular weight of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of silicon, aluminum, tin, and zinc; from about 1 to about 3 parts by molecular weight of an alkali metal hydroxide; and from about 5 to about 10 parts by molecular weight of water and allowing this mixture to stand for a time sufficient to form a metal hydride, can be used for making fuel additives, treating sour gas, enhancing oil refining, extracting oil from tar sands and shale, increasing production of hydrogen from a hydrogen plant, treating oil and gas wells to enhance production, eliminate PCBs, cleaning soil contaminated by hydrocarbons and/or heavy metals, controlling odors, cleaning polluting stack emissions, extracting edible and essential oils, and eliminating bacteria, fungicides, and parasites from vegetation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2008
    Inventor: Ignacio Cisneros
  • Patent number: 7207445
    Abstract: An apparatus for separating impurities from a liquid by a non-dispersive contacting of a liquid—liquid reactive systems, the liquids being immiscible with each other, having a cylindrical column separated into a first stage and a second stage, a plurality of modules of packed metallic fibers mounted in the first stage of the column on a support, a first distributor provided in the first stage of the column for distributing a first liquid located above the support such that the first liquid completely wets the fibers by capillary action and forms a film thereon, a second distributor fitted at a bottom portion of the second stage for distributing a second liquid containing impurities on to the metallic fibers, wherein the second liquid flows concurrently with said first liquid so that the impurities present in the second liquid react with the first liquid and dissolve therein and a separator connected to a bottom of said column separates the first liquid and purified second liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2007
    Assignees: Engineers India Limited, Indian Oil Corporation, Limited
    Inventors: Ujjwal Manna, Ram Prakash Verma, Sarvesh Kumar, Sukumar Banik, Arpita Dasgupta, Shankar Khatua
  • Patent number: 7192516
    Abstract: The invention is a method of removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed using the steps of dissolving metallic sodium in a solvent and combining the sodium/solvent solution with a liquid hydrocarbon feed containing an organosulfur species. The pressure of combination is above the vapor pressure of the solvent. The combined hydrocarbon feed and solvent solution are placed in a low pressure environment to vaporize the solvent. The resulting stream is combined with hydrogen gas and this stream is heated and pressurized to form a liquid hydrocarbon product containing sodium sulfide. This product is then cooled, and the sodium sulfide is extracted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: Trans Ionics Corporation
    Inventor: Robert C. Schucker
  • Patent number: 7029573
    Abstract: The invention relates to a composition and method for treating liquid hydrocarbons in order to remove acidic impurities, such as mercaptans, particularly mercaptans having a molecular weight of about C4 (C4H10S=90 g/mole) and higher, such as recombinant mercaptans.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignees: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Merichem Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Binh N. Le, Daniel P. Leta, John N. Begasse, Charles T. Huang, Verlin Keith Turner
  • Patent number: 7014751
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for treating and upgrading a hydrocarbon containing acidic species such as mercaptans, comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon, in the essential absence of oxygen, with a first phase of a treatment composition containing water, dissolved alkali metal hydroxide, cobalt phthalocyanine sulfonate, and dissolved alkylphenylates and having at least two phases, (i) the first phase containing water, alkali metal alkylphenylate, dissolved alkali metal hydroxide, and dissolved sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine, and (ii) the second phase containing water and dissolved alkali metal hydroxide; and then (b) separating an upgraded hydrocarbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2006
    Assignees: Exxonmobil Research and Engineering Co., Merichem Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Binh N. Le, Daniel P. Leta, John N. Begasse, Charles T. Huang, Verlin Keith Turner
  • Patent number: 6960291
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for desulfurizing naphtha boiling-range hydrocarbons such as cracked naphtha. More particularly, the invention relates to hydrotreating the naphtha under selective hydrotreating conditions, and then removing mercaptans from the hydrotreater effluent using a caustic extractant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2005
    Assignees: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Merichem Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Binh N. Le, Daniel P. Leta, John N. Begasse, Charles T. Huang, Verlin Keith Turner
  • Patent number: 6955753
    Abstract: A process and apparatus to extract and recover heavy metals and sulfur from crude oil or petroleum fuel products including the steps of emulsifying the crude oil with an emulsifying agent, adding a leach solution to the emulsified crude oil and leaching the emulsified crude oil at elevated temperature and pressure to give a leached emulsified crude oil. The leach solution may be acid or alkali. A proportion of the leach solution is extracted for recovering heavy metals. There can also be a microwave hydro-treating step using hydrogen gas at a temperature below 220° C. to ensure there is no quality degradation in the crude feed to produce a desulfurized crude oil and a hydrogen sulphide by-product and recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulphide by-product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2005
    Assignee: RMG Services Pty.Ltd.
    Inventor: Rodolfo Antonio M. Gomez
  • Patent number: 6860999
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for treating and upgrading a hydrocarbon containing acidic species such as mercaptans, comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon, in the essential absence of oxygen, with a first phase of a treatment composition containing water, dissolved alkali metal hydroxide, cobalt phthalocyanine sulfonate, and dissolved alkylphenylates and having at least two phases, (i) the first phase containing water, alkali metal alkylphenylate, dissolved alkali metal hydroxide, and dissolved sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine, and (ii) the second phase containing water and dissolved alkali metal hydroxide; and then (b) separating an upgraded hydrocarbon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2005
    Assignees: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Merichem Company
    Inventors: Mark A. Greaney, Bihn N. Le, Daniel P. Leta, John N. Begasse, Charles T. Huang, Verlin Keith Turner
  • Patent number: 6840429
    Abstract: A coating composition and its use in a metallization process that facilitates bonding of brazing filler metals to treated refractory surfaces, such as ceramics. The coating can be applied in preselected areas of the refractory surface to define a target area for brazing. In one embodiment, the coating composition is applied to a refractory material prior to brazing, the composition including (i) a group IVB transition metal component selected from the group consisting of a group IVB transition metal, a hydride thereof, and mixtures of group IVB metals and/or hydrides thereof, (ii) a binder material, and (iii) a fluid carrier, disclosed embodiments, the group IVB transition metal component is titanium, and the binder material is a combination of a styrene block copolymer and a hydrocarbon resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2005
    Assignee: Lucas-Milhaupt, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence A. Wolfgram, Nitin R. Shah