Three Or More Patents (Class 313/105R)
  • Patent number: 6015588
    Abstract: A method for fabricating an electron multiplier is provided. The method consists of depositing a random channel layer on a substrate such that the random channel layer is capable of producing a cascade secondary electron emission in response to an incident electron in the presence of an electric field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2000
    Assignee: Electron R+D International, Inc.
    Inventor: Samuel Goukassian
  • Patent number: 5689152
    Abstract: An electron multiplier of the perforated sheet type includes two successive sheets constituting a dynode which has several multiplier channels in common. For controlling the gain of a given channel (A), a control electrode (30) is provided in the form of a sheet inserted between the sheets (14, 15) of a dynode (Dn) which has a grating window (33) controlling the gain of the channel (A) in question, and one (or several) aperture(s) (34) in accordance with the number of remaining channels. Another channel (B) is controlled by another electrode (31) inserted between the sheets (16, 17) of another dynode (D.sub.n+1). Also disclosed is a multi-channel photomultiplier tube which includes such an electron multiplier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1997
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Boutot, Pierre L'Hermite
  • Patent number: 5677595
    Abstract: An electron multiplier includes an improved resistor assembly for applying relevant voltages to respective dynodes. Resistor patterns are printed on one surface of an insulation substrate. Each resistor pattern is connected to one end of one of a plurality of conductor patterns which are also printed on the same surface of the insulation substrate, so that each resistor pattern is sandwiched between adjacent conductor patterns to provide a predetermined resistance therebetween. The other end of each conductor pattern extends to a corresponding insertion hole formed on the insulation substrate. One end of a conductor element, which may be a lead, wire, or other wire shaped conductor, is inserted into the corresponding insertion hole and electrically connected to its corresponding conductor pattern. At least the area around where the conductor pattern is connected to the conductor element and also areas around resistor patterns are covered with an insulating seal material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Shirou Sakai, Makoto Nakamura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Kazunori Wada, Hiroyuki Kyushima, Tetsuya Morita
  • Patent number: 5656807
    Abstract: A 360.degree. surround photon detector/electron multiplier having: i) a continuous annular inner wall formed of thin light-transmissive material defining an internal coaxial detection chamber; ii) an annular enclosed evacuated envelope integral with the inner wall; iii) a cylindrical photocathode positioned adjacent the vacuum side of the inner wall; and iv), an electron multiplier assembly housed within the envelope for multiplying photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode and operable as a plurality of adjacent, circumferentially arrayed electron multipliers, each including an output terminal. The outputs originating from various segments of the photocathode may be utilized with coincidence circuitry requiring simultaneous detection of light events in at least two different sections of the photocathode in order to eliminate spurious signals such as result from thermal electron emissions from the photocathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Inventor: Lyle E. Packard
  • Patent number: 5616987
    Abstract: A mesh electrode 9 is provided over an incident opening 7a of the electron multiplication portion 6. In the electron multiplication portion 6, a dynode group Dy is located downstream of a first dynode Dy1 for multiplying electrons supplied from the first dynode Dy1. The dynode group Dy is provided in the vicinity of the curvature center of the first dynode Dy1. A plate electrode 10 and a mesh electrode 9 are supplied with a potential intermediate between the potentials applied to the first dynode Dy1 and applied to the dynode group Dy. Accordingly, the electric field formed due to the potential difference between the first dynode Dy1 and the dynode group Dy is surrounded by the intermediate potentials. The electric field is therefore uniformly distributed over the region from the vicinity of the first dynode Dy1 toward the dynode group Dy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Takayuki Ohmura, Tomoyuki Okada, Hiroyuki Kyushima, Yousuke Oohashi
