Field Ionization Type Patents (Class 250/423F)
  • Patent number: 6104030
    Abstract: An optical probe comprises a waveguide having an optical opening for passing light therethrough, the waveguide terminating in a sharp tip at a distal end thereof. A metal film is coated on the distal end of the waveguide except for the optical opening. The metal film has a curved surface gradually retreating from the optical opening to an outer circumference of the waveguide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventors: Norio Chiba, Hiroshi Muramatsu, Kunio Nakajima
  • Patent number: 6100523
    Abstract: A goniometer for performing scanning probe microscopy on a substrate surface is disclosed. The goniometer has a cantilever, having a cantilevered end and a supported end and a tip disposed at the cantilevered end of the cantilever. The goniometer also has a block disposed at the supported end of the cantilever. The block has at least one pair of piezoelectric layers, a pair of electrodes disposed about each individual piezoelectric layer such that varying a potential difference applied between the individual electrodes of a pair of electrodes causes the corresponding piezoelectric layer to deform, and a first insulating material disposed between the individual electrodes for insulating the individual electrodes from each other. The individual piezoelectric layers are deformed at different rates resulting in a deformity of the block and tilting of the cantilever and tip connected therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2000
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Arunava Gupta, Ravi Saraf
  • Patent number: 6088320
    Abstract: A micromechanically fabricated read/write head for charge storage devices comprising a supporting base, a cantilever and a tip with a shaft and frontside end. The supporting base, cantilever and tip form one integral part made of electrically conducting material. The frontside end of the tip is so designed as to allow writing and reading of information in direct contact with the surface of a charge storage device. The shaft of the tip has a small diameter and is surrounded by a strengthening shell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2000
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas Bayer, Johann Greschner, Helga Weiss
  • Patent number: 5977549
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method of producing a dual ion/electron source. The ion beam and the electron beam are produced by a charged particle optical system. Using an ion source metal to emit an ion beam or an electron beam. The direction of the ion beam and the electron beam is identical. Neither the particle source nor the sample need to be rotated or shifted.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: United Microelectronics Corp
    Inventors: Yuh-Lin Wang, Lung-Wen Chen
  • Patent number: 5977716
    Abstract: An ion generator used for supplying an ionized air to an intake section of a combustion apparatus such as combustion engines and the like. In an air-flow passage within a casing, a high-voltage generator is disposed on the upstream side whereas an ionization electrode is disposed on the downstream side. A gap for the air-flow passage is defined between the high-voltage generator and the casing so as to allow for the air-cooling of the high-voltage generator. The ionization electrode has its outside electrode set to the negative pole and its inside electrode set to the positive pole so as to prevent the occurrence of plasma discharge in a space pace other than that between the both electrodes. This is effective to prevent the high-voltage generator from being overheated, thus contributing to an increased service life thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Inventor: Kazuo Motouchi
  • Patent number: 5969362
    Abstract: An electron-beam exposure system includes: (1) a stage for supporting a wafer, (2) a planar electron-beam source that emits multiple electron beamlets toward the stage, (3) an electric-field generator for forming an electric field to accelerate the electrons in the electron beamlets, (4) a magnetic-field generator for forming a magnetic flux in the space between the planar electron-beam source and the wafer stage. The magnetic filed generator is structured and arranged such that the magnetic flux formed thereby is (1) substantially evenly distributed within a plane perpendicular to the optical axis, and (2) of increasing flux density, ranging from a first density in the vicinity of the planar electron-beam source, to a second density (greater than the first density) in the vicinity of the wafer stage. The electrons in the electron beamlets follow the lines of magnetic flux such that the beamlet width is decreased at the stage compared to the beamlet width at the planar electron-beam source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventors: Shintaro Kawata, Kazuya Okamoto
  • Patent number: 5965885
    Abstract: A spring is connected to an edge section of a sample side of a spindle receiving a force in the Z-axial direction by a first poise coil motor, and a probe is attached to the tip of the spring. The spindle is supported by an internal tube with a spring. The movement of the spindle is enlarged by the spring to be conveyed to the probe, whereby displacement of the probe is amplified. For this reason, a resonance frequency f0 of a system comprising the movable element of the first poise coil motor, spindle, spring, spring and probe can be increased. If the spring is changed to springs in two stages, a resonance frequency f0 of the system can be increased with comparatively compact configuration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Seiko Instruments Inc.
