Gunn-type Bulk Effect Device Oscillators Patents (Class 331/107G)
  • Patent number: 6147563
    Abstract: An improved method and system for generating quadrature phase shift keying signals for use in data transmission is provided. A pair of oscillators are slaved to the transmit frequency and produce two quadrature signal components with the same frequency but 90 degrees out of phase. The two signal components are carried to separate bi-phase switches by mirrored waveguides. Each bi-phase switch has a reflective waveguide coupler which directs the received signal into a waveguide terminated by a hard short and has a controllable shorting plane spaced approximately one-quarter wavelength from the termination point. The shorting planes are controlled by the output data signals and each introduces a 180 degree phase shift in the respective signal component when activated. The reflective couplers direct the selectively phase shifted signal components to an in-phase combiner, where they are combined to produce the quadrature phase shift keyed output signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: Channel Master LLC.
    Inventor: Dennis Lee Cronin
  • Patent number: 6133795
    Abstract: A stabilised voltage controlled oscillator circuit comprises a closed loop circuit containing a voltage controlled oscillator (34), a local oscillator (40) and a harmonic mixer (38) that mixes a stabilised local oscillator (LO) frequency signal and a radio frequency (RF) signal from the voltage controlled oscillator (34) to obtain an intermediate frequency (IF) signal. An IF amplifier (42) is connected to a linear frequency discriminator (44) that provides an output signal to a summing amplifier (46), which is connected to the voltage controlled oscillator (34). The closed loop circuit uses the linear frequency discriminator (44) to provide a feedback signal that stabilises the voltage controlled oscillator (34).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Inventor: Roscoe Charles Williams
  • Patent number: 6111265
    Abstract: A Gunn diode includes a layered structure including at least a cathode layer, an anode layer, and an active region interposed between the cathode and anode layers, wherein at least a portion of the active region is an AlGaAs layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: John Kevin Twynam
  • Patent number: 6005450
    Abstract: A microwave oscillator includes a waveguide that is short-circuited on one side and a diode arranged therein, which receives its supply voltage by way of a coupling pin passed through a waveguide wall. At least one adjustment pin, extends into the waveguide and is adjustable in its penetration depth, for tuning the oscillator frequency. Because the adjustment pin is aligned at an acute angle to the coupling pin, the oscillator frequency can be tuned very precisely.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Ewald Schmidt, Bernhard Lucas
  • Patent number: 5969578
    Abstract: A waveguide oscillator by means of which carrier waves can be generated in a waveguide. The waveguide oscillator takes the form of a planar slotted guide structure arranged in the waveguide approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the waveguide and has two transmitting slotted guides, at least one semiconductor oscillator element and at least one compensation slotted guide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG
    Inventor: Stefan Rust
  • Patent number: 5825268
    Abstract: A device with a nonradiative dielectric waveguide which operates in a microwave band or in a millimeter wave band. The device with a nonradiative dielectric waveguide is, for example, an oscillator, a circulator, a coupler or the like. The device has a couple of parallel conductors, a dielectric strip which is disposed between the conductors and propagates a high-frequency electromagnetic wave in a specified mode, a mounting surface which is formed on one of the conductors, and an end surface which is formed at an end of the conductors so as to be vertical to a traveling direction of the electromagnetic wave propagated in the dielectric strip. An end of the dielectric strip is exposed at a corresponding end surface of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Youhei Ishikawa, Toru Tanizaki, Hiroshi Nishida
  • Patent number: 5329257
    Abstract: This invention is a three layer Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x structure formed on a silicon substrate in which a thin, lightly doped Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x layer is formed between two heavily doped Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x layers. The incorporation of at least 10% germanium in the silicon provides for intervalley scattering of carriers in the conduction band of the Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x layers. This intervalley scattering leads to the negative differential conductance necessary for transferred electron device (TED) operation. Additionally, the lightly doped Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x layer is made very thin, on the order of 2,000 to 7,000 Angstroms, and the current flow through the this layer is vertical so that a high electric field can be placed across the lightly doped layer without applying a high voltage across the lightly doped layer. The lightly doped layer can be made thin even though it is interposed between two heavily doped layers because the growth of the in-situ doped Si.sub.x Ge.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corproation
    Inventor: Khaled E. Ismail
  • Patent number: 5153533
    Abstract: A voltage-controlled oscillator using planar microstrip technology and primarily for the 37 to 39.5 GHz frequency band comprises a strip-line resonator, a negative resistance device mounted adjacent the center of the resonator, respective variable capacitance devices mounted adjacent the ends of the resonator, a high impedance coupling the resonator to an output path, and bias signals are applied to the negative resistance device and said variable capacitance devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1992
    Assignee: GPT Ltd.