  • Patent number: 5598061
    Abstract: A photomultiplier includes a photoelectric surface for photoelectrically converting incident light and emitting electrons, and a plurality of stages of dynodes for multiplying the electrons. The photomultiplier includes a first dynode array including box-and-grid dynodes arranged in a vessel and a second dynode array including in-line dynodes arranged in the vessel. A dynode having a curved secondary electron emitting layer opposes both a secondary electron emitting layer of a last stage dynode of the first dynode array and a secondary electron emitting layer of a first-stage dynode of the second dynode array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Kimitsugu Nakamura, Yoshio Fujita, Keiichi Ohishi
  • Patent number: 5578891
    Abstract: An electron multiplier according to this invention comprises dynodes DY1 .about.DY16 arranged in multi-stages along a direction of incidence of an energy beam for, upon incidence of the energy beam, gradually multiplying secondary electrons to emit the same, a collection electrode A for receiving electrons emitted from that of the dynodes on a last stage, and resistors R1 .about.R16 inserted between the respective dynodes and their adjacent ones, the dynodes, the collecting electrode, and the resistors being mounted between two support plates 10a, 10b disposed in parallel with each other, the resistors being arranged in two rows which sandwich the dynodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1996
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Shiro Sakai, Takehisa Okamoto, Makoto Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5491380
    Abstract: A photomultiplier which can be easily made compact has a dynode unit having a plurality of dynode plates stacked in an electron incident direction in a vacuum container fabricated by a housing and a base member integrally formed with the housing. Each dynode plate is constituted by welding at least two plates overlapping each other. The welding positions do not overlap each other in the stacking direction of the dynode plates. With this structure, field discharge at the welding portions between the dynode plates can be prevented to reduce noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics, K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Koji Nagura, Yutaka Hasegawa, Eiichiro Kawano, Tomihiko Kuroyanagi, Akira Atsumi, Masuya Mizuide
  • Patent number: 5416382
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube in which a photoelectron beam (42) is divided in N independent paths by means of an electron-optical device. The optical device includes a first cup-shaped focusing electrode (25) having a flat bottom portion of polygonal or circular shape, in which N apertures (30a), (30b) are formed, and having raised side faces (28a), (28b) which extend towards the photocathode (12), viewed in the radial directions corresponding to the elementary photomultipliers, and side faces having V-shaped recesses between these directions. The optical device is completed by a deflection electrode (35) which is brought to approximately the same potential as the photocathode and which is centrally arranged close to the bottom portion of the focusing electrode (25). The assembly is followed by a multiplier (16) of the perforated sheet-type whose focusing electrode (161) has projecting portions (41a), (41b), the multiplier being followed by N anode plates (20a), (20b).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Pierre L'Hermite
  • Patent number: 5410211
    Abstract: The electron tube according to this invention comprises an electron multiplier for multiplying incident electron flows by secondary electron emission. This electron multiplier includes a plurality of stages of dynodes laid one on another, and each stage dynode includes a number of through-holes each having an electron input opening on one end and an electron output opening on the other end. The electron output opening has a larger area than the electron input opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics, K.K.