    Inventor: Akira Inoue
  • Patent number: 5945678
    Abstract: A needle (22) adapted to advance and retract in z directions is accommodated in an ionization chamber (15), whereas an electrolytic solution (L) containing a sample is supplied into the ionization chamber (15) through a supply tube (18). The supply tube (18) is bored with a hole (20) communicating with the inside of the ionization chamber (15). While a predetermined voltage is applied between the supply tube (18) and the needle (22), the tip of the needle (22) is caused to come close to but not in contact with the electrolytic solution in the hole (20), so as to form a locally raised portion (Taylor cone) in the liquid surface of the electrolytic solution, thereby attaching a droplet containing ions in the electrolytic solution to the tip of the needle (22). After the needle (22) is moved to a predetermined position, N.sub.2 gas is jetted against the tip portion of the needle (22), thereby emitting the droplet containing ions attached to the tip of the needle (22) into the ionization chamber (15).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Yutaro Yanagisawa
  • Patent number: 5945683
    Abstract: An electron beam exposure device includes an alignment optical system; an electromagnetic lens system; a stage on which the sample is provided; and an electron gun. The electron gun is comprised of an electron generating source; an electron generating source heating element which generates heat for increasing the temperature of the electron generating source; a supporting member which supports the electron generating source and the electron generating source heating element; and a Wehnelt. The electron beam exposure device is provided with at least one auxiliary heating element located at respective portion thermally connected to the electron generating source heating element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignees: Fujitsu Limited, Advantest Corporation
    Inventors: Tatsuro Ohkawa, Yoshihisa Ooae, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hiroshi Yasuda
  • Patent number: 5936251
    Abstract: A liquid metal ion source includes a cylindrical rod made of an electrically conductive refractory material, ending in a conical pointed end. The cylindrical rod passes through a reservoir of a liquid supply metal. The length of the rod inserted into the reservoir is in electrical contact with the liquid metal in the reservoir, and the reservoir is in contact with a conductive filament. The cylindrical rod, the reservoir and the conductive filament are electrically connected in series.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 10, 1999
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Jacques Gierak, Gerard Jacques Ben Assayag
  • Patent number: 5892231
    Abstract: Systems and methods for direct-to-digital holography are described. An apparatus includes a laser; a beamsplitter optically coupled to the laser; a reference beam mirror optically coupled to the beamsplitter; an object optically coupled to the beamsplitter, a focusing lens optically coupled to both the reference beam mirror and the object; and a digital recorder optically coupled to the focusing lens. A reference beam is incident upon the reference beam mirror at a non-normal angle, and the reference beam and an object beam are focused by the focusing lens at a focal plane of the digital recorder to form an image. The systems and methods provide advantages in that computer assisted holographic measurements can be made.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation
    Inventors: Larry R. Baylor, Clarence E. Thomas, Edgar Voelkl, James A. Moore, Michael L. Simpson, Michael J. Paulus
  • Patent number: 5856674
    Abstract: A ribbon filament (86) is provided for a thermionic emission device. The filament comprises an elongated body having a configuration defined by a length, a width, and a thickness. The length comprises a central portion (96) and first and second end portions (98) on either side of the central portion. The width of the central portion is greater than that of the first and second end portions. In addition, the thickness of the filament is substantially less than the width along its entire length. The ribbon filament (86) may be configured as a single helical coil having its first and second end portions (98) mounted to first and second legs (85), respectively, at locations of slots therein. Preferably, the filament (86) is comprised of tungsten and the first and second legs (85) are also comprised of tungsten.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1999
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventor: Peter L. Kellerman
  • Patent number: 5856672
    Abstract: A cantilever for use in an atomic force microscope system is formed of single-crystal silicon and has an integral tip. The tip is formed by the convergence of three planes, one of which is one of the two outer generally parallel planes which define the thickness of the cantilever. The tip lies between the cantilever's two thickness-defining planar surfaces and is thus an in-plane integral tip. The cantilever is supported in the AFM system so that it makes an acute angle with the surface of the sample to be scanned. The cantilever can be supported in the AFM system so that the cantilever outer surface that converges to the tip is oriented to either face the sample or face away from the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1999
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Robert Paul Ried
  • Patent number: 5854490
