Within Evacuated Chamber Patents (Class 266/149)
  • Patent number: 10954587
    Abstract: A preferred embodiment is an uncoated, biodegradable corrosion resistant bone implant. The implant includes a body being uncoated and lacking any protective polymer, metallic or ceramic coating, the body being shaped to fix to a bone and/or bone fragment. The body is formed of a magnesium alloy. The magnesium alloy includes from high-purity vacuum distilled magnesium containing impurities, which promote electrochemical potential differences and/or the formation of precipitations and/or intermetallic phases. The impurities are such that the body has a strength of >275 MPa, and a ratio yield point of <0.8, wherein the difference between strength and yield point is >50 MPa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: BIOTRONIK AG
    Inventors: Heinz Mueller, Peter Uggowitzer, Joerg Loeffler
  • Patent number: 10895000
    Abstract: A magnesium alloy, implants and method for the production thereof. The magnesium alloy includes 1.5 to 7.0% by weight Zn, 0.5 to 3.5% by weight Al, the remainder being magnesium which contains impurities, which promote electrochemical potential differences and/or the formation of precipitations and/or intermetallic phases, in a total amount of no more than 0.0063% by weight of Fe, Si, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Y, Sc or rare earths having the ordinal numbers 21, 57 to 71 and 89 to 103, Be, Cd, In, Sn and/or Pb as well as P.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2021
    Assignee: BIOTRONIK AG
    Inventors: Heinz Mueller, Peter Uggowitzer, Joerg Loeffler
  • Patent number: 10551124
    Abstract: A process for producing high-purity magnesium by means of distillation at reduced pressure, characterized in that, the high-purity magnesium condenses in the liquid state, whereby the starting material in the form of a magnesium-containing melt is present together with the upper region of a condensation vessel in the upper region of a retort, whereby the retort consist of a material that releases no volatile impurities into the magnesium steam, whereby the upper region of the retort is brought to a temperature above the boiling point of magnesium, within the limits of two level lines, and is then held constant, such that steam rises from the boiling magnesium-containing metal melt and fills the interior of the upper region of the retort, whereby the steam infiltrating the upper region of the condensation vessel condenses below the lower level line and collects as high-purity melt in the lower region of the condensation vessel, and whereby in order to prevent contaminated melt that drops from the region above
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2020
    Assignee: ETH Zuerich
    Inventors: Christian Wegmann, Joerg Loeffler, Peter Uggowitzer, Minh Becker, Heinrich Feichtinger
  • Patent number: 10400309
    Abstract: Methods, systems, and components suitable for carbothermal reduction processes are disclosed. Exemplary systems include a reactor, such as hybrid solarthermal-electric reactor, a solar thermal reactor, an electric reactor, or a reactor heated by gas combustion, a pellet source, a gas reactant source, and a vacuum source. The reactor can operate as a moving bed or pseudo moving bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2019
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, A Body Corporate
    Inventors: Alan W. Weimer, Aaron Palumbo, Illias Hischier, Boris A. Chubukov, Scott C. Rowe, Richard Fisher, Arto J. Groehn
  • Patent number: 9630845
    Abstract: Presented herein is a method for obtaining a dissolved selenium liquid mixture from solid selenium. The method involves mixing an amine solvent and a thiol solvent with the solid selenium to produce a liquid intermediate solution and removing a sulfur containing compound from the liquid intermediate solution to produce a dissolved selenium liquid mixture. A method for obtaining dissolved sulfur liquid mixture by mixing an amine with a thiol to produce a liquid solution that dissolves sulfur to produce a dissolved sulfur liquid mixture is also presented. In addition, a method for obtaining a dissolved sulfur and selenium liquid mixture from solid selenium and solid sulfur by mixing an amine solvent with a thiol solvent is presented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: PURDUE RESEARCH FOUNDATION
    Inventors: Rakesh Agrawal, Bryce Chryst Walker
  • Patent number: 9540709
    Abstract: A vacuum refining furnace, including a furnace body, a graphite heater, an electrode, and a sealed furnace housing. The furnace body includes an evaporation laminate, a graphite condensing casing, and a graphite insulating casing. The evaporation laminate includes a plurality of evaporators. The evaporation laminate is nested within the graphite insulating casing, and the graphite insulating casing includes a plurality of through holes. At least two graphite condensing casings having different diameters are provided. The graphite insulating casing is nested within the graphite condensing casing having a smallest diameter, and the graphite condensing casing having a relatively small diameter is nested within the graphite condensing casing having a relatively large diameter. All the graphite condensing casings except for the graphite condensing casing having the largest diameter include a plurality of through holes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: Kunming Diboo Technology Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Bin Yang, Bin Su, Jianren Pan, Wentong Tang, Wei Chen, Zefei Fan, Wenlin Li, Menglin Li
  • Patent number: 9340851
