Abstract: A turf-simulating surface and golf practice tee device simulates the properties of natural turf. The device is made of independent components which simulate the layers of natural soil. One component is a composite mat comprising an integral pile section and plastic foam layer. The pile section has tufted strands that simulate grass, and a loop portion that is interactively positioned in a lateral-strength fabric. A plastic foam element is bonded to both the lateral-strength fabric and to the looped regions of the pile section. A second component is a rimmed base that simulates the supporting properties of the deeper layers of natural soil. The rim of the rimmed base is integrally formed around a engineered-plastic composite core. A third component is a tee-block that comprises a first component material element and a gel-foam tee-retaining element.
Abstract: A golf ball, comprising:a core;an inner cover layer formed over the core, the inner cover layer having a Shore D hardness of at least 60 as measured on the curved surface thereof, andan outer cover layer formed over the inner cover layer, the outer cover layer having a Shore D hardness of no more than 53 as measured on the curved surface thereof,at least one of the inner and outer cover layers comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of polycarbonates, reaction-injection-molded polyurethanes, and styrene-butadiene elastomers,the golf ball having a PGA compression of 100 or less and a coefficient of restitution of at least 0.750.
March 18, 1998
Date of Patent:
July 4, 2000
Spalding Sports Worldwide, Inc.
Michael J. Sullivan, Viktor Keller, Thomas Kennedy, John Neill, William Risen
Abstract: A golf club head having a sweet spot area of lighter weight than the perimeter surround it. The sweet spot area on the front of the club is filled with a lightweight material that extends toward the rear of the club and is both lighter in weight than the surrounding club head material and having a light transmitting quality. The material may serve as a light passageway for sunlight to travel from the rear of the club to the front face of the club and so illuminate the sweet spot on the front face of the club.
Abstract: A geometric-shaped core for a golf ball has a plurality of outwardly extending projections formed on a spherical central portion thereof. A layer of a relatively less resilient material is applied in the interstitial space between the projections on the surface of the core, and a cover is applied over the core and interstitial layer. The geometric-shaped core is manufactured by first providing flexible, resilient, honeycombed inserts to be used in a conventional compression mold. The inserts are placed into the upper and lower mold cavities, the core material is added, and the geometric-shaped golf ball core is compression molded.
August 20, 1998
Date of Patent:
November 16, 1999
Callaway Golf Company
Martin P. Wai, David L. Felker, William Priest
Abstract: A durable, composite safety baseball or softball for practice or training purposes having a dual layer core comprised of an inner core of closed cell urethane and an outer core layer of relatively open cell urethane and covered with an outer cover of real or simulated leather which is softer than a conventional game ball and is thus less injurious to players and spectators. The ball is harder than prior practice balls and has payability characteristics substantially the same as conventional game balls when hit, thrown or caught.
May 4, 1998
Date of Patent:
September 14, 1999
Jas. D. Easton, Inc.
Mark Talarico, Matthew Arndt, Richard Grapenthin
Abstract: The invention relates to a golf ball having a polyurethane cover substantially free of surface defects caused by a pin mold. By centering the golf ball core in its cover without the use of a mold having retractable or fixed alignment pins, a golf ball without surface defects in its cover resulting from the pins is achieved. To accomplish this "pinless" centering, a centering apparatus is used to properly position the golf ball core in the first mold half used to form the polyurethane cover.
June 2, 1997
Date of Patent:
September 7, 1999
John Calabria, Dean A. Snell, Shenshen Wu
Abstract: A club head for a golf club has a front surface and a rear surface and defines a frontal recess continuously perimetrically bounded by the club head front surface. A member is secured in the recess and is comprised of a material different from material constituting the club head, the member defining a front surface for hitting engagement with a golf ball.
Abstract: A turf-simulating surface and golf practice tee device simulates the properties of natural turf. The device is made of two independent components the first of which simulates the first two layers of natural soil and is a composite mat comprising an integral pile section and plastic foam layer. The pile section has tufted strands that simulate grass, and a loop portion that is interactively positioned in a lateral-strength fabric. A plastic foam element is bonded to both the lateral-strength fabric and to the looped regions of the pile section. The second component is a rimmed base that simulates the supporting properties of the deeper layers of natural soil. The second component has a rim that is integrally formed around a foamed-plastic composite core, the density of which increases from the top to the bottom.
