To Measure Dielectric Constant Patents (Class 324/341)
  • Patent number: 10884159
    Abstract: A method and system for evaluating the cement behind casing and fully inverting acoustic properties of the material, including density and the speed of sound. A density map of the cement sheath is determined using a nuclear logging technique. An acoustic impedance value of the cement sheath is provided, either by measurement using an ultrasonic logging technique or simulated using an acoustic model. The acoustic model may assume a vertical incident plane wave and flat plates for casing and the cement sheath. From the density map and the acoustic impedance value, a map of the speed of sound in the cement sheath, or a gap therein, may be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2021
    Assignee: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Zhijuan Zhang, Weijun Guo, Sriram Srinivasan
  • Patent number: 10866335
    Abstract: An array electromagnetic tool is run in a borehole, and resulting signals are processed to provide at least one of real and imaginary conductivity components, ?R* and ?I*. The at least one of real and imaginary conductivity components is compared to a corresponding representative conductivity component of a plurality of different clay groups and a determination of clay type in the formation is made therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2020
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Ping Zhang, Wael Abdallah, Shouxiang Ma, Chengbing Liu
  • Patent number: 10711598
    Abstract: A method for synchronizing signals among transmitters and receivers of a logging tool positioned in a borehole is provided. Measurement signals generated from operating a transmitter in the borehole are acquired by a receiver. An operating frequency of the receiver is determined by a processing unit. The operating frequency of the receiver is different from an operating frequency of the transmitter. A sampling frequency of the receiver is determined based on the determined operating frequency. A phase delay of the receiver is determined by the processing unit. The acquired measurement signals are adjusted by the processing unit based on the determined sampling frequency and the phase delay of the receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Hsu-Hsiang Wu, Matthew Chase Griffing, Christopher Golla
  • Patent number: 9599749
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to methods and apparatuses for evaluating a porous earth formation. The method may include estimating a value of at least one parameter of interest of the earth formation using a signal indicative of acoustic waves generated at a metallic surface (200) in communication with the earth formation when the metallic surface (200) is exposed to a constant magnetic field (250) normal to the metallic surface (200) and a harmonic magnetic field (260) along the metallic surface. The signal may be generated by a sensor responsive to the acoustic waves. The apparatus may include a first magnetic source (230) configured to generate a constant magnetic field (250), a second magnetic source (240) configured to generate a harmonic magnetic field (260), and a sensor (220) configured to generate a signal in response to acoustic waves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Vitaly N. Dorovsky
  • Patent number: 9465131
    Abstract: Techniques involve determining the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity spectrum of a rock sample. Determining the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity may involve defining a series of electromagnetic measurement data having at least a measurement at a frequency from which a substantially frequency-independent value of dielectric permittivity ?? can be obtained. The electromagnetic measurement data also includes measurements at different frequencies from which values for frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity ?rock (f) can be obtained. Using these measurements, the frequency-dependent spectrum of the sample may be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2016
    Assignee: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Barbara Anderson, Thomas D. Barber, Emmanuel Legendre, Martin G. Luling, Pabitra Sen, Reza Taherian
  • Patent number: 9127531
    Abstract: Fiber optic enabled casing collar locator systems and methods including a wireline sonde or a coil tubing sonde apparatus configured to be conveyed through a casing string by a fiber optic cable. The sonde includes at least one permanent magnet producing a magnetic field that changes in response to passing a collar in the casing string. Such magnetic field changes induce voltages changes within associated pick-up electrical coil conductors. Some embodiments include a cylinder configured to change its diameter in response to the changes in the magnetic field and/or impressed voltage, and an optical fiber wound around the cylinder to convert the cylinder diameter change into an optical path length change for light being communicated along the fiber optic cable. The cylinder may include a magnetostrictive material or a piezoelectric material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventors: John L. Maida, Etienne M. Samson
  • Patent number: 8928322
    Abstract: A method for determining water saturation in a subsurface formation include determining an invasion depth in the formation from a plurality of measurements made within a wellbore drilled through the formation. The measurements have different lateral depths of investigation into the formation. Carbon and oxygen in the formation are measured at substantially a same longitudinal position as at a position of the determining the invasion depth. The measured carbon and oxygen and the invasion depth are used to determine the water saturation in a substantially uninvaded part of the formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Bernard Montaron
  • Patent number: 8884623