    Abstract: Provided are a device and a method for preprocessing metallic magnesium. The device includes a chamber, a heating device mounted in the chamber, a gas inlet port mounted on the chamber, and a gas evacuation port mounted on the chamber. The gas inlet port is connected to external inert gas supply equipment for supplying an inert gas into the chamber. The gas evacuation port is connected to an external vacuum evacuation device to evacuate the chamber to vacuum. The heating device functions to heat metallic magnesium having an oxidized surface so as to sublimate a layer of magnesium oxide formed on the surface of the metallic magnesium in a vacuum environment to thereby obtain pure metallic magnesium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: Shenzhen China Star Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd
    Inventors: Qinghua Zou, Tsungyuan Wu, Xindi Zhang
  • Patent number: 9163301
    Abstract: A method of producing a purified tin, which emits low alpha radiation by using a vacuum refining has developed: the steps are comprising: preparing a crude tin; containing the crude tin in a crucible and placing it in a vacuum furnace; and removing the impurities, which have higher vapor pressures and low boiling points than that of the tin from the vacuum furnace. The impurities, such as a lead and bismuth can be removed as much as possible by utilizing the difference of the vapor pressure of the elements in the tin. It is possible to minimize the emission of alpha radiation, so that it can be prevented the occurrence of the software errors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2015
    Inventors: Jaepil Jung, Santosh Kumar, Dohyun Jung, Yongcheol Chu, Hyunkyu Lee, Cheolhee Kim
  • Patent number: 9051628
    Abstract: The present invention provides a piece of reaction equipment for producing sponge titanium, which includes a reactor and a reactor cover with a stirring device, wherein a sealing ring is arranged between the reactor cover and the reactor, one side of the reactor cover is provided with a lifting device for controlling the lifting of the reactor cover, a resistance furnace is arranged above the reactor cover, a valve is arranged below the resistance furnace, and a vacuum-pumping pipe and an inflation pipe are arranged above the reactor cover. The present invention has the beneficial effects that the production equipment can ensure normal production, and effectively ensures the quality of sponge titanium product; compared with the prior art, the equipment has low cost, environmental protection and harmlessness during production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2015
    Assignee: SHENZHEN SUNXING LIGHT ALLOYS MATERIALS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Xuemin Chen, Qingdong Ye, Bin Li, Hexi Zeng
  • Patent number: 8404177
    Abstract: A system and associated process are provided for recovering cadmium telluride (CdTe) that has plated onto components, such as components used in the manufacture of photovoltaic (PV) modules. The system includes a vacuum oven configured for maintaining a vacuum and being heated to a temperature effective for sublimating CdTe off of components placed within the oven. A collection member is disposed so that sublimated CdTe generated in the oven diffuses to the collection member. The collection member is maintained at a temperature effective for causing the sublimated CdTe to plate thereon. The collection member is subsequently processed to collect the plated CdTe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Primestar Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Christopher Rathweg
  • Patent number: 8034283
    Abstract: A rotary hearth furnace includes an exhaust gas eductor. The exhaust gas eductor includes a compartment-defining portion and an exhaust duct. The compartment-defining portion is provided on part of a ceiling of the rotary hearth furnace in an exhaust gas discharge region, and an exhaust duct is connected to the compartment-defining portion. The lower surface of the compartment-defining portion lies higher than the lower surface of the other portion of the ceiling. The compartment-defining portion defines a compartment where the exhaust gas stays. The exhaust duct can include a cooling medium injection nozzle. The furnace increases fuel efficiency by completely burning combustible components remaining in exhaust gas generated in the rotary hearth furnace so as to use the combustible components efficiently for the heating and reduction reaction in the rotary hearth furnace, without problems in producing reduced iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2011
    Assignee: Kobe Steel, Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiko Tetsumoto, Sumito Hashimoto, Koji Tokuda
  • Patent number: 7753987
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a high vacuum in-situ refining method for high-purity and superhigh-purity materials and the apparatus thereof, characterized in heating the upper part and lower part of crucible separately using double-heating-wires diffusion furnace under vacuum, thereby forming the temperature profile which is high at upper part and low at lower part of crucible, or in reverse during different stages; then heating the crucible in two steps to remove impurities with high saturation vapor pressure and low saturation vapor pressure respectively in efficiency; and obtaining high-purity materials eventually. The whole procedure is isolated from atmosphere, reducing contamination upon stuff remarkably. The present invention could provide products with high-quality and high production capacity, which are stable in performance, therefore is reliable and free from contamination.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2010
    Assignee: The Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Physics
    Inventors: Xiaolong Du, Zhaoquan Zeng, Hongtao Yuan, Handong Li, Qikun Xue, Jinfeng Jia
  • Publication number: 20090140472