Abstract: A billiards table comprises a playing bed (12) of sandwich construction having a playing surface which mimics the bounce of slate for a billiards ball, an edge member (16) for the surface formed of moulded plastics and having a cushioned surface, and legs (15) fixed to the underside of the table. The edge member (16) incorporates channel formations (21) to receive the balls, which communicate with the pockets through the edge. The playing surface may be cloth covered (as is conventional) or may have a simulated cloth surface moulded on a plastic top layer.
Abstract: A golf club comprises a club shaft and a club head connected to an end portion of the club shaft, the club head having a gravimetric center and head body portions extending along mutually orthogonal axes extending through the gravimetric center. At least one of the head body portions is of different geometric configuration on respective opposite sides of the gravimetric center. The club head defines a recess extending to the gravimetric center, the recess having an axis disposed orthogonally to the mutually orthogonal axes. The club shaft end portion is disposed in the club head recess. The club head may include a member secured to an exterior surface of the club head and comprised of a material different from material constituting the club head, the member defining exterior surface for hitting engagement with a golf ball, the member exterior surface having an arcuate configuration.
Abstract: A golf club providing improved control of distance and direction of a golf ball impacted by the club includes a resilient insert having a controlled rebound factor fitted into a recess provided in the face of the club head. In the preferred embodiment, the insert comprises one or more thin laminations, each having an intrinsic rebound factor and thickness selected to yield in combination an overall composite ball-impacting rebound factor that may be varied over a relatively wide range of rebound factors, preferably which are an approximately linear function of desired travel range of the impacted ball. Also in the preferred embodiment, the inserts are made of a material in which the hardness may be varied somewhat independently from rebound factor, thus allowing construction of a club having a desired ball-impacting feel as well as selected rebound factor.
Abstract: A game ball having a high end synthetic leather cover formed from a non-woven fiber mat impregnated with polyurethane. In one embodiment, the game ball is a football and the fibers in the backing of the cover material have a denier of about 0.1 or less. In another embodiment, the game ball cover has a dual layer coating to impart to the cover good pebble retention. The first layer has a Shore A hardness of at least about 65, and the second layer surrounding the first layer has a Shore A hardness lower than the hardness of the first layer. The game ball, which can be formed to meet association specifications, has properties of softness and durability comparable to those of a genuine full grain leather game ball.
Abstract: A softball has a high end synthetic leather stitched cover formed from a low density non-woven fiber mat impregnated with polyurethane. The softball, which can be formed to meet association specifications, has a circumference of 11 or 12 inches and a cover to core weight ratio significantly less than 0.1, typically in the range of 0.08-0.16, while meeting durability requirements. The cover preferably has a thickness of 0.045-0.065 inches. Because a greater weight concentration is in the core of the ball, the ball has improved playability characteristics over conventional balls having heavier synthetic leather covers, while exhibiting a sound comparable to that of a leather covered softball when struck with a bat.
Abstract: A golf club having a vibration damping device including a club head, a shaft connected to the club head having resonant frequencies over a predetermined range and a rod disposed within the shaft with a viscoelastic material interposed between the shaft and the rod. The rod is flexible and has resonant frequencies over the same frequency range as the shaft such that the shaft and rod vibrate out of phase with respect to each other and thereby deform the viscoelastic material to damp vibrations in the shaft.
Abstract: A hollow wood-type golf club is fabricated with a thin layer of elastomeric dampening material coating the inner surface region opposite the ball impacting face and within the hollow cavity of the head shell. The layer provides vibration dampening, improving the play of the club. A low cost, simple method to fabricate the head with the layer includes dispensing a quantity of uncured elastomer in liquid form into the cavity, maintaining the head with the inner surface opposite the ball impacting face at a horizontal attitude to cause the liquid to pool over this inner surface region, and curing the elastomer with the head in this attitude until the elastomer has cured and hardened. Golf iron and putter clubs are described with a vibration dampener consisting of a thin layer of elastomer material adhered to a base cavity surface of a cavity backing the ball impacting surface. Methods for fabricating the iron and putter clubs are described.