    Abstract: An electron gun for emitting an electron beam traveling along a beam axis includes a cathode having a tip, the tip having substantially a circular conic shape and a tip surface substantially at the beam axis, the cathode being applied with a first voltage, an anode having a first aperture substantially on the beam axis and being applied with a second voltage higher than the first voltage, a control electrode having a second aperture substantially on the beam axis and being applied with a voltage lower than the first voltage to control a current of the cathode, the second aperture being larger than the tip surface, a guide electrode having a third aperture substantially on the beam axis, being arranged between the cathode and the anode, and being applied with a voltage higher than the first voltage and lower than the second voltage, the third aperture being smaller than the tip surface, and a lens electrode having a fourth aperture substantially on the beam axis, being arranged between the guide electrode and
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventors: Yoshihisa Ooaeh, Akio Yamada, Hiroshi Yasuda
  • Patent number: 5834781
    Abstract: An SE electron source in an apparatus utilizing an electron beam such as an electron microscope or electron beam lithography machine has an electron source structure particularly well suited for an electron gun in which the probe current is varied by the control voltage. The electron source includes a needle whose tip has a cone angle of less than 15 degrees and a radius of curvature of less than 0.5 .mu.m. In an electron gun using an SE electron source according to the invention, the range of variations in probe current caused by a given variation in control voltage is increased, permitting one extraction voltage setting to suffice and the value of the extraction voltage to decrease. Damage to the needle tip due to electric discharge is prevented adding to the stability of the electron gun.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventor: Satoru Fukuhara
  • Patent number: 5811819
    Abstract: An electron beam source is provided with an electron forming means such as a doped layer of Si for forming conduction band electrons near the surface of the pointed tip of a needle-shaped structure while suppressing emission of electrons from a valence band. The surface of the pointed tip of the needle-shaped structure is formed with a single-crystal semiconductor or insulator. Preferably a surface passivation layer and/or a highly doped layer is formed on the surface of the needle-shaped structure. Also, means for exciting electrons in a valence band may be provided. An electron beam source apparatus and electron beam apparatus incorporating the electron beam source as defined above are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takashi Ohshima, Hiroyuki Shinada, Katsuhiro Kuroda
  • Patent number: 5773834
    Abstract: A composite material is produced by irradiating a surface of a shaped body of a carbonaceous material with an ion beam to form a layer of carbon nanotubes on the surface. The composite material is useful as a cathode of an electron beam source element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1998
    Assignee: Director-General of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Yoshinori Koga, Shuzo Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 5763893
    Abstract: Electron guns particularly suitable for electron-beam projection microlithography are disclosed. The electron guns produce an electron beam having a uniform intensity distribution over a wide field, and that permit electron-beam brightness to be varied over a wide range. The electron gun comprises a cathode including a planar circular emission surface. Arranged in sequence along an optical axis from the cathode are a Wehnelt (focusing electrode), an anode, and a ground electrode. The Wehnelt includes a conical upper surface exhibiting a half-angle .theta.1 relative to the axis of 67.5.degree.. The anode includes a conical surface axially facing the cathode, the conical surface being concave with respect to the cathode. The anode also includes a conical surface axially facing the ground electrode, the conical surface being concave with respect to the ground electrode. The anode can be energized with a variable electric potential 0.1-10 kV higher than the potential of the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: Nikon Corporation
    Inventor: Mamoru Nakasuji
  • Patent number: 5763880
    Abstract: A cathode (e.g., a Schottky emission cathode) having an electron emitter of a tungsten single-crystal with a sharp point, and a heater connected to the electron emitter to heat it. The work function of the crystal face of the point of the electron emitter is reduced by providing adsorbed thereon a nitride of Zr, Ti, Y, Nb, Sc, V or La, or an oxide of Y, Sc, V or La. The nitride or oxide can be formed as a reservoir on the heater (from where it thermally diffuses to the point), or chemically adsorbed on the point. For forming the nitride or oxide on the point, the metal forming the nitride or oxide can be provided on the point and reacted with nitrogen or oxygen thereat to form the nitride or oxide; to provide the metal on the point, the metal forming the nitride or oxide can either be evaporated onto the point, or can form a reservoir on the heater and thermally diffuse therefrom to the point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hidetoshi Nisiyama, Masakuni Okamoto, Hiroyuki Shinada, Katsuhiro Kuroda
  • Patent number: 5747815