    Inventor: Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 5367218
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a multiplier structure having a very compact shape and which can have the output electrodes of the channels arranged in any random direction. The multiplying structure (94) is a ceramic block obtained by baking a stack of ceramic sheets prepared beforehand with a view to forming cavities includes in the mass. Each cavity (21) is covered by a metal deposit connected to a lateral contact (23) by a conductor (24) printed beforehand on the corresponding sheet. The channels can have special geometries in order to have their output on several different surfaces (41, 46, 47) of the multiplying structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique
    Inventor: Georges Comby
  • Patent number: 5363014
    Abstract: A photomultiplier for receiving incident light on a photocathode, and cascade-multiplying electrodes emitted from the photocathode by a secondary electronic effect of a plurality of dynodes, whereby the incident light is detected. The photomultiplier includes a slowing-down electrode for decelerating those of secondary electrons emitted from a dynode on the first stage to a dynode on the second stage which have a higher speed. Because of the slowing-down electrode the secondary electrons having a higher speed are selectively decelerated, whereby a transit time spread of the secondary electrons emitted from parts of the first stage-dynode to the second stage-dynode is relatively decreased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1994
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Kimitsugu Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5254906
    Abstract: An electron multiplier tube including a grid type of plural dynode arrays arranged in a first direction with a multistage structure for successively multiplying electrons incident thereto and an anode provided below the multistage structure of dynode arrays for collecting the multiplied electrons to output an amplified electrical signal, each of the dynode arrays including plural rod-shaped dynode elements arranged in a second direction and a mesh electrode provided over each of the dynode arrays for providing an equipotential, wherein the multistage structure of dynode arrays includes at least one group of neighboring dynode arrays whose dynode elements are arranged so as to be aligned with one another in the first direction without displacement. Each of the dynode elements has a substantially isosceles trapezoid section, both side legs of the trapezoid being slightly inwardly curved to effectively receive the incident electrons which have been emitted from a dynode array at an upper stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Suenori Kimura
  • Patent number: 5189338
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube includes a tube, a focussing electrode unit formed with a photoelectron transmission hole whose center is positioned offset from a central axis of the tube and a dynode positioned in confrontation with the transmission hole. A center of the dynode is also offset from the central axis of the tube. A grid type electrodes array are positioned at the same axial position of the dynode and positioned beside the dynode in a radial direction of the tube. The focussing electrode provides desirable uniformity in distribution of photoelectronics over the dynode even by the deviating position of the photoelectron transmission hole and the dynode. By positioning the dynode away from the central axis in the radial direction of the tube, the grid type electrode array can be positioned beside the dynode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1993
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Keiichi Ohishi, Suenori Kimura
  • Patent number: 5180943
    Abstract: A venetian-blind type of photomultiplier tube comprising a photocathode for converting an incident light into photoelectrons, a venetian-blind type of dynode array comprising plural dynode rows arranged in a first direction, each of which comprises plural dynode elements arranged at a constant pitch in a second direction, each dynode element having a plate inclined to the first direction for emitting the secondary electrons, an anode array comprising plural anodes arranged in the second direction for collecting the secondary electrons emitted from the dynode array and outputting an amplified electrical signal corresponding to the light, and one or more electron converging electrodes for converging at least one stream of the photoelectrons and the secondary electrons and concentrically directing the converged stream to a predetermined portion of each of the dynode elements. The electron-flight control member may have various patterns such as a grid, strip, mesh and multi-aperture structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1993
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 5117149
    Abstract: A parallel plate electron multiplier employing active dynode surfaces in confronting spaced relationship for effecting electron multiplication between the input and the output thereof in the active dynode area. Electron multiplication occurs in response to an accelerating biasing field extending between the input and the output. Electrostatic elements laterally of the dynode area establish lateral biasing fields in a direction transverse of the dynodes for containing electrons in the dynode area and for attracting positively charged species away from the dynode area in order to reduce spurious signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1992