Abstract: A hollow wood-type golf club is fabricated with a thin layer of elastomeric dampening material coating the inner hollow cavity of the head shell. The layer provides vibration dampening, improving the play of the club. The vibration dampening material can also be applied in a thickened region at a desired location within the cavity to achieve a desired weighting to affect the balance of the head. A low cost, simple method to fabricate the head with the layer includes dispensing a quantity of uncured elastomer in liquid form into the cavity, coating the inner surface, pouring off the excess material, optionally weighing the head and adding an amount of the liquid elastomer to bring the head up to a desired nominal weight, maintaining the head at an attitude to cause the excess liquid to pool at a location at which additional weight is desired, and oven curing the elastomer with the head in this attitude until the elastomer has cured and hardened.
Abstract: The resilient game target includes a generally planar surface which has multiple cup shaped concave receptacles. Multiple resilient dome-shaped protrusions surround each cup shaped receptacle such that a game piece which strikes a resilient dome-shaped protrusion will be reflected. Multiple target indicia are displayed on the planar surface in association with selected cup-shaped receptacles such that a selected score may be associated with a final resting position of a thrown game piece. The resilient game target is preferably integrally formed of a resilient foam, such as open-cell polyurethane.
Abstract: A metal wood type golf club head provided with a conically shaped metal sleeve filled with hard polyurethane material and disposed within the club head shell to extend between the club face plate and back end portion of the club head.
Abstract: A soccer ball having a high end synthetic cover formed from a non-woven fiber mat impregnated with polyurethane. The fibers in the backing of the cover material have a denier of about 0.02 or less. The soccer ball, which can be formed to meet association specifications, has a cover formed from a fiber reinforced polyurethane material having a Shore A hardness of 40-80 and stitch tear strength of at least 45 psi, thereby imparting to the cover a favorable combination of softness and durability.
Abstract: A substantially improved table soccer/fussball game playing ball is fabricated by molding an oversized spherical blank entirely from a single thermoplastic material, preferably a urethane material having a hardness without the approximate range of from about 50 Shore D to about 60 Shore D. The oversized molded blank is then subjected to a precision surface machining process, preferably using a centerless grinding machine, to reduce its diameter to a desired finished magnitude and to provide the resulting finished playing ball with a very precisely spherical shape having a sphericity which does not vary by more than about 0.001 inch on any external surface portion thereof.
Abstract: A golf ball having a fluorescent cover and an ultraviolet light blocking, visibly transparent top coat is disclosed. The cover can bear a fluorescent coating or be made of a fluorescent bulk material. The fluorescent material is selected and provided in an amount effective to fluoresce by absorbing at least some ultraviolet light having a wavelength exceeding about 320 nm and emitting visible light. The top coat contains a narrow-spectrum short-wave ultraviolet light absorber. The top coat absorbs more ultraviolet light having a wavelength of about 320 nm than ultraviolet light having a wavelength of about 350 nm, while transmitting a substantial proportion of at least some wavelengths of visible light and ultraviolet light having wavelengths greater than about 320 nm. One particular ultraviolet light blocking material contemplated herein consists essentially of an oxalanilide.
Abstract: The present invention discloses an illuminated ball. The illuminated ball has a translucent core which is, in the preferred embodiment, made of polyurethane which is translucent. Integrally molded with the shell is a component tree or light source having branches extending from the center. At the tip of each of these branches is placed a high density LED light. A plug is provided on an lower side of the ball to allow access to the light assembly and to allow the battery to be changed. On an upper side of the ball there is placed a power switch which allows the light to be turned on and off.
Abstract: Disclosed is a golf club body made of composite material and having a bent front section, consisting generally of a straight, tapered hollow body made of carbon fiber, a bent section connected to a tapered front end of the straight body and being formed of a carbon fiber outer wall and core retained therewithin, and a link connecting the body and bent sections. The bent section has a recess of sufficient depth circumferentially formed in an inner wall of one end having substantially the same diameter as that of the tapered end of the straight body section, such that the link is permitted to be fixedly engaged within the bent section recess at one end and within the tapered end of the body at the other end, to thereby firmly connect the bent section to the straight hollow body section.
Abstract: A variable-weight playball whose outer casing is formed of liquid-impervious, flexible material, having a closable port therein. Confined within the casing is a compressible body having the same configuration which depends on whether the ball is spherical or in some other shape. The body is formed of low-density, open-cell, flexible foam plastic material having sponge-like properties. To impart heft to the ball, water is introduced through the port into the body and absorbed thereby, the port then being closed to retain the water. To thereafter lighten the ball, the port is opened and the ball is squeezed to discharge water through the port until the ball has the desired reduced weight, after which the port is closed. The casing may be contoured, printed or otherwise arranged so that the ball simulates the head of a humanoid or animal-like character having a mouth.