    Abstract: A method for determining the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity spectrum of a rock sample, comprising:—defining a series of electromagnetic measurement data comprising at least a first measurement at a frequency from which a substantially frequency-independent value of dielectric permittivity ??, can be obtained; and at least second and third measurements at different frequencies from which values for frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity ?rock (f) can be obtained; and—using the first, second and third measurements to determine the frequency-dependent spectrum of the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Barbara Anderson, Thomas D. Barber, Emmanuel Legendre, Martin G. Luling, Pabitra N. Sen, Reza Taherian
  • Patent number: 8786287
    Abstract: A logging tool for use in a borehole to obtain multicomponent resistivity induction measurements using collocated coils wherein each of the transverse antennas comprises a pair of mirror-image coils symmetrically disposed about an axis of the logging tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Leonty A. Tabarovsky, Yuliy A. Dashevsky, Tatyana F. Polozova
  • Patent number: 8717029
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring permittivity of a sample. The apparatus includes: a sample chamber including a sealed space portion in which a sample to be measured is put; a pressure adjusting unit for varying pressure by applying water pressure to the space portion of the sample chamber; a permittivity sensor for measuring permittivity of the sample and disposed outside the sample chamber; measurement conducting wires including conductors, installed to contact the sample and connected to the permittivity sensor by using electric wires; and a data logger for storing data relating to permittivity that is measured by the permittivity sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)
    Inventors: Byung-Gon Chae, Jung-Hae Choi, Yong-Je Kim
  • Patent number: 8614578
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to determining the attenuation of an electromagnetic signal passing through a conductive material. An antenna is provided and placed in relatively close proximity to the conductive material. An alternating current is passed through the antenna and the impedance of the antenna is measured. The attenuation is determined using the measured impedance. A single frequency measurement may be made, or multiple measurements using different frequencies may be made. Grouped parameters based on properties of the material and the frequency of the current are used to relate the coil impedance to the attenuation. A current frequency for which the ratio of the antenna's resistive part of the impedance to the angular frequency of the current is substantially insensitive to at least one of the parameters is preferred.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 24, 2013
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Guozhong Gao, H. Frank Morrison, Hong Zhang, Richard A. Rosthal, David Alumbaugh, Cyrille Levesque
  • Patent number: 8598895
    Abstract: A method and system to predict dielectric behavior in a wide frequency range in a wellbore. The method comprising: deploying a tool in a wellbore, measuring the permittivity and conductivity at more than one frequency of a formation with the tool, and predicting the dielectric behavior of saline water in a wide band frequency range and temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Laetitia Comparon, Mehdi Hizem
  • Patent number: 8449826
    Abstract: Since known detection devices include detectors of the same number as that of samples, the system configuration is complicated. According to the present invention, therefore, a plurality of electromagnetic-wave-transmission lines with different propagation-delay times and a coupled-transmission line coupling the electromagnetic-wave-transmission lines with each other are provided, and an electromagnetic wave is detected by the same electromagnetic-wave-detection unit. Subsequently, a detection device including at least one electromagnetic-wave detector of a number smaller than that of samples can be provided, which decreases the system complexity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Ryoji Kurosaka
  • Publication number: 20130027043
    Abstract: A method for analyzing a subterranean formation porosity is disclosed. The apparent dielectric constant of the subterranean formation and an apparent resistivity of the subterranean formation are measured. The measured values are used to determine a measured formation loss tangent. The formation water loss tangent can be expressed by the water dielectric constant and the water resistivity. The measured formation loss tangent and the formation water loss tangent are then used to determine at least one of an actual dielectric constant of the subterranean formation water and an actual resistivity of the subterranean formation water. The actual formation porosity may be obtained using the estimated water resistivity and water dielectric constant.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 21, 2012
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Inventors: Jing Li, Gary Kainer, Marvin Rourke, Michael Bittar
  • Patent number: 8164328
    Abstract: An eddy current system and method enables detection of sub-surface damage in a cylindrical object. The invention incorporates a dual frequency, orthogonally wound eddy current probe mounted on a stepper motor-controlled scanning system. The system is designed to inspect for outer surface damage from the interior of the cylindrical object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Russell A. Wincheski, John W. Simpson
  • Publication number: 20100321023