    Assignee: Galileo Electro-Optics Corporation
    Inventor: John J. Fijol
  • Patent number: 5108961
    Abstract: An etchable core glass composition consisting essentially of the following components present in the glass in the following mole percent ranges is shown:CHART I ______________________________________ CHEMICAL COMPOSITION RANGES mole percent ______________________________________ SiO.sub.2 35-46 B.sub.2 O.sub.3 22-28 BaO + SrO + CaO + ZnO 20-32 Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 + Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 0-3.5 La.sub.2 O.sub.3 + Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 + Sm.sub.2 O.sub.3 + CeO.sub.2 1-11 As.sub.2 O.sub.3 + Sb.sub.2 O.sub.3 0-1.5 ______________________________________A core glass for manufacturing a microchannel plate made from a glass composition having components in the glass range as defined above is also shown. The core glass has a transformation temperature in range of about 637.degree. C. to about 654.degree. C., a liquidus temperature below 1000.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1992
    Assignee: Circon Corporation
    Inventors: William J. S. Zhong, John A. Williams
  • Patent number: 5015909
    Abstract: A glass composition consisting essentially of the following components present in the glass in the following mole percent ranges is shown:CHART I ______________________________________ CHEMICAL COMPOSITION RANGES mole percent ______________________________________ SiO.sub.2 58-68 Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 0-2 K.sub.2 O + Rb.sub.2 O + Cs.sub.2 O 0-3 PbO 10-15 Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3 0.3-2.1 MgO + CaO + BaO 10-20.4 B.sub.2 O.sub.3 0-4 As.sub.2 O.sub.3 + Sb.sub.2 O 0.1-1.1 ______________________________________A glass composition for manufacturing a high performance microchannel plate is also shown. A microchannel plate made from a glass composition consisting essentially of components in the glass range as defined above is also shown. A method for making a non-porous glass tubing comprising a hollowed out central area and having a transformation temperature in range of about 570.degree. C. to about 610.degree. C., a liquidus temperature below 1000.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1991
    Assignee: Circon Corporation
    Inventors: William J. S. Zhong, John A. Williams
  • Patent number: 4990827
    Abstract: A micro secondary electron multiplier or an array thereof employs discrete dynodes which are microstructured and applied to an insulating substrate plate. The substrate plate is provided with electrical conductor paths for the connection of the dynodes. The dynodes can be made using a technique such as X-ray depth lithography-galvanoplasty (the LIGA technique). The micro secondary electron multiplier or an array of such multipliers is extremely small and sensitive, and has a high time resolution. Furthermore there is considerable flexibility in positioning the multipliers of an array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1991
    Assignee: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
    Inventors: Wolfgang Ehrfeld, Herbert Moser, Dietrich Munchmeyer
  • Patent number: 4988868
    Abstract: An ion detector in which conversion dynode means are placed near a microchannel plate means for receiving and amplifying converted ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1991
    Assignee: Galileo Electro-Optics Corp.
    Inventor: John W. Gray
  • Patent number: 4987336
    Abstract: A reversible short circuit device in the form of a metal loop. The metal loop has a first base side which forms a first contact. Extending from the base side are second and third generally parallel sides. The second side includes a contact portion for engagement with an external object to provide an electrical connection therewith. The second and their sides are connected by a frangible fourth connection side. One of the second and third sides is subject to a recoiling force, which, when the connection side is interrupted or broken displaces the contact portion of the second side so as to reverse the short circuit. The short circuit device has particular application to photoelectric tubes to provide a means for interconnection of the tube components during manufacture, which may subsequently be reliably disconnected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1991
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corp.
    Inventors: Pierre L'Hermite, Michel Vergne, Alain Escapoulade
  • Patent number: 4980604
    Abstract: An electron mulitplexer dynode (D) comprising two parallel disposed half-dynodes (d, d') to which an equal potential (V) is applied, and which are in the form of metal sheets (10, 20) in which apertures (11, 21) are formed. According to the invention, the second half-dynode (d'), called emitting half-dynode, has an electron surface (23), and the said emitting half-dynode (d') and the first half-dynode (d), called extracting half-dynode, are arranged so as to be staggered relative to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corp.