    Abstract: The invention discloses a reduction apparatus having a main body made of silicon carbide-based material and collectively formed by a top portion, a bottom portion, and a side portion, wherein the bottom portion includes a slanted plane, and the main body has an inlet and a metallic vapor exit provided near the top portion and an outlet provided near the lowest end of the slanted bottom portion; an inlet closure connected with the inlet; an outlet closure connected with the outlet; and a metal collector or a condenser connected with the metallic vapor exit. The invention solved problems found in conventional reduction retorts, including: small capacity, low metal output, inconvenience in charging reactant material and discharging spent residue, and heavy workload for workers. The invention also shortened the time for reduction reaction, increased production efficiency and output of the reduction furnace, and reduced production cost.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 11, 2009
    Publication date: June 4, 2009
    Applicant: MG Century Mining Corporation
    Inventors: Jiqiang Zhang, Kui Ming Wong
  • Patent number: 7381383
    Abstract: A treatment apparatus of the present invention includes a hermetic door 115b and a retort 115c as an interface for taking out a gaseous emission containing vaporized substances from an object to be treated which is being heated in a reduced pressure state in a second hermetic chamber 103 while maintaining conditions in the second hermetic chamber. When the retort 115c is inserted into a first opening 103b of the second hermetic chamber, the hermetic door 115b in an open state is shielded from the second hermetic chamber 103, whereby condensation of the gaseous emission at the hermetic door is prevented. Accordingly, condensates can be taken out while conditions such as temperature and pressure in the hermetic chamber are maintained without the treatment apparatus being stopped. The productivity of treatment is greatly improved by continuous operation of such a treatment apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2008
    Assignee: Hoei Shokai Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiaki Yokoyama, Toru Kodama, Yasuo Mishima, Katuo Takamiya, Tsuyoshi Abe, Hitoshi Mizuno
  • Patent number: 6838045
    Abstract: A purification apparatus including a vertical stack of a feed heating zone having a feed crucible 1, a condensation zone having a plurality of condensation vapor passage plates 5, a solidification zone having a solidification crucible 2 and an entrapment/solidification zone having a plurality of entrapment/solidification vapor passage plates 7.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2005
    Assignee: Dowa Mining Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kishio Tayama, Shunichi Kimura
  • Publication number: 20040089986
    Abstract: A purification apparatus including a vertical stack of a feed heating zone having a feed crucible 1, a condensation zone having a plurality of condensation vapor passage plates 5, a solidification zone having a solidification crucible 2 and an entrapment/solidification zone having a plurality of entrapment/solidification vapor passage plates 7.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 14, 2003
    Publication date: May 13, 2004
    Applicant: DOWA MINING CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Kishio Tayama, Shunichi Kimura
  • Patent number: 6533990
    Abstract: In the apparatus for distilling molten baths, substantially comprising a two-part vacuum tank (2), a melting crucible (5) disposed in the bottom housing part (3) of the vacuum tank and surrounded by a heating coil (4), a hat-shaped metal vapor condenser (8) held in the top housing part (6) of the vacuum tank (2), and a draining channel (10) disposed between the melting crucible (5) and the metal vapor condenser (8), a filter element (16) penetrated by a metal vapor thermometer (19) plus probe (20) is provided above the metal vapor condenser (8) in an opening (15) of the top housing part (6), wherein both the filter pot (17) surrounding the filter element (16), as well as the space (22) behind the coil, as well as the top housing part (6) are connected by separate individual vacuum lines (18, 23, 25) to a vacuum source (7).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2003
    Assignee: Ald Vacuum Technologies AG
    Inventors: Ivaylo Popov, Hans-J├╝rgen Kemmer, Harald Scholz
  • Patent number: 6444164
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing a high-purity silver material. The apparatus includes an electric furnace. The electric furnace has an outer cylinder which encloses an inner cylinder. The outer cylinder is capable of being evacuated with a vacuum pump. A recovery mold is disposed within the inner cylinder. An aspiration table is connected to a central portion of the recovery mold. A feed crucible is disposed above the recovery mold and is connected to the aspiration table. A cooling trap is disposed below the recovery mold. A water-cooling flange is disposed below the cooling mold.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2002
    Assignee: Dowa Mining Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kishio Tayama, Takashi Ohgami, Hiroshi Miura
  • Patent number: 6409790
    Abstract: An energy efficient, coal-based method and apparatus that are environmentally friendly which produce under pressure metallized/carbon product and molten metal directly from abundant coal or other carbonaceous material, and low cost fines (or ore concentrate) wherein the metal is devoid of gangue material and possesses the inherent advantage of retaining the heat for subsequent processing. This method and apparatus which are modular and highly integrated significantly reduce capital and operating costs; they also provide the capability selective placement of the reductant for the delivery of high levels of thermal energy input which leads to ease of desulflurization and high productivity. The technology herein disclosed is entirely closed and is applicable to various ores including ferrous and non-ferrous.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: Calderon Energy Company of Bowling Green, Inc.