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to determining the attenuation of an electromagnetic signal passing through a conductive material. An antenna is provided and placed in relatively close proximity to the conductive material. An alternating current is passed through the antenna and the impedance of the antenna is measured. The attenuation is determined using the measured impedance. A single frequency measurement may be made, or multiple measurements using different frequencies may be made. Grouped parameters based on properties of the material and the frequency of the current are used to relate the coil impedance to the attenuation. A current frequency for which the ratio of the antenna's resistive part of the impedance to the angular frequency of the current is substantially insensitive to at least one of the parameters is preferred.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 18, 2009
    Publication date: December 23, 2010
    Inventors: Guozhong Gao, H. Frank Morrison, Hong Zhang, Richard A. Rosthal, David Alumbaugh, Cyrille Levesque
  • Patent number: 7821269
    Abstract: A method of measuring the dielectric constant of a powder, including selecting a powder having an unknown first dielectric constant, selecting a liquid having a known second dielectric constant, and introducing a predetermined amount of powder into a predetermined volume of liquid to define a slurry characterized by a known volume fraction of powder. Next, the impedance spectra of the slurry is plotted over a predetermined frequency range, the measured dielectric constant data is read and the appropriate equivalent circuit for the slurry is determined. Appropriate equivalent circuit equations are applied to the measured dielectric constant data and the first dielectric constant is calculated from the appropriate equivalent circuit equations, known volume fraction of powder and measured dielectric constant data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Inventors: Vladimir Petrovsky, Fatih Dogan
  • Publication number: 20100225323
    Abstract: A logging tool for use in a borehole to obtain multicomponent resistivity induction measurements using collocated coils wherein each of the transverse antennas comprises a pair of mirror-image coils symmetrically disposed about an axis of the logging tool.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 3, 2010
    Publication date: September 9, 2010
    Applicant: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Leonty A. Tabarovsky, Yuliy A. Dashevsky, Sergey V. Polozov, Tatyana F. Polozova
  • Patent number: 7660671
    Abstract: Using an electromagnetic logging tool, desired antenna responses are synthesized from a combination of measured antenna responses, as well as antenna arrays particularly suited to provide the measurements. Those arrays may include cross dipole and double cross dipole antennas. Direct and derivative responses are used to synthesize the desired response, and the synthesized desired response is used to determine formation properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2010
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Reza Taherian, Tarek M. Habashy
  • Patent number: 7659723
    Abstract: Resistivity measurements are made at a plurality of frequencies. An asymptotic high-frequency limit is determined and the electrical efficiency is estimated as a ratio of the high frequency resistivity limit to the low frequency resistivity. From the electrical efficiency, petrophysical parameters of a rock such as porosity and water saturation can be estimated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2010
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Wallace H. Meyer, David C. Herrick, Gregory B. Itskovich
  • Patent number: 7579840
    Abstract: Resistivity measurements are made at a plurality of frequencies. An asymptotic high-frequency limit is determined and the electrical efficiency is estimated as a ratio of the high frequency resistivity limit to the low frequency resistivity. From the electrical efficiency, petrophysical parameters of a rock such as porosity and water saturation can be estimated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2009
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Wallace H. Meyer, David C. Herrick
  • Patent number: 7031839
    Abstract: An induction logging tool is used on a MWD bottom hole assembly. Due to the finite, nonzero, conductivity of the mandrel, conventional multi frequency focusing (MFF) does not work. A correction is made to the induction logging data to give measurements simulating a perfectly conducting mandrel. MFF can then be applied to the corrected data to give formation resistivities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventors: Leonty A. Tabarovsky, Alexandre N. Bespalov, Stanislav W. Forgang, Michael B. Rabinovich
  • Publication number: 20040217763
    Abstract: A loop antenna useful, for example, in investigation of earth formations. Embodiments of the invention provide a loop antenna circuit comprising a loop antenna disposed to generate, in response to an electromagnetic wave, a pick-up signal on an output node. Loop antenna circuit further includes a tuning network coupled to the loop antenna. The tuning network is disposed to provide simultaneous tuning at a plurality of interrogation frequencies. Further embodiments include a preamplifier circuit coupled to the loop antenna. The preamplifier circuit is disposed to receive the pick-up signal on an input node and provide a high impedance load to the loop antenna for a first of the plurality of interrogation frequencies to reduce the secondary radiation from the loop antenna to below a predetermined value at the said first interrogation frequency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 1, 2003
    Publication date: November 4, 2004
    Applicant: PathFinder Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert A. Moore
  • Patent number: 6762613
    Abstract: A testing system and method of operation therefor is provided including a test fixture for electrical testing above a thermal threshold temperature of a low dielectric constant material and having a test-chip-die-sized enclosed volume. The test fixture has an electrical connection from the enclosed volume to the outside thereof and a removable lid for sealing the enclosed volume in the test fixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 13, 2004