    Inventor: Pierre L'Hermite
  • Patent number: 4978885
    Abstract: Reduced ion feedback in an electron multiplier (EM) is achieved by applying a higher than normal bias voltage to the EM and degassing the EM with a relatively high concentration of self-generated particles as a result of the applied bias voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1990
    Assignee: Galileo Electro-Optics Corporation
    Inventors: Paul L. White, Bruce N. Laprade
  • Patent number: 4972083
    Abstract: A post-acceleration detector for a mass spectrometer comprises a conversion electrode bombarded by an ion beam thereby emitting charged particles having a polarity opposite to that of the ion beam, a charged particle detector amplifying and detecting the charged particles, and a mechanism for moving the conversion electrode relative to the charged particle detector according to the energy of the ion beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: November 20, 1990
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Shunroku Taya, Minoru Uchida, Akiyoshi Yasuda
  • Patent number: 4950951
    Abstract: A secondary electron multiplier having a Venetian blind dynode structure for use in a photomultiplier tube or the like. The dynode structure includes first and second dynodes being vertically disposed transverse to each other in that the geometrically transparent part of the first dynode is aligned with a portion of the geometrically opaque part of the second dynode corresponding to a width dimension defined from the lower end of the second dynode, and the voltages applied to the dynodes are specially configured to provide a sufficient energy to the dynodes for secondary electron mulitplication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1990
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuyoshi Okano, Kimitsugu Nakamura, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 4914351
    Abstract: Photomultiplier dynodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2 . . . ) each comprise two spaced planes (D.sub.11 and D.sub.12) made up elementary laminations having a cross-section in the form of an isosceles triangle which is symmetrically disposed relative to the inlet window of the photomultiplier tube. The laminations in the two consecutive planes of a single dynode stage are offset relative to each other to constitute a baffle, and are disposed in such a manner that electrons leaving the first plane pass through the second plane without striking the laminations thereof. The distance Z.sub.1 between two dynode stages is large relative to the distance Z.sub.O between the two planes of a single dynode, and is chosen as a function of the electric field in such a manner that the secondary electrons from the upstream stage strike a limited number of the laminations in the downstream stage with a concentrated distribution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1990
    Assignee: Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche (Anvar)
    Inventor: Kei-Ichi Kuroda
  • Patent number: 4806827
    Abstract: Electron multiplier element for secondary emission, consisting of a first metal plate (11) which has at least one multiplier hole (12) having one input aperture (13) and one output aperture (14), and a second metal plate (16) in parallel with the first plate (11) which has at least one auxiliary hole (17) disposed opposite the output aperture (14) of the multiplier hole (12). The second plate (16) being brought to an electric potential (V1) which is higher than the electric potential (V0) of the first plate. The apertures (13, 14) are such that the projection (18) of the output aperture (14) of the multiplier hole (12) in a plane which is parallel to the first metal plate (11) is at least partially located outside the corresponding projection (19) of the input aperture (13).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1989
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Gilbert Eschard
  • Patent number: 4794296
    Abstract: The disclosed charge transfer signal processor includes a vacuum housing having an input face and a output face, a 2-D electromagnetic input means cooperative with said input face for providing a 2-D input electronic charge signal within the vacuum housing, transfer means for imaging the 2-D input electronic charge signal in a region of the vacuum housing proximate the vacuum housing output face, and charge feedthrough means coupled to the vacuum housing output face for transferring the imaged 2-D electronic charge signal externally to the vacuum housing. In one embodiment, the charge transfer signal processor is operable as a Gen-I charge transfer amplifier. In another embodiment, a microchannel plate assembly is dThis invention was made with Government support under Contract F19628-84-C-0048 awarded by the Department of the Air Force. The government has certain rights in the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1988
    Assignee: Optron System, Inc.