    Inventors: Albert Calderon, Terry James Laubis
  • Patent number: 6375893
    Abstract: For the evaporation of given components from initial multiple-substance mixtures and systems at subatmospheric pressure, individual portions (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5) of the multiple-substance mixture and systems are placed in ring crucibles (17) stacked at several levels. Vapors of the lower-boiling component are drawn off through a vapor exhaust opening in each crucible, while the top ring crucible (17) is closed except for its vapor exhaust opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2002
    Inventors: Manfred Raschke, Wilfried Goy, Franz Hugo, Erwin Wanetzky, Albrecht Melber
  • Patent number: 5891216
    Abstract: A retorting device for mercury containing material, with an oven, mercury trap and condensers capable of operation at pressures from atmospheric pressure down to 50 Torr with simultaneous temperatures up to 1500.degree. F. A dam within the mercury trap permits removal of liquid mercury separate from condensed solid amalgams, sludges and the like. The trap has provisions for removal of the sludges and amalgams from beneath the surface of water within the trap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Summit Valley Equipment and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles H. Washburn, Charles O. Gale
  • Patent number: 5698158
    Abstract: Ultra high purity materials, particularly metallic materials such magnesium and similarly high volatility materials, are produced by a vacuum distillation method and apparatus to increase purity by approximately five hundred times in a single step. For example, magnesium purity, exclusive of zinc content, is increased from 99.95% to greater than 99.9999%. A distillation column is formed of a high purity (less than 10 ppm ash) graphite, and includes a crucible, a vertical condenser in which horizontal high purity graphite baffles are selectively located at a plurality of levels, for example at nine levels. The column is contained in a three-zone resistance furnace that is controlled to heat the crucible to evaporate the material, maintain the condenser immediately above the crucible to above the boiling point of the material, and maintain the portion of the column thereabove at below the boiling point of the material, preferably with the temperature gradually decreasing with the height of the column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 16, 1997
    Assignees: Sony Corporation, Materials Research Corporation
    Inventors: Raymond K. F. Lam, Daniel R. Marx
  • Patent number: 5529605
    Abstract: Pipe lines for conducting natural gas become contaminated, over a period of time, by an accumulation of mercury, which occurs in minute amounts in natural gas. If used pipe is scrapped, for example by melting, mercury vapor escaping to the atmosphere poses a health hazard. To remove mercury, sections of pipe are closed at both ends by plugs having nipples for connection to a closed circuit and inert gas line connected with a pump for evacuating the line and with a source of inert gas, for example nitrogen. The closed circuit inert gas line contains a blower for circulating the inert gas repeatedly through the pipe sections and a condenser for condensing mercury vapor. The closed circuit further includes a heat exchanger for removing heat upstream of the condenser, a coordinated heat exchanger for restoring heat removed and an additional heater. The pipe sections are heated externally by an oven or internally by heated inert gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1996
    Assignee: BEB Erdgas und Erdol GmbH
    Inventors: Siegfried Mussig, Hans Kaast, Friedrich Schlemm
  • Patent number: 5350438
    Abstract: Metal plated steel sheet scraps are heated to a temperature in the range of about 200.degree. C.-500.degree. C. so that organic material adhered to the scraps is evaporated and removed. Then, the scraps from which organic material has been removed are heated to a temperature in the range of about 500.degree. C.-950.degree. C. so that the plated metal, for example zinc or aluminum, is evaporated. The evaporated metal flows to a retrieving device where the evaporated metal is condensed and retrieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1994