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Huade Walter Yao, Kurt Owen Taylor
  • Publication number: 20030052686
    Abstract: A probe serving for detecting the structure of a dielectric medium. The probe includes at least one transmitter/receiver antenna located near a dielectric boundary surface that defines a dielectric medium, and a signal processor for receiving signals from the antenna and generating data representative of the structure of the dielectric medium. Between the antenna and the face is inserted a cushion of a material having a dielectric number higher than that of the air. In one embodiment, the probe is adapted to inspect if there is a void in the soil around a dielectric pipe, for example a sewer pipe. In this case, the probe is guided inside the pipe with the antennas located on a shaft mounted on the probe with the same axis as the axis of the pipe. Due to the presence of the cushion, an optimally good connection between the antennas and the face defining the dielectric medium is obtained.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2002
    Publication date: March 20, 2003
    Inventor: Frank Emh Andreasen
  • Publication number: 20010038287
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for transmitting electromagnetic flux through well casing or similar materials to measure or detect the electrical resistivity of media in the surrounding geologic formation. The invention creates a magnetically transparent region in an electromagnetic barrier material, e.g., ferromagnetic metal well casing. It further incorporates a transmitter sending an electromagnetic wave at a selected frequency and strength, and a receiver to measure returning signals. The method and apparatus may also incorporate the controlled use of electromagnetic barrier material that can be wholly or partially saturated with electromagnetic energy in order that the electromagnetic wave transmitted by the invention can be focused in a controlled manner.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 12, 2001
    Publication date: November 8, 2001
    Inventor: Bijan K. Amini
  • Patent number: 6060884
    Abstract: A wave propagation measurement-while-drilling system is used to measure selected formation and borehole parameters of interest and simultaneously provide indications of the quality of the selected measurements. One or more transmitter-receiver pairs are employed with the transmitter components operating at one or more frequencies. A model of the response characteristics of the borehole instrument is also employed. By using a redundant subset of the measurements, the parameters of interest are determined and an expected value of the remaining measurements is made. A comparison of the actual and expected values of the remaining measurements serves as a quality control check on the equipment and on the accuracy of the model.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Inventors: Wallace Harold Meyer, Jr., Larry Wayne Thompson, Macmillan M. Wisler, Jian-Quan Wu
  • Patent number: 5886526
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for determining the horizontal resistivity, vertical resistivity, and dip of formations surrounding a borehole, comprising the following steps: (a) suspending a logging device in the borehole; (b) transmitting electromagnetic energy from a transmitter location on the logging device, and receiving the transmitted electromagnetic energy at receiver locations on the logging device for a first transmitter-to-receivers spacing associated with the transmitter and receiver locations; (c) determining, from the received electromagnetic energy, measurement characteristics associated with the first transmitter-to-receivers spacing; (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) for a plurality of further transmitter-to-receivers spacings to obtain measurement characteristics for the plurality of further transmitter-to-receivers spacings; (e) generating a model of anisotropic formations that has horizontal resistivity Rh, vertical resistivity Rv, and a Dip angle with respect to a borehole reference; (f) selecting
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Peter T. Wu
  • Patent number: 5811973
    Abstract: A propagation resistivity measurement-while-drilling system is used to determine the resistivity (or conductivity) of the conate formation fluid, the dielectric constant of the dry rock matrix, and the water filled porosity of the formation. One or more transmitter-receiver pairs are utilized with the transmitter component of the transmitter-receiver pairs operating at a plurality of frequencies. Water filled porosity measurements can be combined with an independent measurement which responds to the total fluid porosity of the formation to obtain a measure of formation hydrocarbon saturation in fresh or saline conate water environments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Baker Hughes Incorporated
    Inventor: Wallace Harold Meyer, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5469062
    Abstract: A wave propagation measurement-while-drilling system is used to determine selected formation and borehole properties. One or more transmitter-receiver pairs are utilized with the transmitter components operating at one or more frequencies to provide a measured data set. A model relating the borehole instrument response to a wide range of formation and borehole conditions is also utilized. Inversion techniques are employed to determine selected formation and borehole parameters of interest and to simultaneously correct the selected formation parametric measurements for the adverse effects of the borehole and formation bed boundaries thereby avoiding serial type corrections which can yield erroneous results in certain frequency ranges.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 21, 1995
    Assignee: Baker Hughes, Inc.