    Inventors: Kevin Lamacraft, Kenneth Elder, Christopher D. Howson
  • Patent number: 5126696
    Abstract: A W-band waveguide variable controlled oscillator incorporating a capacitively coupled Gunn diode and varactor diode arranged in such a manner that adverse environmental conditions do not deleteriously effect the stability of the output of the oscillator. The Gunn diode is electrically connected to a waveguide chamber within the oscillator and includes a resonator electrically connected to its end cap. The resonator is electrically connected to a DC bias source by means of a DC bias filter and a wire inductor. Opposite and above the Gunn diode is a varactor assembly including a varactor diode, which is also electrically connected to a DC bias source through a DC bias filter. A variable coupling spacer within the varactor assembly adjusts the distance between the varactor diode and the Gunn diode such that the capacitive coupling between the two can be adjusted. In addition, an adjustable back-short is incorporated within the waveguide channel to adjust the power output of the oscillator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1992
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventors: Albert J. Grote, Paul J. Johnson, James R. Hayes
  • Patent number: 5117204
    Abstract: By using an EIP source lock counter, a frequency of a Gunn oscillator is stabilized. This increases the frequency stability of a circuit. An oscillation output of the Gunn Oscillator is supplied to the EIP source lock counter, and a phase lock signal indicative of a phase shift of the oscillation frequency from the EIP source lock counter relative to a preset reference frequency is supplied to a driver circuit. The driver circuit includes level shift circuit which level-shifts the phase lock signal thereof. A phase compensation circuit in the driver circuit boosts a gain as well as advances a phase at a high frequency region. The current amplifier circuit amplifies a current amplitude of the output of the level shift circuit, and the amplified output therefrom controls an oscillation frequency of the Gunn oscillator using negative feedback.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1992
    Assignees: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Advantest Corporation
    Inventors: Tadashi Endo, Yasuhiko Sakamoto, Haruo Yoshida
  • Patent number: 5107229
    Abstract: A solid state oscillator which may be used as a microwave electronics teaching aid. The solid state oscillator is powered by a klystron power supply, and is interchangeable with a klystron. The solid state oscillator includes a circuit having inputs, through which a conventional klystron AC filament voltage is inputted. The circuit then rectifies and raises the input voltage to a higher level, and then tunes the higher level DC voltage to a resonant frequency. The raised voltage is powered by a microwave signal by means of a solid state microwave diode mounted in a wave guide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1992
    Assignee: Lectronic Research Labs
    Inventor: Leroy V. Cheesman
  • Patent number: 5059927
    Abstract: An oscillator operational in the millimeter wave and microwave range, including frequencies greater than 60 GHz, is provided with reduced phase noise by enhancing Q of the resonant circuitry by reactively terminating fundamental frequency oscillation and increasing stored fundamental frequency energy in the resonant circuitry. A two frequency system is provided with constructive reflection of energy at fundamental frequency back to the resonant circuitry, and with isolation of fundamental frequency energy from the output load. Energy to the output load is obtained from the in-situ generated second harmonic of the active element. Phase noise is reduced by enhancing Q by more than an order of magnitude.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1991
    Assignee: Ail Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 5019791
    Abstract: Flicker (1/f) noise is suppressed in an oscillator by reducing oscillator voltage-frequency pushing to zero. A varactor (56) is incorporated in the resonator circuit and is biased with a tuning voltage setting the varactor to a capacitance value providing the zero oscillator pushing at a given frequency. A common bias connection (62) is provided between the varactor and the active element (64) such that a random perturbation voltage change across the active element also causes a change in voltage across the varactor, to compensate a change in oscillator frequency otherwise caused thereby. The varactor capacitance versus voltage characteristic is shaped such that a change in active element voltage provides a change in varactor voltage, and the combination of these voltage changes results in a zero change in oscillator frequency. The tuning slope of the oscillator provided by the varactor is opposite the tuning slope of the oscillator resulting from a change in active element voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1991