    Assignees: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha, Toyokin Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yuji Okada, Shunichi Fujio, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Teruharu Shinoyama, Yasuo Takeuchi
  • Patent number: 5324487
    Abstract: A melt is stored in a vessel. A lower half of a degassing member is immersed in the melt. The degassing member has a cylindrical form with the lower end closed, and the lower half section is made of a porous material which is permeable to gas and impermeable to melts as molten metal, molten slag, or molten matte. This lower half section is a partitioning member. When an internal space inside the degassing member is sucked to realize vacuum or reduced pressure atmosphere, gas producing components in the melt pass through the partition member of the degassing member, and are exhausted to inside the degassing member, thus being separated from the melt. Also, by making the degassing member rotate or move in a horizontal or vertical direction, the melt is stirred. With these features, gas-producing components in the melt can be removed at a high efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1994
    Assignees: Tokyo Yogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Masamichi Sano
    Inventors: Masamichi Sano, Nobuo Miyagawa, Kunji Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5320666
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for removing volatile contaminants from contaminated ore through exposure to a low pressure environment, thereby volatilizing the contaminants, after sufficient exposure to the low pressure environment, the decontaminated ore is removed from the low pressure environment, separate from the volatilized contaminants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 14, 1994
    Inventor: Larry K. Olson
  • Patent number: 5306472
    Abstract: A melt is stored in a vessel placed in a decompression vessel. On the bottom of the vessel is arranged a bubble generator made of porous bricks, and bubbles of argon gas are introduced into the melt through this bubble generator. Also a lower half section of a degassing member is immersed in the melt. This degassing member has a cylindrical form with the lower end closed and the section immersed in the melt is made of a porous material permeable to gases and impermeable to melts.With these features, a surface of molten metal can be put under reduced pressure and high content components of the melt can be removed by means of bubbling, and also solute components in the melt can be removed into bubbles of argon gas. Also, gases in the melt and gases produced by reactions between the melt and the porous material can be sucked through a wall of the degassing member into inside thereof and removed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignees: Tokyo Yogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Masamichi Sano
    Inventors: Masamichi Sano, Nobuo Miyagawa, Kunji Yamamoto
  • Patent number: 5222547
    Abstract: In the representative embodiment described in the specification, an electron beam furnace has an evacuation system which maintains the interior of the furnace at a pressure in the range from about 50 microns Hg to 300 microns Hg. The relatively high pressure reduces degassing time from a cold start, suppresses volatilization of constituents of metal being refined, and causes volatilized metal to condense in powder form on a condensing screen. A vibrator assists in removing the powder from the condensing screen. The electron beam gun has a series of compartments which are individually evacuated to maintain the pressure in the compartment containing the cathode at a level less than about 1 micron Hg.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1993
    Assignee: Axel Johnson Metals, Inc.