    Inventors: Cardinal Warde, Robert F. Dillon
  • Patent number: 4792718
    Abstract: In a display tube a laminated dynode channel plate electron multiplier (16) produces at its channel outputs (50) a current-multiplied beam (34) in response to an electron beam being scanned thereover which is accelerated towards a phosphor screen (14) comprising repeating groups of different color phosphor elements and selectively directed onto particular elements by color selection deflector electrodes (38,40) adjacent the channel outputs. To provide increased horizontal resolution capability the exits (50) of the apertures in the final dynode are elongate in shape, other dynodes having circular apertures, and arranged parallel to one another with their longer axes extending vertically to form a comparatively narrow horizontal width output beam. The final dynode aperture entrances may be similarly elongate or circular with the apertures having a re-entrant profile.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1988
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Alan G. Knapp
  • Patent number: 4748373
    Abstract: A flat cathode ray display tube has an envelope divided into front and rear portions by a partition carrying frame deflection electrodes with an electron gun (30) and line scanning deflector positioned in the rear portion, the electron beam being directed initially parallel to a flat faceplate of the envelope, turned through 180.degree. by a reversing lens into the front portion and then deflected by electrodes towards a screen on the faceplate. In addition to the electrodes, other components are also mounted on the partition forming a sub-assembly whereby correct mutual positioning is ensured and assembly facilitated. A spacing structure accurately spaces the sub-assembly from the faceplate and supports also an electron multiplier for beam current amplication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1988
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Adrian Caple
  • Patent number: 4668890
    Abstract: The electron multiplier is of the kind in which a charge current is amplified by successive passage to and secondary emission of electrons from dynodes which are arranged in two opposed rows. The multiplier is arranged for application of electric charge to the dynodes so as to focus the charge current on to each of the dynodes in succession, alternating between the rows. The dynodes have electron emissive surfaces to which the charge current passes and angled flanges located at opposite edges of the surfaces. The surfaces are preferably formed by aluminum foil. The rows of dynodes are preferably formed by aluminum foil. The rows of dynodes are supported on opposed cantilevered insulating members by crimped straps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1987
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
    Inventor: Donald L. Swingler
  • Patent number: 4652788
    Abstract: A channel secondary electron multiplier has a mechanically sturdy body made of metal or ceramic material. The body forms an internal multiplier channel having a curved, e.g. helical main portion and a funnel shaped entrance end. A resistive layer forming a secondary electron emissive surface is provided on the inner wall of said channel inclusive that entrance end. The secondary electron emissive resistive layer in said funnel shaped entrance end has the form of a spiral-shaped band or stripe having a width which is preferably at least approximately equal to the circumferential dimension of the main portion of said channel. The body has a thermal coefficient of expansion which is at least 15% larger than the thermal coefficient of expansion of said layer, to maintain said layer under compression.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1987
    Assignee: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung
    Inventors: Hans Lauche, Wilhelm Barke
  • Patent number: 4649268
    Abstract: An imaging dynodes arrangement for an electron multiplier, which comprises a first and a second imaging dynodes having dynode cones with a cone tip and a cone base, said dynode cones being connected with each other such that they form free cavities therebetween. Furthermore, there are needle-shaped extraction points arranged at the cone tips of at least the dynode cones of the second imaging dynode. The second imaging dynode is mounted beneath the first imaging dynode in a staggered position such that the cone tips of the dynode cones of the second imaging dynode are seated beneath the cavities of the first imaging dynode, directing the needle-shaped extraction points closely to the cavities. In a preferred embodiment the needle-shaped extraction points protrude into the cavities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1987
    Assignee: Siemens Gammasonics, Inc.
    Inventor: Dennis E. Persyk
  • Patent number: 4649269
    Abstract: A dynodes arrangement for an electron multiplier. It comprises a first dynode having a first voltage input; a second dynode having a second voltage input; and a control grid positioned between the first and second dynodes and having a control voltage input separate from the first and second voltage inputs of the first and second dynodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1987
    Assignee: Siemens Gammasonics, Inc.