    Inventor: Wallace H. Meyer, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5434507
    Abstract: A two-dimensional array of slot antennas which can provide two-dimensional quantitative dielectric and conductivity images of formations in the region surrounding an earth borehole. The antennas are mounted in a wall-engaging member of a logging device that is moveable through the borehole. Selected ones of the antennas are energized at given times to transmit electromagnetic energy into the formations, the electromagnetic energy being received at other antennas for processing to obtain formation properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1995
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey A. Beren, Tarek M. Habashy, Yupai P. Hsu, David R. Mariani, Kambiz A. Safinya, M. Reza Taherian
  • Patent number: 5389881
    Abstract: An electromagnetic wave propagation well logging system for measuring dielectric constant and/or formation resistivity (conductivity) includes three transmitters and a pair of receivers. The receiver pair is connected to circuitry that measures the amplitude ratio between the receivers, as well as the phase angle difference between the receivers. Signals representative of the detected amplitude ratio and of the detected phase angle difference are combined in such a manner as to make the depth of investigation controllable. Methods are also disclosed for maintaining a common depth of investigation as the well logging instrument traverses the earth borehole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1995
    Assignee: Baroid Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael S. Bittar, Paul F. Rodney
  • Patent number: 5367262
    Abstract: The present apparatus and method are directed to a high frequency dielectric measurement system for use in logging a well borehole. A transmitter transducer cooperative with one or more receiver transducers arranged on a common pad is utilized to make such measurements. Typically they occur in the gigahertz range. One feature of the present disclosure is the indication of the apparent water filled porosity of formations. Another feature relates to the formation of a quality curve obtained by breaking down the formation measurements into real and reactive components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1994
    Assignee: Halliburton Logging Serivces, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael J. Manning
  • Patent number: 5341100
    Abstract: There is disclosed in the present specification a method and apparatus for use of a downhole formation multi-tester instrument in the characterization of formation fluids, including measurement of the conductivity of water, often in the presence of hydrocarbons under dynamic flow conditions and determining the hydrocarbon volume of the formation fluid. Utilizing a coaxial transmission line as a flow tube within the formation multi-tester instrument an electromagnetic wave is generated which propagates through the formation fluid in a transverse electromagnetic mode. Measurement of the phase shift and attenuation of the electromagnetic wave at points within the flow tube allow characterization of the fluid inside the cavity of the flow tube for dielectric constant and conductivity. Dielectric constant and conductivity can then be related to fluid conductivity and hydrocarbon volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert M. Taylor
  • Patent number: 5210495
    Abstract: In a form of the disclosure, electromagnetic propagation logging measurements are made for several magnetic moment directions of the electromagnetic energy, and can be examined and/or processed retrospectively in order to select the logging information which has a particular desired characteristic, such as the sharpest imaging of bed boundaries. By scanning the magnetic moment over a wide range of angles, one is assured of obtaining logging information that has a desired attribute, such as image sharpness. This can be determined by viewing a recorded log and/or by automatically processing the log data. Information from other ones of the several logs may be useful in optimizing other attributes, such as standoff immunity or signal-to-noise ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1993
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp.