    Inventor: Howard R. Harker
  • Patent number: 5131634
    Abstract: A sublimer-reactor system for reducing Group IVB metals with magnesium has a sublimer spaced from a reactor with a gas flow control valve in piping interconnecting them. A load cell weighs the feed in the sublimer and outputs a signal to the control valve to control the vapor flow of feed vapors to the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1992
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventors: Hani A. Abodishish, R. James Adams
  • Patent number: 5098069
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method, equipment and a regulating means for use in recovering metal-carbide scrap by alloying. This is carried out by treating the scrap with a low melting point metal which brings the metal-carbide matrix into solution at temperature above the melting point of the alloy formed. The treatment is carried out in a container in the presence of inert gas, the pressure of which is gradually reduced following completion of the alloying process, the resultant metal vapor being condensed.To solve the problem of producing, in the resultant residue, a proportion of low melting point metal of less than 100 ppm and of preventing condensation of the metal vapors on the container, it is proposed in the invention that the metal-carbide scrap and the low melting point metal should be alloyed with each other in an inner chamber arranged within the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1992
    Assignee: Leybold-Heraeus GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Wanetzky, Franz Hugo, Fernand Kuhlmann
  • Patent number: 5078789
    Abstract: A vacuum distillation furnace and method for removing unreacted magnesium metal and magnesium chloride from a sponge refractory metal, such as zirconium, utilizes a vertically arranged series of mutually isolated distillation vessels in respective furnace sections for continuous or semi-continuous vacuum distillation of the sponge metal following formation thereof by usual reduction procedures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventors: Hani A. M. Abodishish, R. James Adams
  • Patent number: 5035404
    Abstract: A retort assembly comprises a retort defining a first chamber for containing zirconium tetrachloride. A crucible having a generally vertical sidewall defines a second chamber for containing magnesium and the reaction products. A vapor passageway extends from an inlet in the first chamber to an outlet in the second chamber. A diffusion means is disposed in the second chamber adjacent the outlet of the vapor passageway for diffusing vapor toward the sidewall of the crucible. The diffusion of vapors toward the sidewall of the crucible creates turbulence in the area of the crucible sidewall and a liquid circulation pattern which is downward along the crucible sidewall. Sponge discs produced under these conditions develop inwardly of the sidewall of the crucible, have less iron and are more compact than are sponge discs produced in prior art assemblies. Also, the skull losses are lower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1991
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Hani A. M. Abodishish
  • Patent number: 4850575
    Abstract: An apparatus for manufacturing a sintered body with high density comprises: a table having an object to be processed laid thereon; a pressure vessel accommodating a heat element heating the object around and a heat-insulating mantle surrounding the heat element; supply device for supplying to the pressure vessel an extractant which extracts a binder or a dispersion medium contained in the object, exhaust device for exhausting the extractant and an extracted substance from the pressure vessel; pressure device for raising a pressure in the pressure vessel, and vacuum means for evacuating the pressure vessel. The apparatus enables carrying out the three steps of drying or degreasing, sintering and hot isostatic pressing of the object once put in the pressure vessel without handling the object outside the vessel. The object is formed as a compact in the preprocess in advance of being put in the apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hiroaki Nishio, Takeshi Kawashima
  • Patent number: 4842254
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus for purifying lithium, formed by a sealed enclosure comprising a heated upper portion 1 provided with a container 9 in which the molten lithium 11 is agitated and from which the impurities evaporate, and a cooled lower portion 13 provided with a condensation surface 17 and a pipe means 16 for producing a depression in the lower portion. The invention is used in the purification of lithium, and in particular, for separation of lithium from sodium and potassium impurities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1989
    Assignee: Metaux Speciaux S.A.
    Inventor: Raymond Roumieu
  • Patent number: 4842643
    Abstract: Apparatus for purifying a melt which, besides one or more impurities to be volatilized, contains essentially a light metal, in particular aluminum. The apparatus comprises a vacuum processing vessel, a vacuum pump, one or more conduits for supplying the melt to the vacuum processing vessel and means for spraying the melt into the vacuum processing vessel. According to the invention, the vacuum processing vessel is provided with discharge means for discharging impurities expelled from the melt. The discharge means are connected to a means for separating the impurities in solid or liquid form, connected to the vacuum pump used for maintaining the subatmospheric pressure in the vacuum processing vessel. Connected to the vacuum processing vessel are at least one supply conduit and one return conduit for the melt, the supply conduit being provided with a pump for the melt to be purified and a spray nozzle for atomizing the melt supplied by the pump into the vacuum processing vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1989
    Inventor: Gijsbert W. M. van Wijk
  • Patent number: 4708190