    Abstract: A gas ionizer is provided for use in a solid state mass spectrograph for analyzing a sample of gas. The gas ionizer is located in a cavity provided in a semiconductor substrate which includes an inlet for introducing the gas to be analyzed. The gas ionizer ionizes the sample of gas drawn into the cavity through the inlet to generate an ionized sample gas. The gas ionizer generates energetic particles or photons which bombard the gas to be sampled to produce ionized gas. The energetic particles or photons can be generated by reverse-bias p-n junctions, radioactive isotopes, electron discharges, point emitters, and thermionic electron emitters. A layer of cesium chloride or cesium iodide having a low work function is formed on top of the reverse-bias p-n junction gas ionizer to increase current emitted per junction area and so that the gas ionizer can be exposed to atmospheric oxygen during storage and can operate in reduced atmosphere with no additional treatments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventors: Robert M. Young, Carl B. Freidhoff, Timothy T. Braggins, Thomas V. Congedo
  • Patent number: 5723867
    Abstract: In a field emission cathode, periphery portions of opening portions of a gate electrode are recessed on a side of a substrate, and a focusing electrode having opening portions which are identical in number with the opening portions of the gate electrode are disposed on the gate electrode. Further, a shield electrode having opening portions which are identical in number with opening portions of the gate electrode are disposed between the gate electrode and the focusing electrode. According to the above-mentioned construction, a focusing aberration can be reduced, and a focused electron flow can be obtained by a low electric potential of the gate electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1998
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Hironori Imura
  • Patent number: 5698855
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electron gun assembly including at least one field emission type cold cathode acting as an electron beam source, a support for supporting the cold cathode thereon, a control electrode spaced away from the cold cathode, the control electrode cooperating with the support to enclose the cold cathode therein, a thermal shield member provided both around the control electrode and below the support to prevent heat conduction to the cold cathode. The thermal shield member does not allow heat conduction to the cold cathode when the electron gun assembly is to be enclosed in a glass valve by softening a neck portion of the glass valve with an oxygen burner and then attaching the softened neck portion to the electron gun assembly, resulting in that an emitter of the cold cathode is not increased in temperature and that a summit of an emitter is not oxidized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 16, 1997
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Toshio Kaihara
  • Patent number: 5665253
    Abstract: A tunneling tip sensor and a method of photolithographically fabricating a unitary structure sensor on a semiconductor substrate are disclosed. A cantilever electrode is formed on the substrate with one end suspended above the substrate at a distance from a tunneling electrode so that a tunneling current flows through the cantilever and tunneling electrodes in response to an applied bias voltage. The cantilever and tunneling electrodes form a circuit that produces an output signal. A force applied to the sensor urges the cantilever electrode to deflect relative to the tunneling electrode to modulate the output signal. In the preferred embodiment, the output signal is a control voltage that is applied between the cantilever electrode and a control electrode to maintain a constant tunneling current. In an alternative embodiment, a lateral control electrode is fabricated to produce a lateral motion of the cantilever electrode such that the sensor detects a rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics
    Inventors: Randall L. Kubena, Gary M. Atkinson
  • Patent number: 5654548
    Abstract: A source for intense coherent electron pulses of an energy below 1 keV comprises an ultrasharp electron-emitting tip and an anode both arranged in mutual alignment inside a vacuum envelope A pulsed potential with an amplitude in the range between 100 V and 500 V and with a variable pulse rate is applied between said tip and said anode. The tip is maintained negative with respect to said anode, the tip having a sharpness such that the electric field at its surface exceeds 10.sup.7 V/cm at said pulsed potential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1997
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Hans-Werner Fink, Heinz Schmid
  • Patent number: 5644129
    Abstract: The present invention is a method to distinguish and measure normal paraffins, isoparaffins, and naphthenes in a saturated hydrocarbon mixture. The method includes the step of field-ionizing hydrocarbon mixture; separating the normal paraffins, isoparaffins and naphthenes as a separate saturates class; and detecting the normal paraffins as molecular ions, naphthenes as molecular ions, and isoparaffins as fragment ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1997
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Company
    Inventors: Chang S. Hsu, Saul C. Blum, Zhenmin Liang, Peter B. Grosshans, Winston K. Robbins
  • Patent number: 5633507
    Abstract: An electron beam system for direct writing applications employs an electron gun having a large emitting surface compared to the prior art and a brightness approximately two orders of magnitude less than prior art systems to illuminate an initial aperture uniformly with a slightly diverging beam that passes efficiently through the aperture, a first set of controllable deflectors to scan the beam over the reticle parallel to the system axis, impressing the pattern of a subfield of the reticle in each exposure, in which a first variable axis lens focuses an image of the initial aperture on the reticle, a second variable axis lens collimates the patterned beam, a second set of controllable deflectors to bring the beam back to an appropriate position above the wafer, and a third variable axis lens to focus an image of the reticle subfield on the wafer, together with correction elements to apply aberration corrections that may vary with each subfield, thereby providing high throughput from the use of parallel proce