    Inventor: Dennis E. Persyk
  • Patent number: 4439712
    Abstract: An improved electron multiplier assembly includes a plurality of communicating electrodes affixed to a pair of insulative support plates. The electrodes comprise a plurality of dynodes including an ultimate dynode and an anode. The anode comprises a substantially flat, rigid member having at least one longitudinally-extending aperture. The anode is disposed substantially within and spaced from the ultimate dynode. Mounting tabs extend from the anode to inflexibly secure the anode to the support plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1981
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1984
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Gilbert N. Butterwick
  • Patent number: 4426596
    Abstract: An improved photomultiplier tube of the type having a longitudinally-extending tube axis includes an evacuated envelope having a generally cylindrical wall member. The wall member is closed at one end by a face-plate and at the other end by a stem, heat sealed to the wall member. At least one source of alkali vapor is within the envelope. A photoemissive cathode is formed on the faceplate. A dynode cage assembly is spaced from the cathode in proximity to the stem. A plurality of stem leads extend through the stem for energizing the cathode, the dynode cage assembly and the source of alkali vapor. A heat shield is disposed transversely across the tube axis between the dynode cage assembly and the stem. The heat shield isolates the dynode cage assembly from the deleterious effect of the heat generated during the sealing of the stem to the wall member. The heat shield comprises a substantially inert, insulative material. The source of alkali vapor is mounted on the heat shield facing the dynode cage assembly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1981
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1984
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Gilbert N. Butterwick
  • Patent number: 4415832
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube comprises an electron multiplier assembly including a pair of oppositely-disposed insulative support spacers. A plurality of elements including an ultimate dynode and an anode are affixed to the support spacers. The ultimate dynode comprises a relatively inflexible multilateral hollow member having two plane-face surfaces lying at an acute angle to one another and terminating at a lower transverse edge. The ultimate dynode includes dynode mounting tabs extending from opposing ends thereof for affixing the ultimate dynode to the support spacers. The anode includes a substantially flat electron permeable mesh portion spaced from one of the plane-face surfaces of the ultimate dynode. Anode mounting tabs extend from opposing ends thereof for affixing the anode to the support spacers. Electrical leakage isolation slots are formed in the support spacers to increase the electrical leakage path length across the support spacers between the ultimate dynode and the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1983
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: Richard D. Faulkner, Dale V. Henry, David L. Muth
  • Patent number: 4409474
    Abstract: An improvement for a photomultiplier tube having its cathode, dynodes and ode spaced apart within an envelope increases the tube's linear dynamic range capability. A constant and stable collection potential is maintained between the anode and the dynode nearest the anode. In one form a zener diode voltage source and serially connected resistor are used or a fixed voltage is appropriately connected separate and distinct from the dynode potential connected across the other dynodes and the cathode. Thusly modified, a light flux range of approximately eight orders of magnitude can be accommodated by the improved photomultiplier tube circuitry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Robert F. Howarth
  • Patent number: 4367404
    Abstract: Output current hysteresis exhibited by a multiple-dynode photomultiplier detector is reduced by inactivating one or more of the dynodes by shorting to the detector anode, and operating the detector with the reduced number of active dynodes while retaining the anode as the output current supply terminal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 4, 1983
    Assignee: Beckman Instruments, Inc.
    Inventor: Wilbur I. Kaye
  • Patent number: 4355258
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube comprises an evacuated envelope having a photoemissive cathode therein. A cage assembly including an anode and a plurality of closely spaced dynodes are within the envelope. The anode has at least one support rod. Each of the dynodes has a pair of dynode tabs formed in the ends thereof. A pair of dynode support spacers having a plurality of stress isolation apertures and electrode support apertures formed therethrough are provided for supporting the dynodes and the anode. The dynode tabs and the anode support rod extend through the electrode support apertures. A plurality of deformable stress isolation eyelets comprising a tubular shank with a flare formed in one end of the shank are disposed within a different one of the stress isolation apertures. The flare diameter is greater than the diameter of the stress isolation apertures thereby retaining the eyelets within the apertures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1982
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Gilbert N. Butterwick
  • Patent number: 4345177
    Abstract: A directionally solidified, optically conductive eutectic system and method of forming the same. A Type II eutectic which divides into fiber and matrix phases when directionally solidified consists of a fiber phase having a lesser molecular weight but higher refractive index than the matrix phase. The resulting fiber array is optically conductive, and may be used to advantage in applications such as CRT screens, waveguides, fiber optic image intensifiers, and lasers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1982