    Inventors: Tarek M. Hapashy, Jeffrey A. Beren, Kambiz A. Safinya
  • Patent number: 5187661
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for induction logging is disclosed. By transmitting a sequence of pulses at many frequencies, the formation invaded zone diameter can be distinguished as a result of changes in resistivity. As higher frequencies are swept, dielectric constant varies with frequency and this variation is evident in chart form. An apparatus for controlled antenna field formation is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Assignee: Halliburton Logging Services, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul I. Sinclair
  • Patent number: 5059907
    Abstract: Two types of dielectric logging tools are in use: the pad type which operates in the 100 to 1100 MHz frequency range and the mandrel type, which typically operates in the 10 to 100 MHz range. Although both types of tools make the same measurement, the lower frequency tools have a greater depth of investigation and therefore have different applications than the higher frequency pad device. However, logs measured with 10 to 100 MHz tools are more difficult to interpret because of the large frequency-dependent dispersion of the dielectric permittivity below 100 MHz. A model of the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity has now been developed that predicts permittivities in the 10 to 100 MHz range from the more easily obtained measurements in the 100 to 1300 MHz range. The predicted permittivities are used to calculate fit parameters for interpretation equations normally used for the higher frequency pad devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignee: Amoco Corporation
    Inventor: Michael M. Sherman
  • Patent number: 4980642
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a system, apparatus and methods for determining influx of formation fluids into a well borehole during drilling. The methods of the present invention comprise determining the dielectric constant and/or conductivity of the fluid in the annulus about a drill pipe in a well borehole, comparing the determined dielectric constant and/or conductivity to a reference value and inferring that influx has occurred when the difference between the dielectric constant and/or conductivity and the reference value is greater than a predetermined limit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: Baroid Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul F. Rodney
  • Patent number: 4897605
    Abstract: A well logging system and method of the present invention determines the dielectric constant and/or conductivity of earth formations some of which have fluid invasion. The system and method of the present invention includes the transmission of electromagnetic energy into the earth formation from a first location in a borehole in the formations at a frequency which enables the electromagnetic energy to propagate throughout the surrounding earth formations. Electromagnetic energy is received by receivers at three locations in the borehole which are spaced longitudinally from the location of the transmission of the electromagnetic energy. The receivers provide signals representative of the total electromagnetic fields at those locations. The dielectric constant and/or resistivity of the earth formations are determined in accordance with portions of the signals from the three receivers corresponding to secondary electromagnetic fields at the three receiving locations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 30, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Percy T. Cox, Wayne F. Warren, Donald L. Johnson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4893084
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for dielectric investigation in formations adjacent a well borehole is set forth. In the preferred and illustrated embodiment, a microwave transmitter forms and output signal which is transmitted by a transmitter antenna in contact with the sidewall, the propagation into the formation from the transmitter antenna, the signal being received at a receiving antenna, and further including means for making measurements of amplitude and phase angle. Such measurements are used to determine an equivalent circuit representative of the formation between the transmitter antenna and receiver antenna; the equivalent circuit encodes valuations of resistivity, dielectric constant and magnetic permeability of the formation material. Multiple measurements can be made in a given formation, and the sonde can be moved steadily or periodically to make measurements at selected locations. Formation electrical parameters in adjacent formations can then be determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1990
    Assignee: Halliburton Logging Services, Inc.
    Inventor: Rama N. Rau
  • Patent number: 4786873
    Abstract: A new functional parameter reprsentative of the geometrical distribution of matrix material and the variable geometrical distribution of hydrocarbon and water in pore spaces in a porous earth formation is determined and is used to evaluate, or to determine, water saturation of the formation from dielectric permittivity measurements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1988
    Assignee: Amoco Corporation
    Inventor: Michael M. Sherman
  • Patent number: 4785247
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for measuring formation parameters by transmitting and receiving electromagnetic signals by antennas disposed in recesses in a tubular housing member and including apparatus for reducing the coupling of electrical noise into the system resulting from conducting elements located adjacent the recesses and housing. More particularly, a method and apparatus employing electrostatic, but not magnetic, shielding of the low impedance antenna systems and inductive signal coupling to enhance the signal at the receiver is disclosed. This system is capable of measuring formation parameters in the presence of conducting bodies, e.g., the drill string, permitting incorporation of the apparatus in a measuring while drilling (MWD) logging system. In a particular embodiment, high frequency electromagnetic energy is used to measure formation resistivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1988
    Assignee: NL Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard A. Meador, Larry W. Thompson, William R. Grayson
  • Patent number: 4780679
    Abstract: Well logging techniques are set forth for obtaining improved measurements of formation dielectric permittivity, conductivity, and water-filled porosity. The effects of dielectric and conductivity frequency dispersion are considered and utilized. In a disclosed embodiment, an estimated low frequency conductivity of a formation surrounding a borehole is determined using the following steps: deriving a measured value of formation high frequency conductivity from a logging device which traversed the borehole; determining a formation conductivity dispersion ratio as a function of the measured conductivity; and determining an estimated low frequency conductivity from the measured value of high frequency conductivity and the dispersion ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1988
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp.