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1997
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Hans C. Pfeiffer, Werner Stickel
  • Patent number: 5616926
    Abstract: A Schottky emission cathode has a filament, a needle-shaped piece of single crystal refractory metal which is attached to the filament and has a flat crystal surface at a tip thereof, and an adsorbed layer including at least one kind of a metal other than the single crystal refractory metal on the flat crystal surface. The piece of single crystal refractory metal is heated by passing a current through the filament and electrons are extracted by an electric field applied on a tip of the needle-shaped piece of single crystal refractory metal. The tip of the needle-shaped piece of single crystal refractory metal as a radius of curvature of a value to produce an energy width among electrons extracted from the tip not exceeding a predetermined value when the electric field is sufficient to prevent the flat crystal surface from collapsing during operation of the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Shinada, Shingo Kimura, Katsuhiro Kuroda, Satoru Fukuhara, Takashi Ohshima
  • Patent number: 5611942
    Abstract: The present invention is a method for forming a three point atomic force microscope tip. The method includes forming a substantially longitudinally extending solid tip having a peripheral surface and a forward end surface. Three masks are formed by deposition of carbon upon the solid tip, with a first and second of the masks formed along the peripheral surface, and a third of the masks formed on the forward end surface. The mask covered tip is then etched for a predetermined period of time to remove material from both the tip and the mask. After the predetermined period of time has elapsed, the masks are completely removed, and the removal of material from the tip results in the formation of three spikes which are pointed to the location from which the masks were removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 18, 1997
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Tadashi Mitsui, Katsuya Okumura
  • Patent number: 5587586
    Abstract: The source can be readily aligned and the energy spread of the emitted bean can be controlled to an arbitrarily small value by variation of the voltage. Since no high voltage is present within the emissive part of the electron source, a very compact electron source can be realized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1996
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Pieter Kruit
  • Patent number: 5581156
    Abstract: A negative ion source with an automatic control system wherein a low power igh frequency discharge is used to sustain a high power low voltage dc discharge in a chamber that magnetically confines the plasma produced. The low power high frequency discharge and the high power low voltage direct current discharge are two discharges along with the gas flow rate which are independently adjusted, automatically, so that the conditions for optimum production of vibationally excited hydrogen molecules consistent with the production of maximum H.sup.- output current is obtained and maintained. This chamber is separated by a magnetic filter field from a second chamber which maintains the low temperature plasma in the second chamber necessary for the optimum production of H.sup.- ions by the process of dissociative attachment, utilizing the vibrationally excited molecules produced by the first chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1996
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Thomas G. Roberts, Brian R. Strickland
  • Patent number: 5548117
    Abstract: Disclosed is a probe for use in a scanning tunneling microscope which can measure a macromolecule, i.e., a protein molecule. The probe is manufactured by covering a metal wire having a sharp end with a thin organic film, removing an end of the metal wire by an electric field evaporation process, electrodepositing metal ions on the metal wire and removing a portion of the organic film. A monomolecular film is formed on the surface of a metal wire by chemically adsorbing a chlorosilane based chemical adsorbent. Only a tip of the chemically adsorbed film is removed by the electric field evaporation procedure, and the metal ions are electrodeposited on the tip of the metal wire. As a result, a sharp metal tip is formed. After that, the chemically adsorbed film is removed by alkyl treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 20, 1996
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Tohru Nakagawa
  • Patent number: 5541408
    Abstract: A micromachined mass spectrometer includes an ionizer, a separation region and a detector. The ionizer is formed from an upper electrode, a center electrode and a lower electrode. Ionization of a sample gas takes place around an edge of the center electrode. Accelerating electrodes extract ionized particles from the ionizer. Ionized particles are accelerated through the separation region. A magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to travel of the ionized particles through the separation region causing the trajectory of the ionized particles to bend. The mass spectrometer is formed using micromachined techniques and is carried on a single substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1996
    Assignee: Rosemount Analytical Inc.