    Abstract: Metals and/or metallic compounds are condensed from a vapor in a reaction vessel into a condenser, the condensate initially solidifying to block an outlet at the bottom of condenser; subsequent operation of heating stages from the top to the bottom of the condenser to melt the solidified condensate ensures that, as the outlet becomes unblocked, the whole melt flows into a mould.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1987
    Assignee: Arthur Pfeiffer Vakuumtechnik Wetzlar GmbH
    Inventors: Robert Hack, Helmut Strzala
  • Patent number: 4564174
    Abstract: This process enables the recovery of mercury from waste containing plastic material, e.g. batteries. The waste is slowly heated while an inert gas is being introduced in a vacuum for fractionating extraction of the products of the decomposition of the plastic. The waste gases must pass through an afterburner chamber incorporating a specially shaped burner where the plastic vapors are fully combusted. The waste gases are conducted from the afterburner chamber through a cooling trap and then through a cold trap in which the mercury is condensed and can be drained off. The final stage of the process is carried out in a pulsating vacuum by the inert gas.The device in which the process takes place consists of a heated heat isolated treatment chamber (2), an afterburner chamber (6), a cooling trap (7), a cold trap (18) and a vacuum pump (23, 24) connected with pipelines (5, 12, 21).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1986
    Assignee: Lumalampan Aktiebolag
    Inventors: Ake Sikander, Ake Biorkman, Gunther Jonsson
  • Patent number: 4508322
    Abstract: A hermetically closable and evacuable apparatus for preparing high melting point high toughness metals by reduction of a chloride of said metals comprising a heatable reaction chamber and a coolable condensation chamber provided above the reaction chamber which chambers communicate with each other through an intermediate connecting section, wherein the intermediate connecting section is provided with a seal pot closing means comprising a funnel body and a pan which can be opened to form a wide gas passage, is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1985
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Kinzoku Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Etsuji Kimura, Katsumi Ogi, Kazusuke Sato
  • Patent number: 4468011
    Abstract: This process enables the recovery of mercury from waste containing plastic material, e.g. batteries. The waste is slowly heated while an inert gas is being introduced in a vacuum for fractionating extraction of the products of the decomposition of the plastic. The waste gases must pass through an afterburner chamber incorporating a specially shaped burner where the plastic vapors are fully combusted. The waste gases are conducted from the afterburner chamber through a cooling trap and then through a cold trap in which the mercury is condensed and can be drained off. The final stage of the process is carried out in a pulsating vacuum by the inert gas.The device in which the process takes place consists of a heated heat isolated treatment chamber (2), an afterburner chamber (6), a cooling trap (7), a cold trap (18) and a vacuum pump (23, 24) connected with pipelines (5, 12, 21).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1984
    Assignee: Lumalampan Aktiebolag
    Inventors: Ake Sikander, Ake Bjorkman, Gunther Jonsson
  • Patent number: 4447045
    Abstract: In an apparatus for preparation of high-melting-point high-toughness metals by reduction of chlorides thereof with an active metal which comprises a heatable and tightly closable reaction chamber, an evacuable and coolable condensation chamber for separating the unreacted active metal and the formed chloride of the active metal from the formed object metal and an intermediate connecting section for communicating and cutting off the two chambers, the improved apparatus which is characterized in that it comprises a seal pot closing means having a funnel and a pot which is closed by introducing a melt of a fusible and vaporizable material and solidifying it therein, is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 8, 1984
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Kinzoku Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Etsuji Kimura, Katsumi Ogi, Kazusuke Sato, Mayuki Hashimoto
  • Patent number: 4440384
    Abstract: A retort pipe seal characterized by a retort and a crucible and passage means therebetween; a closure diaphragm for closing said means; means for heating the crucible; and rupture means for rupturing the closure diaphragm to enable a reactant in the retort to transfer to the crucible at a predetermined temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1984
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventor: Harmon A. Evans
  • Patent number: 4407488
    Abstract: The invention relates to a distillation and sublimation apparatus having a receiving vessel and a number of containers for the starting product. Each container has a bottom, an outer wall and an inner wall with a vapor duct, and the containers are stacked one upon the other in such manner that the vapor ducts are arranged in series. An annular space is present outside the stack of containers. The apparatus comprises a condenser into which the vapor duct of the bottom container discharges.For the purpose of solving the problem of preventing condensation of vapor on the receiving vessel, it is proposed, in accordance with the invention, that capillary gaps (28), which are open towards the receiving vessel (3), be present between the containers (26). Furthermore, the condenser (8) communicates with the annular space (10) by way of at least one return-flow orifice (19) for the gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: Leybold-Heraeus GmbH
    Inventors: Erwin Wanetzky, Franz Hugo, Fernand Kuhlmann
  • Patent number: 4403769
