Contact Potential Difference Patents (Class 310/302)
  • Patent number: 10756249
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing an electrically-powered device and/or component that is embeddable in a solid structural component, and a system, a produced device and/or a produced component is provided. The produced electrically powered device includes an attached autonomous electrical power source in a form of a unique, environmentally-friendly structure configured to transform thermal energy at any temperature above absolute zero to an electric potential without any external stimulus including physical movement or deformation energy. The autonomous electrical power source component provides a mechanism for generating renewable energy as primary power for the electrically-powered device and/or component once an integrated structure including the device and/or component is deployed in an environment that restricts future access to the electrical power source for servicing, recharge, replacement, replenishment or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2020
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: FACE INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION
    Inventors: Clark D Boyd, Bradbury R Face, Jeffrey D Shepard
  • Patent number: 10249810
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing an electrically-powered device and/or component that is embeddable in a solid structural component, and a system, a produced device and/or a produced component is provided. The produced electrically powered device includes an attached autonomous electrical power source in a form of a unique, environmentally-friendly structure configured to transform thermal energy at any temperature above absolute zero to an electric potential without any external stimulus including physical movement or deformation energy. The autonomous electrical power source component provides a mechanism for generating renewable energy as primary power for the electrically-powered device and/or component once an integrated structure including the device and/or component is deployed in an environment that restricts future access to the electrical power source for servicing, recharge, replacement, replenishment or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2019
    Inventors: Clark D Boyd, Bradbury R Face, Jeffrey D Shepard
  • Patent number: 8987578
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, an energy conversion device comprises a nuclear battery, a light source coupled to the nuclear battery and operable to receive electric energy from the nuclear battery and radiate electromagnetic energy, and a photocell operable to receive the radiated electromagnetic energy and convert the received electromagnetic energy into electric energy. The nuclear battery comprises a radioactive substance and a collector operable to receive particles emitted by the radioactive substance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Gary A. Frazier, Timothy J. Imholt, Alexander F. St. Claire
  • Patent number: 8878056
    Abstract: A device and method for producing electricity by harnessing sunlight to produce an amplified voltage signal, the device including: (a) a sealed chamber, defined by a transparent housing; (b) an excitable medium, disposed within the chamber, in which, when the medium is exposed to solar light having wavelengths in a range of 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: Techinion Research and Development Foundation Ltd.
    Inventor: Levi Schachter
  • Patent number: 7391124
    Abstract: A method and system for producing electricity, and more particularly to a method of producing electricity by producing steam by directing Gamma rays generated by directing X-rays at a mass of Hafnium 178 onto a mass of water. The steam thereafter is channeled to a steam turbine generator to produce electricity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2008
    Inventor: Angel Severino Diaz
  • Patent number: 6756795
    Abstract: A nanomechanical actuator/oscillator device and system are provided. The nanomechanical actuator/oscillator device comprising nanobimorphs, such as nanotubes, designed such that inducing a difference in charge density between the tubes (e.g. by biasing one tube positive with respect to the other with sufficient tube-to-tube contact resistance) induces lateral movement in the end of the bimorph, forming a nanoscale resonator, as well as a force sensor when operated in an inverse mode. A method of producing a novel nanobimorph structure with integrated electrodes is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Brian D. Hunt, Flavio Noca, Michael E. Hoenk
  • Publication number: 20020180306
    Abstract: A nanomechanical actuator/oscillator device and system are provided. The nanomechanical actuator/oscillator device comprising nanobimorphs, such as nanotubes, designed such that inducing a difference in charge density between the tubes (e.g. by biasing one tube positive with respect to the other with sufficient tube-to-tube contact resistance) induces lateral movement in the end of the bimorph, forming a nanoscale resonator, as well as a force sensor when operated in an inverse mode. A method of producing a novel nanobimorph structure with integrated electrodes is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 18, 2002
    Publication date: December 5, 2002
    Inventors: Brian D. Hunt, Flavio Noca, Michael E. Hoenk
  • Patent number: 6238812
    Abstract: A semiconducter battery that utilizes radioactive decay processes to produce electrical power by direct electrical current generation from these decay products. These batteries have extremely long half-lives. Each decay can produce on the order of 1,500,000 free electrons and 1,500,000 ions per each radioactive decay, so there is a tremendous multiplication factor for current generation. Production of these batteries by semiconductor processes greatly reduces battery cost compared to existing batteries that utilize radioactive decays. The battery comprises a n-type semiconducter layer, a radioactive semiconducter layer sandwiched between two adjacent layers of semiconducter material not containing radioactive material, and a p-type semiconducter layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Inventors: Paul M. Brown, Patrick G. Herda
  • Patent number: 5672928