    Inventor: Fred C. Sittler
  • Patent number: 5536944
    Abstract: A thermal field emission electron gun has a thermal field emission cathode and a suppressor electrode wherein the thermal field emission cathode comprises a single crystal tungsten needle of an axis direction of <100> and a coating layer composed of zirconium and oxygen, and the suppressor electrode is composed of either titanium or an alloy including titanium as the major component, of which hydrogen content is 60 ppm or less. Electron beams can be stably obtained with good reproducibility in a short time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1996
    Assignee: Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Katsuyoshi Tsunoda, Yoshinori Terui
  • Patent number: 5500572
    Abstract: Image source, for converting image data in the form of serial charges into a high-resolution imagewise light pattern, includes a CCD emitter having a semiconductor charge-coupled device (CCD) structure for receiving and transferring the charges, a charge amplification means including a charge-modulated control field effect transistor structure (C-FET), and plural small-scale field emission cells (FEC). The CCD emitter is operable to convert the charges to an imagewise pattern of electron emissions that are directed to a luminescent phosphor layer susceptible to light output according to the impact of the incident electrons. The light output may be directed onto a photosensitive image recording medium to provide means for image recording, or in alternative embodiments, the light output may be viewed directly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1996
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Constantine N. Anagnostopoulos, Jon K. Edwards
  • Patent number: 5477046
    Abstract: An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 19, 1995
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Daniel D. Dietrich, Robert F. Keville
  • Patent number: 5468959
    Abstract: A microscope comprises a cantilever having a distal end equipped with an electrically conductive probe allowing current to flow and having a fine tip whose voltage is controllable, a position control mechanism for controlling position of a sample with respect to a base end of the cantilever, a small displacement measuring mechanism for measuring a deflection amount of the cantilever, and a deflection control mechanism for controlling deflection of the cantilever so as to adjust a distance between the fine tip of the probe and the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1995
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Tohda, Hiroyuki Kado, Shinichi Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5466941
    Abstract: A negative ion beam source includes a heated refractory metal ribbon which is positioned adjacent a beam forming electrode that is, biased to repel positive ions emitted from the metal ribbon. An extraction electrode is juxtaposed to the beam forming electrode and includes an aperture for passing a beam of positive ions generated by the metal ribbon. The extraction electrode includes a cesium chamber with openings that are directed towards the refractory metal ribbon. A heater heats the cesium chamber and causes it to expel cesium neutrals towards a surface of the refractory metal ribbon where the cesium neutrals are ionized to positively charged cesium ions. A target is displaced to one side of a perpendicular from the surface of the refractory metal ribbon and is positioned adjacent a negative ion beam forming electrode that is biased to attract the cesium ion beam and to repel negative ions produced by cesium ion bombardment of the target.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1995
    Inventor: Seong I. Kim
  • Patent number: 5455419
    Abstract: A method for producing micromechanical sensors for the AFM/STM/MFM profilometry is described in which a multiple step mask of cantilever beam and tip is transferred step by step into the wafer substrate by reactive ion etching. A particular highly anisotropic etching step is used for etching and shaping of the tip. This process step uses an Ar/Cl2 ambient at a pressure of about 100 .sup.6 bar and a self bias voltage of about 300 V DC. The ratio of pressure to self bias voltage determines the concave shape of the tip side- walls. This etching step is followed by a thermal oxidation step. The oxidation is carried out for a time until the oxidation fronts at the thinnest point of the tip shaft touch each other. A stripping process with buffered hydrofluoric acid gently removes the thermally grown oxide. The oxidation process allows--via oxidation time--a modification of tip height and angle in an extremely controllable manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas Bayer, Johann Greschner