Abstract: A golf putter comprises a putter head having fixed thereto a putter shaft, the putter head having a front face into which is received and fixed a polyurethane insert or pad at the position of intended ball impact. The insert may be one of a set of inserts or pads, each of which is constructed from a solid polyurethane material having a pre-selected and reproducible linear relationship between its rebound factor and the distance to a target hole for any designated and pre-selected value of its hardness. For a particular hardness value, a number of pads having different specific rebound factors are manufactured. The rebound factors of each pad are substantially equal to a constant "K.sub.n ", where K.sub.1 =12.5%, K.sub.2 =25%, K.sub.3 =37.5%, and K.sub.4 =50.0%. A golfer may thus preselect a pad having a known characteristic related to the distance from a golf ball to a cup.
Abstract: The game ball is a prolate spheroid ball like an American football. It is of smaller size and lighter weight to be used by young people. The ball is characterized by a straight unobstructed cylindrical hole through the center. In one embodiment fins are provided on the outside to spin the ball. The fins are at an angle of 13 to 22 degrees to the ball's longitudinal axis and may be adjustable. In another embodiment, the ball may have axial or spiral holes therethrough radially outward from the center hole.
Abstract: A clear coating for a golf ball comprises up to 65% by weight a solvent system including methylamyl ketone (MAK). The clear coating further comprises about 35-90% by weight of a polymer including a hydroxyl-containing resin and an isocyanate such that an equivalent weight ratio of --NCO to --OH is in a range of about 0.9 to 1.4. The coating is comprised of at least 45% solids.
Abstract: A football having a grip configuration which permits the thrower to easily reproduce his optimum hand location with every throw comprises a body with at least one elongated indentation on its surface. The indentation is intersected by a plurality of transverse bulkheads which divide the indentation into a plurality of finger pockets. In specific embodiments, more than four finger pockets are provided to permit an individual thrower to vary his grip location to that which best suits his throw.
Abstract: A variable-weight play piece, such as a ball or bat, the weight of the piece depending on the amount of water dispersed within a compressible internal body confined within a water-impermeable outer casing. The casing, whose shape is determined by the nature of the piece, is provided with a port having a removable closure, at least one section of the casing being flexible so that when manually pressed in, it acts to compress the internal body, and when pressure is released, the body then resumes its original shape which conforms to that of the casing. The internal body is formed of open-cell, flexible foam material having sponge-like properties. To impart heft to the play piece, the port is opened and pressure is applied to the flexible section of the casing to compress the internal body and thereby expel air therefrom through the open port.
Abstract: A golf putter is provided with a head that rotates to slightly increase the loft of the face during impact and thereby lifts a golf ball from a low spot on the putting surface with reduced backspin and provides the golfer with greater control of the resulting putt. In addition, the tang of the neck received within a cavity within the head is surrounded by a resilient material that not only permits the loft-increasing rotational movement but also dampens vibration from the impact between the head and the golf ball and transmits a softer more desirable feel to the golfer's hands.
Abstract: A playfield, aquatic flotation and sports amusement device formed from an elongated cylinder of foam material which has axial recess means to receive elongated cylindrical connector devices to connect the foam cylinder together at its ends or to adjacent structures to form flotation devices, field markers, hoops, tunnels, wickets and other structures useful in sports and play.
Abstract: A variable-weight playball whose outer casing is formed of liquid-impervious, non-stretchable, flexible material, such as a resin-coated fabric, the casing being provided with a closable port. Confined within the casing is a compressible body having the same configuration which depends on whether the ball is of the spherical type or in some other shape. The body is formed of low-density, open-cell, flexible foam plastic material having sponge-like properties. To impart heft to the ball, water is introduced through the port into the body and absorbed thereby, the port then being closed to retain the water. To thereafter lighten the ball, the port is opened and the ball is squeezed to discharge water through the port until the ball has the desired reduced weight, after which the port is closed. The weight selected depends on the use to which the ball is put.
Abstract: A head of a golf club has a central leather panel the surface of which forms a striking surface for engaging a golf ball. A flexible plastic layer adhered to the striking surface yields with the leather when the golf ball is struck. This construction enables more accurate control of the ball.