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: James D. Parsons, Alfred S. Yue
  • Patent number: 4339684
    Abstract: Electron multiplier tube, comprising along the principal axis an electron-emitting surface, several dynode stages with distributed structure, capable of reflux secondary electron emission, and an electron-receiving surface, as well as means producing an electron-accelerating electric field generally oriented along the principal axis, from the electron-emitting surface to the electron-receiving surface. With it is associated coil means producing a magnetic field generally oriented along the principal axis of the tube.Particular example is a photomultiplier with high spatial resolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1982
    Assignee: ANVAR
    Inventors: Kei-ichi Kuroda, Daniel Sillou, Fujio Takeutchi
  • Patent number: 4199702
    Abstract: An ion feedback electron multiplier has an envelope containing an ionizable gas. Within the envelope is a chain of multiplier dynodes divided into two planar groups spaced from and parallel to one another. At one end of the multiplier chain is an electron source capable of emitting electrons upon ion bombardment. An electron lens which is between the multiplier chain and the electron source, focuses the electrons from the source onto one of the dynodes of the multiplier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1980
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Scott A. Keneman
  • Patent number: 4188560
    Abstract: Electron Multiplier in which the charge current is conformed by an electrostatic field to pass in alternating fashion between successive dynode surfaces of two opposed rows, the dynodes of one row being on outer surfaces of coaxial cylindrical elements and the dynodes of the other row being on inner surfaces of surrounding annular elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1980
    Assignee: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
    Inventor: Donald L. Swingler
  • Patent number: 4184098
    Abstract: A dynode for use as a stage of a plural stage photomultiplier tube in which the dynode is formed of a plurality of axially and planarly aligned conical frustums.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 15, 1980
    Assignee: S.R.C. Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: John J. Morales
  • Patent number: 4182969
    Abstract: The electron multiplier device is operable in a substantial vacuum and comprises a cathode which emits electrons upon ion bombardment and an electron multiplier section adjacent the cathode for multiplying electrons emitted from the cathode. An output target surface is partially interposed in the path of the electrons near the output of the multiplier. A portion of the electrons released by the multiplier strike the output target surface causing ions to be emitted therefrom. The ions then feed back and bombard the cathode causing it to release more electrons, which in turn are multiplied thereby providing a buildup of electrons leaving the multiplier output. The output electrons may be controlled by an electron control section aligned with the multiplier near its output end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1980
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: Carmen A. Catanese, John G. Endriz
  • Patent number: 4182968
    Abstract: A chain of planar dynodes is divided into two groups which are spaced from and substantially parallel to each other. A cathode which is capable of emitting electrons upon ion bombardment is at one end of the dynode chain. An envelope encloses the dynodes and the cathode. Also enclosed by the envelope are a plurality of shields. Each shield is located so as to prevent gas ions, present within the envelope, from striking the dynodes, while allowing the ions to strike the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1980
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: Scott A. Keneman, John G. Endriz
  • Patent number: 4149106
    Abstract: An electron multiplier is formed between two spaced parallel substrates of electrically conductive material with a cathode at one end of the substrates. On opposed surfaces of the two substrates are dynodes, extraction electrodes, modulation electrodes, electrically conductive protrusions and deflection electrodes in that order going away from the cathode end. The dynodes form a conventional staggered dynode chain. The modulation electrode on one substrate is opposite a modulation electrode on the other substrate and both have a width equal to the distance between the substrates. The protrusions are similarly directly opposite one another. At the end of the substrates remote from the cathode is a deflection electrode on the tip of each substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1977
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1979
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: David A. DE Wolf, Carmen A. Catanese
  • Patent number: 4143291
    Abstract: A dynode has a plurality of circular elements that are planar, concentric and electrically interconnected for decreasing the variation in the number of secondary electrons emitted for each impinging primary electron when the primary electrons impinge from different angular directions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1979
    Assignee: S.R.C. Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: John J. Morales
  • Patent number: RE30249
    Abstract: An electron emissive surface portion on one of a series of electrodes includes a cross-sectional contour substantially characterized by a superimposed undulating line of curvature which includes a plurality of interconnected arcuate regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1980
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Richard D. Faulkner