  • Patent number: 5440124
    Abstract: An atom probe provides rapidly pulsed field evaporation/desorption of ions from a tip utilizing a local extraction electrode positioned closely adjacent to the tip. A bias potential is applied between the tip and the local extraction electrode which provides an electric field at the tip which is less than but near the field intensity required for field evaporation of ions. Additional potential is applied between the tip and the extraction electrode in relatively low over-voltage pulses to obtain field evaporation of ions without substantially accelerating the ions. The ions extracted from the tip by the sharply defined pulses pass through an aperture in the extraction electrode and are accelerated by a large potential difference between the tip and a detector spaced from the tip and the local extraction electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignee: Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Inventors: Thomas F. Kelly, Patrick P. Camus, David J. Larson, Louis M. Holzman, Sateeshchandra S. Bajikar
  • Patent number: 5431055
    Abstract: A scanning tunneling microscope, in which the gap between a tip having a keenly sharpened end and a sample is narrowed to let flow a tunneling current between them and thereby allow observation of the surface of the sample, a strain wave detecting device is disposed on the sample or in the vicinity of the sample to detect strain waves generated within the sample. By modulating the value of the above described tunneling current, strain waves are generated within the sample. The strain waves are detected by the above described strain wave detecting device. On the basis of the amplitude information and phase information of detected strain waves, physical information regarding the inside of the sample is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1995
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Keiji Takata, Hiromichi Shimizu, Shigeyuki Hosoki, Sumio Hosaka
  • Patent number: 5430300
    Abstract: A low voltage vacuum field emission device and method for manufacturing is provided. The devices are fabricated by anodizing a heavily doped silicon wafer substrate (12) in concentrated HF solution, forming extremely sharp silicon tips (18) at the silicon to porous silicon interface. The resulting porous silicon layer is then oxidized, and a metal film (22) is deposited by evaporation on the porous silicon. Silicon substrate (12) is the cathode, and metal film dots (22) are the anodes. The I-V characteristics for the field emission devices follow Fowler-Nordheim curves over three decades of current. The I-V characteristics are also utterly independent of temperature up to 250.degree. C. When the oxidized porous silicon layer (OPSL) is about 5000 .ANG., substantial current is obtained with less than 10 volts. Recent experiments leave no doubt that the charge transport is in the vacuum of the pores.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1995
    Assignee: The Texas A&M University System
    Inventors: Wing K. Yue, Donald L. Parker, Mark H. Weichold
  • Patent number: 5401963
    Abstract: A micromachined mass spectrometer includes an ionizer, a separation region and a detector. The ionizer is formed from an upper electrode, a center electrode and a lower electrode. Ionization of a sample gas takes place around an edge of the center electrode. Accelerating electrodes extract ionized particles from the ionizer. Ionized particles are accelerated through the separation region. A magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to travel of the ionized particles through the separation region causing the trajectory of the ionized particles to bend. The mass spectrometer is formed using micromachined techniques and is carried on a single substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Assignee: Rosemount Analytical Inc.