    Inventors: William E. Kenyon, Paul L. Baker
  • Patent number: 4774471
    Abstract: A well logging system and method for determining the water saturation of an earth formation and the resistivity of the water using complex dielectric constant and formation porosity measurements. Electromagnetic energy is transmitted into the earth formation from a borehole at a frequency lying within the range of frequencies from 10 MHz to 200 MHz. Electromagnetic energies are received at two locations in the borehole. A complex dielectric constant is derived from the received electromagnetic energies. The water resistivity and the water saturation of the earth formation is derived in accordance with the porosity of the earth formation and with the real and imaginary parts of the derived complex dielectric constant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Jackie C. Sims, Percy T. Cox, Richard S. Simpson
  • Patent number: 4769606
    Abstract: Logging means and methods are disclosed for distinguishing between dispersed and laminated clay in earth formations. A wireline apparatus is employed consisting of a multifrequency induced polarization logging tool operating at extremely low frequencies, combined with other logging tools which measure the total amount of clay in the formation. A determination is then made of the fraction of the total clay content in the formation which is due to laminated clay.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1988
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Harold J. Vinegar, Monroe H. Waxman
  • Patent number: 4730161
    Abstract: The present invention is a well logging method for determining the water saturation of an earth formation and the water's resistivity. Electromagnetic energy is transmitted into the earthen formation from a borehole traversing the earth formation. The electromagnetic energy is transmitted at two different frequencies within a range of frequency from 10 MHz to 200 MHz. Electromagnetic energies are received in the borehole from the earth formation. A phase difference and amplitude ratio for each transmitting frequency is derived from the received electromagnetic energy. The water resistivity and water saturation of the earth formation are derived from the derived phase differences and the amplitude ratios.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Percy T. Cox, Jackie C. Sims, Richard S. Simpson
  • Patent number: 4704581
    Abstract: An electromagnetic logging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes vertical magnetic dipole antennas for propagation logging, preferably at a frequency greater than 100 MHz. Slot antennas having conductive probes which are perpendicular to the borehole axis, and also perpendicular to a borehole radius, are employed to obtain the desired vertical magnetic dipole antenna characteristics. The depth of investigation is improved as compared to devices of this type which employ horizontal magnetic dipole antennas. Also, the antennas are tuned in a manner which provides advantageous operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1987
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp.
    Inventor: Brian Clark
  • Patent number: 4700141
    Abstract: A well logging system and method of the present invention determines the dielectric constant and/or conductivity of earth formations some of which have fluid invasion. The system and method of the present invention include the transmission of electromagnetic energy into the earth formations from a first location in a borehole in the formations at a frequency which enables the electromagnetic energy to propagate throughout the surrounding earth formations. Electromagnetic energy is received by receivers at three locations in the borehole which are spaced longitudinally from the location of the transmission of the electromagnetic energy. The receivers provide signals representative of the received electromagnetic energy. The dielectric constant and/or resistivity of the earth formations are determined in accordance with the signals from the three receivers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Percy T. Cox, Wayne F. Warren, Theodore W. Nussbaum
  • Patent number: 4689572
    Abstract: An electromagnetic logging apparatus is disclosed which employs dielectric-filled slot antennas, in conjunction with tuning elements, to obtain improved operation. The apparatus can be used to measure the dielectric constant of formations surrounding a borehole.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1987
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp.
    Inventor: Brian Clark
  • Patent number: 4687995
    Abstract: Apparatus for determining the dielectric constant and/or resistivity of earth formations traversed by a borehole includes a transmitter which transmits electromagnetic energy into the earth formation from a first location in the borehole at a frequency which enables the electromagnetic energy to propagate throughout the surrounding earth formations. Receivers receive electromagnetic energy at two locations in the borehole which are spaced longitudinally from the transmitter provide signals representative of the total electromagnetic fields at the receiver locations. Circuitry determines the dielectric constant and/or resistivity of the formations in accordance with a secondary field ratio and a phase difference derived from the signals provided by the receivers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Wayne F. Warren, Theodore W. Nussbaum, Percy T. Cox, Donald L. Johnson