    Abstract: A method for stabilizing direct current generated by neutron activation of a plurality of interconnected .beta.-emitter (nuclear decay electron) cells, which are placed in a specific position in the out-of-core region of a light water nuclear reactor. The method entails a synergistic combination of neutron-absorbing isotopes, in specific relationship to each other, the amount of each absorber and their respective locations in the neutron flux field being chosen to render the total current-time characteristic substantially constant over a significant number of reactor full-power-years. The method enhances the current output and lifetime of the current generator by greatly deferring burn-up of the neutron absorbers. If configured as a DC voltage source for powering radiation-hardened, high-temperature integrated circuitry contained in the reactor pressure vessel, voltage regulation circuitry is not necessary.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1997
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: James Howard Terhune
  • Patent number: 5616928
    Abstract: An apparatus for protecting personnel and the environment from harmful emissions of radiation from a source thereof includes a plurality of shielding parts so located as to be in the path of the radioactive emissions and to absorb them so that an electrical potential difference between the shielding parts is established, due to different absorptions of radiation by them, a variable electrical load for consuming electrical power at a location remote from the radioactive source, and electrical conductors communicating the variable electrical load with such shielding parts. Although the invention is primarily intended for protecting personnel and the environment against emissions from radiation sources, such as radioactive wastes, it is also useful for shielding other sources of harmful radiated emissions. Also within the invention are processes for protecting personnel and the environment against radiation hazards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Inventors: Virginia Russell, James W. Russell, administrator
  • Patent number: 5280213
    Abstract: A power cell which converts ionizing radiation into electrical energy. The power cell includes a multi-layer composite source element which includes a charged particle emitter layer, first and second source dielectric layers, a source collector layer and a source retarding layer. The source element is disposed within a multi-layer composite shield element having an absorber layer, first and second shield dielectric layers, a shield collector layer, and a shield retarding layer. An anode is connected to the emitter layer and a cathode to the collector layer. The emitter layer produces charged particles which interact with the dielectric layers to eject electrons which are collected by the collector layer to generate a potential between the anode and the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1994
    Inventor: John J. Day
  • Patent number: 5237233
    Abstract: An optoelectronic active circuit element is created by the combination of a light source, an optical control filter and a photocell intimately coupled together. The light source has at least one light emitting surface emitting light energy of a specified frequency bandwidth and the photocell has at least one light absorbing surface for receiving the emitted light energy. The optical control filter includes a photorefractive material responsive to an input signal. The optical control filter may also include a polarization filter. The optoelectronic active circuit element modulates the amplitude, frequency or both of the emitted light energy in response to the input signal to produce a characteristic function of the output of the device that is similar to that of a traditional active circuit element, as well as many variations on that function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1993
    Assignee: E. F. Johnson Company
    Inventor: Jerry J. Conley
  • Patent number: 5124610
    Abstract: An electrical energy source is created by the combination of a light emitting polymer material having at least one light emitting surface emitting light energy of a specified frequency bandwidth and a photovoltaic cell having a light collecting surface and a pair of electrical contacts. The light collecting surface of the photovoltaic cell is optically coupled with the light emitting surface of the light emitting polymer material. An open-circuit voltage is generated between the pair of electrical contacts as a result of the absorption of emitted light energy from the light emitting polymer material by the photovoltaic cell. The light emitting polymer comprises a mixture of a polymer labelled with a tritium and an organic compound which emits light energy when subjected to radiation generated by the tritium. The organic compound is at least partly bonded to the polymer and the mixture is translucent at the specified frequency bandwidth of the light energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1992
    Assignee: E. F. Johnson Company
    Inventors: Jerry J. Conley, Gary B. Mortensen
  • Patent number: 5079469
    Abstract: A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: The United State of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Wayne L. Bongianni
  • Patent number: 5008579
    Abstract: An electrical energy source is created by the combination of a light emitting polymer material having at least one light emitting surface emitting light energy of a specified frequency bandwidth and a photovoltaic cell having a light collecting surface and a pair of electrical contacts. The light collecting surface of the photovoltaic cell is optically coupled with the light emitting surface of the light emitting polymer material. An open-circuit voltage is generated between the pair of electrical contacts as a result of the absorption of emitted light energy from the light emitting polymer material by the photovoltaic cell. In the preferred embodiment, the light emitting polymer is a tritiated organic polymer to which at least one organic phosphor or scintillant is bonded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1991
    Assignee: E. F. Johnson Co.
    Inventors: Jerry J. Conley, Gary B. Mortensen
  • Patent number: 4160927
    Abstract: An electrical battery comprised of a substrate of a radioactively ionized, electrically polarized, polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramic material, which is disposed between a pair of conductive electrodes. The radioactive ionization produces non-equilibrium carriers in the substrate, resulting in the development of an emf across the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1979
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: Philip S. Brody