Abstract: An ironhead comprising a relatively heavy, inner core member, preferably of metal, and a relatively lightweight, injection-molded outer member, preferably of thermoplastic elastomer, is disclosed. Preferred thermoplastic elastomer materials are glass filled urethanes and glass-filled polycarbonates. Alternative inner core designs are disclosed, both with and without a lateral support member for the striking face of the clubhead.
Abstract: An improved basketball comprising an interior spherical bladder formed principally of synthetic butyl rubber with a thickness of about 0.82 millimeters; an intermediate layer of monofilament strands formed of nylon and wound around the bladder to a thickness of between about 0.3 and 0.7 millimeters; an exterior carcass of molded natural rubber formed of two hemispheres with exteriorly projecting ribs or channels; and a plurality of polyurethane inserts formed with matted fibers of nylon or a polyester with a diameter of about 1 micron adhered to the exterior surface of carcass between the channels, the inserts having a thickness of about 1.8 millimeters.
Abstract: A toy golf playset includes a golf club having an elongated shaft supporting a soft foam handle at one end thereof and a soft foam clubhead at the remaining end. The golf club is formed shorter and thicker than conventional golf clubs. The golf club head defines a pair of equally angled ball hitting surfaces or facets to facilitate use of the golf club by both right-handed and left-handed children. An omnidirectional golf tee defines a quartet of symmetrically positioned generally cylindrical elements each of which joins the remaining elements a common center of intersection and each of which defines a concave ball recess facilitating the positioning of a soft resilient foam ball upon the vertically extending one of the elements when the tee is placed upon a play surface. The golf tee is preferably formed of a resilient soft foam material or the like.
Abstract: A cavity back iron with vibration dampening material in the cavity. The material is a polyurethane having a hardness of 20-50 Shore D, a flexural modulus of 1,000-50,000 p.s.i., a percent elongation of 100-600, and a tensile strength of 2,000-8,000 p.s.i.
Abstract: A golf club includes a straight shaft and a metallic member having a first end connected to the lower end of the shaft. The other end of the metallic member is bent to define an obtuse angle with the first end. In a preferred form, a flat metallic stiffener plate is welded or otherwise affixed to one side of the metallic member. These portions are placed in a suitable mold into which polyurethane is admitted, and heat is differentially applied to or removed from the various surfaces of the mold in order that the polyurethane solidifies to form a substantially flat striking layer of dense integral-skin polyurethane juxtaposed against the stiffener plate remote from the metallic member, and a back cushion enclosing the stiffener plate and all of the metallic member. The back cushion is thicker than the striking layer, and is of polyurethane less dense than that of the striking layer.
Abstract: A golf club comprising an elongated shaft with a lower end for attachment of the club head. The club head comprises a hosel portion for connection of the head to the shaft end, and a main body portion which comprises an enclosed outer wall and a hollow interior chamber. The club further involves the presence of molded material which fills the hollow chamber of the head, this molded material comprising a flexible synthetic plastic foam which bonds to the inner wall surfaces. The manufacturing method involves the filling of the chamber with the foam whereby the foam forms within the chamber. This method may involve the mixing of an aromatic isocyanate with a polyether polyol prior to introduction of the mixture into the chamber. The mixture, which forms a flexible polyurethane foam with the desired bonding characteristics, may be introduced through an axial bore defined by the hosel which opens into the interior of the chamber. The method is preferably applied to the manufacture of metal club heads.
Abstract: A golf club head has a main body of head formed by coating the surface of a filling member made from foaming synthetic resin or the like with layers of fiber reinforced resin such as carbon reinforced resin, glass fiber reinforced resin. A metallic thin film layer is provided in the proximity of an outer surface of the main body of head.
Abstract: A lighted ball is disclosed which comprises a spherical body of soft, pliable, transparent rubber having a plurality of LEDs embedded in the body. An electrical switch with push button action is embedded in the body and connected in circuit with a battery set for energizing the LEDs. In one embodiment, a removable closure is provided in a battery passage for battery replacement. In other embodiments, a rechargeable battery set is permanently disposed within the body and an access passage is provided for battery charging. A recharging connector inside the ball is connected with the battery terminal and receives a pin type recharging plug through the access passage in the ball.