    Inventor: Fred C. Sittler
  • Patent number: 5399865
    Abstract: A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) has a reservoir for containing an ion material and an emitter disposed in relation to the reservoir such that molten ion material heated in the reservoir wets the surface of the emitter and flows to the emitter apex. Prior to charging the reservoir with the ion material, the reservoir and emitter are cleaned by a high temperature cleaning operation. For cleaning, the LMIS is placed in a vacuum chamber. A current is applied through the electric feed through terminals to heat the reservoir until it becomes red hot. Then, the emitter is heated by electron bombardment by keeping the emitter voltage at ground potential while applying a high negative voltage to the reservoir. After cleaning, the emitter and reservoir are immersed in a liquid ion material contained in the vacuum chamber and maintained in the molten state by a separate melting unit having a heater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1995
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kaoru Umemura, Tohru Ishitani
  • Patent number: 5397901
    Abstract: A method of charging a fluid beam comprising passing a fluid from an area of first pressure to an area of second pressure, the second pressure being lower than the first pressure, and charging said fluid so that molecules of the fluid may be accelerated in the area of second pressure, so as to form a charged beam, wherein the charging imparts sufficient charge to the fluid as to achieve a charge density greater than 10.sup.14 charge per cm.sup.3 within the fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 14, 1995
    Assignee: American Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Shui-Yin Lo
  • Patent number: 5367165
    Abstract: A cantilever chip has a holding substrate, and a cantilever having the shape of a hollow triangle extends from the holding substrate. A probe is arranged at the distal end portion of the cantilever. An axis of the probe is inclined at a predetermined angle with respect to a normal extending from the surface of the cantilever. This angle is set such that the axis of the probe is perpendicular to a sample surface when the cantilever chip is mounted on an atomic force microscope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akitoshi Toda, Katsuhiro Matsuyama
  • Patent number: 5360978
    Abstract: The multiple STM-tip unit comprises a plurality of individually connectable, electrically separated tunnel tips (52 . . . 54) arranged in a common sandwiched block (5), in the form of a plurality of electrically conducting layers (41, 46, 50) each associated with at least one of said tunnel tips (52 . . . 54) with insulating layers (44, 48) intercalated between said conducting layers (41, 46, 50), the latter each having a contact pad (36, 42, 43) for connection to appertaining electronics. The thickness, area, and material characteristics of said insulating layers (44, 48) are chosen such that the tunnel current through any one of the intercalated insulating layers (44, 48) is negligible with respect to the tunnel current flowing across the gap between the involved tunnel tips (52 . . . 54) and the surface with which said tips cooperate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Pierre L. Gueret
  • Patent number: 5306412
    Abstract: The subject invention teaches the use of mechanical vibration to enhance the electrostatic dispersion of sample solutions into the small, highly charged droplets that can produce ions of solute species for mass spectrometric analysis. Such vibration turns out to be surprisingly effective at ultrasonic frequencies for solutions with flow rates, conductivities and surface tensions too high for stable dispersion by electrostatic forces alone as in conventional electrospray ionization. Several embodiments of the invention are described for purposes of illustration. Other possible embodiments will become apparent to those skilled in the art.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: Analytica of Branford, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig M. Whitehouse, John B. Fenn, Shida Shen, Cawthon Smith
  • Patent number: 5289004
    Abstract: A scanning probe microscope comprises a cantilever having a conductive probe positioned near a sample, an actuator for moving the sample to and away from the probe, a circuit for applying a bias voltage between the probe and sample to produce a tunnel current therebetween, a circuit for detecting the produced tunnel current, a circuit for detecting the amount of displacement of the probe resultant from interatomic forces acting between atomics of the probe and sample, thereby producing signals, a circuit for providing the actuator for feedback in response to the output signals from the circuit to retain constant the distance between the probe and sample, thereby causing the actuator to move the sample, a circuit for forming an STS image data from the detected tunnel current, a circuit for forming an STM image data from the detected tunnel current, and a circuit for forming an AFM image data. Thus, the STS, STP and AFM images are separately obtained simultaneously.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Okada, Akira Yagi, Yasuhiro Sugawara, Seizo Morita, Tsugiko Takase
  • Patent number: RE34575
    Abstract: A high current (0.2 to at least 2 milliamperes), low-energy (2.2 to 4 MV) ion beam is generated and is utilized to produce clinically significant quantities of medical isotopes useful in applications such as positron emission tomography. For a preferred embodiment, a tandem accelerator is utilized. Negative ions generated by a high current negative-ion source are accelerated by an electrostatic accelerator in which the necessary high voltage is produced by a solid state power supply. The accelerated ions then enter a stripping cell which removes electrons from the ions, converting them into positive ions. The positive ions are then accelerated to a target which is preferably at ground potential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1994
    Assignee: Science Reseach Corporation
    Inventors: Robert E. Klinkowstein, Ruth Shefer
  • Patent number: RE34708
    Abstract: A scanning ion conductance microscope, SICM, which can image the topography of soft non-conducting surfaces covered with electrolytes by maintaining a micropipette probe at a constant conductance distance from the surface. It can also sample and image the local ion currents above the surfaces by scanning the micropipette probe in a plane located at a constant distance above the surface. Multiple micropipettes mounted in a multi-barrel head and containing various ion specific electrodes allow simultaneous scanning for different ion currents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1994
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Paul K. Hansma, Barney Drake