    Abstract: In a vacuum separator for refractory metal from magnesium metal and magnesium chloride mixed therewith, comprising: a vertically elongated substantially cylindrical retort having, inside, a closed space, a lower section of which is capable of accommodating such mixture to be treated as held in a container and is provided with a heating means to evaporate the magnesium metal and magnesium chloride to a substantial part, and an upper section of which has a cooling means to provide, inside, a cylindrical face for condensing thereon magnesium metal and magnesium chloride which ascend as vapor, and a means for degassing the retort to an elevated level of vacuum, an improvement such that a heat shield unit is provided at an intermediate level between said upper and lower sections of the retort, said heat shield unit comprising, as a whole, opening so arranged as to block any direct sight of the surface of the retort lower section when holding the container from a substantial part of the condensation face in the upp
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1983
    Inventor: Hiroshi Ishizuka
  • Patent number: 4344793
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is an apparatus and process for recovering mercury from a sludge which is discharged, for example, from a mercury-cell process for producing chlorine. In accordance with the invention the sludge is applied to a filter which washes away salt residue and provides an output constituting about 50% solid material. The filtrate is then applied to a dryer for further reduction of the water content, so that the output from the dryer constitutes about 95% solids. A muffle-type oven receives the output from the dryer and roasts the dried material while it is conveyed through the oven in a continuous process. The oven heats the dried sludge material to a temperature of about 1000.degree. F. to vaporize the mercury, such vapor being carried away to a quench tower for further processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1982
    Assignee: Linden Chemicals & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronald J. Burkett, Luther L. Dunn
  • Patent number: 4254943
    Abstract: The invention provides apparatus and a process for removing mercury from solid waste material. The solid waste material is placed in a vacuum chamber. The chamber is heated above the vaporization temperature of mercury. A vacuum condition is formed and then, while the temperature is maintained above the vaporization temperature of mercury, an inert gas is placed in the vacuum chamber. During this heating period, the pressure in the vacuum chamber is periodically varied from a maximum to a minimum. The apparatus utilized is a vacuum chamber, a vacuum pump, and a pipe that contains a mercury condenser. The pipe also functions through a side inlet as a means for introducing the inert gas into the vacuum chamber, while the vacuum pump is closed off. A control unit for controlling the alternate periods of mercury vapor withdrawal and inert gas introduction into the vacuum chamber is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1981
    Assignee: Lumalampan AB
    Inventor: Karl-Ake G. Bjorkman
  • Patent number: 4200264
    Abstract: The invention provides methods and apparatus for the production of Mg and Ca through a carbon reduction of their oxides, wherein Mg (or Ca) and CO co-existing in the mixed gas produced from said carbon reduction are kept safe from their reaction into MgO (or CaO) and C throughout the whole process until they are effectively separated for collection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1980
    Inventor: Fumio Hori
  • Patent number: 4146774
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for epitaxial film formation is disclosed. Planar reactive evaporation techniques suitable for scaling are employed to produce high purity compound semiconducting films at relatively low temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1979
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Lewis M. Fraas
  • Patent number: 4105192
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for producing zirconium by reducing zirconium halides in the presence of a reducing agent and an inert gas. The zirconium halide is mostly reduced while being in the solid state. The apparatus permits successive reduction and vaccum distillation in one batch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1978
    Assignee: Nippon Mining Company
    Inventors: Kazuhiko Ishimatsu, Takao Nakahara, Akira Murata, Masami Kuroki
  • Patent number: 4077799
    Abstract: A method of refining crude cadmium by vacuum distillation in which crude cadmium is passed into a reflux condenser in which higher boiling point impurities are condensed together with a portion of pure cadmium vapor, this condensate flowing in counterflow with the crude cadmium vapor. The remaining portion of the pure cadmium vapor is subsequently condensed. The apparatus comprises an inverted U-shaped vacuum chamber having an evaporator and a reflux condenser in one leg and a further condenser in the other leg. A feed pipe for liquid crude cadmium enters the one leg adjacent the evaporator and a residue outlet pipe leaves the one leg, the feed pipe and the residue pipe being arranged so that no back-flow takes place from the residue pipe to the feed pipe. An outlet pipe for the refined cadmium issues from the other leg of the vacuum chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1978
    Assignee: Preussag Aktiengesellschaft Metall
    Inventors: Hans Wilhelm Wieking, Karl Ehlers
  • Patent number: 4045006
    Abstract: Apparatus for the continuous vacuum refining of a metal comprising a cylindrical vacuum chamber, containing a stack of a plurality of vertically superposed trays. The trays receive impure molten metal which flows downwardly from tray to tray while impurities are discharged therefrom and flow to shields which surround the trays and condense and discharge the impurities. The metal in the trays is heated to evaporate the impurities therefrom. The heat energy which is imparted to the metal is effected irregularly along the height of the stack of the trays such that the imparted heat energy diminishes in a vertically downwards direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1977
    Inventors: Vladimir Semenovich Cherednichenko, Valentin Innokentievich Belsky, Gennady Ivanovich Orlov, Jury Anatolievich Naryshkin, Jury Petrovich Novikov