Abstract: The production of a sound-producing polyurethane foamed ball is disclosed in which the sound producing hardware having a sound generating circuit connected to a battery set by a spring switch, is placed in a mold for producing a polyurethane foam ball in which the polyurethane covers the sound generator through a foaming process. The sound generating hardware is supported in the mold by a metal column extending into the mold cavity. The polyurethane ball thus made has an elongated sound hole for transmitting sounds from said sound generator to the outside.
Abstract: An inflated bladder-type sports or leisure ball, e.g., a football, having as a cover, an external layer of polyurethane or polyurethane-polyurea foam with compact integral skin. The thickness of the covering layer is between about 1.5 and about 5 mm, whereas the thickness of the compact integral skin is between about 0.5 and about 2 mm. The ball may be of a hand-sewn, laminated or overmolded type. A process for manufacturing such balls is disclosed.
Abstract: A golf club head containing a filling orifice (6) designed for filling an interior cavity (4) with a foaming material (5). The orifice (6) is sealed with an element (7) allowing selective permeability and comprising at least one wall (71) forming the interface between the interior cavity (4) and the outside and through which only gas molecules can excape from the interior cavity (4) to the outside under the pressure exerted by the volume of the foaming material during injection and during its expansion after injection.
Abstract: An improved golf putter club is disclosed in which the club head, hosel, shaft and grip are so configured that the club's total weight is perfectly centered and balanced about the club's shaft axis, resulting in multi-directional stability, i.e., infinite balancing, against any static forces causing the putter club head to rotate off line about the shaft, grip, and hosel axis. Such rotational stability eliminates any inherent twisting forces of the putter head during use. An extremely high moment of inertia about the club head's center of gravity results from use of a relatively heavyweight material for the ball striking face, the club heel and toe ends, and the adjacent sole portions, while an insert formed of a relatively lightweight material is used to fill in the club head's central area where heavyweight material is absent. This high rotational moment of inertia assures that when a golf ball is hit off-center (i.e.
Abstract: The polar-lighted recreational ball is substantially symmetrical about an axis of the ball body and hasa opposing polar regions at opposite ends of the axis. Axially recessed lighting assemblies at each polar region project light outwardly from the ball through a light passage at the polar regions. An annular cushion collar surrounds each polar light passage to cushion axial impacts on the ball. A skewing member causes the lighting assemblies to skew laterally from the axis upon compression impact approximately along the direction of the axis. The skewing member and the lighting assemblies are located in a channel running through the ball at the axis; and the ball is ideally of a substantially ellipsoidal football shape.
Abstract: A substantially improved table soccer/fussball game playing ball is fabricated by molding an oversized spherical blank entirely from a single thermoplastic material, preferably a urethane material having a hardness within the approximate range of from about 50 Shore D to about 60 Shore D. The oversized molded blank is then subjected to a precision surface machining process, preferably using a centerless grinding machine, to reduce its diameter to a desired finished magnitude and to provide the resulting finished playing ball with a very precisely spherical shape. Compared to conventionally fabricated table soccer playing balls, the machined, single thermoplastic material playing ball provides a variety of advantages including a truer playing roll, considerably more durability and resistance to surface wear, and the desirable ability to retain its "like-new" playing characteristics for a much longer period of time.
Abstract: A lighted ball having high velocity bounce capability which comprises a solid spherical body of soft, pliable, transparent rubber having a plurality of LEDs embedded in the body. An electrical switch with push button action is embedded in the body and connected in circuit with a battery set for energizing the LEDs. The removable closure is provided in a battery passage. A switch access passage extends from the switch actuator to the surface of the body.
Abstract: A novelty ball is disclosed which is formed from a spherical shell of high density elastomeric polyurethane polymer. The polyurethane shell has a wall thickness sufficient to return the shell to its original shape following deformation. In one embodiment, the interior of the shell is hollow whereas in a second embodiment, the hollow interior is filled with a low density polyurethane foam. A flavoring can also be added to the polyurethane which is appealing to animals, such as dogs. The shell has a hardness ranging between approximately 35 and 60 Shore D as measured by the ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials) that 2240; an ultimate tensil strength between approximately 20 and 25 MPa (mega pascals) measured by ASTM test D412; an ultimate elongation ranging between approximately 500 and 600%; a tensil strength between approximately 6.9 and 16.5 MPa at 100% elongation; and between approximately 10.
Abstract: A golf cup for artificial greens comprising a golf cup having a cylindrical layer of a compressible substance secured to the upper internal end of the golf cup which extends for a portion of the internal length of the cup from the upper end thereof.