    Assignee: All Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4999587
    Abstract: In a waveguide oscillator, a Gunn diode or other negative-resistance oscillator device (2) has a resonant cap (3) for coupling to the waveguide (1), and a tuning varactor diode (11) is coupled by a probe (13) to the electromagnetic filed in the vicinity of the cap (3). In accordance with the invention, a mechanically simple, compact and cheap oscillator arrangement is obtained by integrating both the varactor diode (11) and the probe (13) in a circuit body (10) mounted in the waveguide (1), preferably in an area below the plane of the cap (3) so as to reduce perturbation of the filed. The probe is formed as a conductive track (13) on the circuit body (10), for example as a transmission line coupling to the electric field and preferably located at the front surface (18) of the body (10) or as a current loop extending on a side wall of the body (10) and coupling to the magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1991
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corp.
    Inventor: David H. Evans
  • Patent number: 4978928
    Abstract: A Gunn oscillator having a plurality of Gunn elements connected in parallel etween a common anode and a common cathode. In one embodiment, the elements are separated by barrier layers that capacitively couple domain fields into adjacent elements thereby sequentially triggering them. There is a time delay between the domain formation in one element and the domain formation in the next. Another embodiment has elements of differing lengths to establish differing threshold voltages for triggering domains in each element. Sequentially triggering domain formation, e.g., by a simple sawtooth voltage, creates domains within each element. Again, there is a time delay between the domain formations in the elements. In either embodiment, collection of the domains at the common anode results in multiplication of the oscillator's base frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1990
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Mario Ancona
  • Patent number: 4975661
    Abstract: A Gunn effect triode working as a programmable frequency dynamic divider or as a VCO oscillator is disclosed. The Gunn effect triode is made up of a layer of III-V material and has three metallizations, namely the anode metallization, the cathode metallization and the gate metallization. According to the invention, firstly, the layer has a non-uniform width between the anode and gate metallization which is either trapezoidal or bounded by two hyperbolas. Then, on the gate metallization DC bias voltage, V.sub.GK, or the anode metallization DC bias voltage, V.sub.AK, there is superimposed an alternating control voltage, V.sub.HF, which is a harmonic of the free oscillating frequency of the triode. The order of division is equal to the harmonic order. The output frequency is adjusted by vernier operation on the harmonic frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 4, 1990
    Assignee: Thomson Hydbrides et Microondes
    Inventor: Maurice Gloanec
  • Patent number: 4973921
    Abstract: A varactor tuned oscillator (10), VCO, operational in the millimeter wave range including frequencies greater than 30 GHz, includes a lumped element active circuit (12) with a negative resistance, a lumped element tuning circuit (16) coupled to the active circuit and providing resonant circuitry in combination therewith, and a VCO output (26) reactively terminated at the fundamental frequency of oscillation and generating a higher order output harmonic at least as high as the second order. The reactive termination at fundamental frequency eliminates the intrinsic diminishing effect on tuning range of resistive loading, to extend tuning range and provide an ultrabroadband VCO. The VCO output (26) is resistively loaded at the higher order harmonic. The output is obtained from the higher order harmonic generated in-situ in the active element (14). Measured performance included continuous tuning from 46 to 66 GHz, a 20 GHz tuning range, with a maximum power output of +6 dBm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1990
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventors: Leonard D. Cohen, Eugene W. Sard
  • Patent number: 4951006
    Abstract: An oscillator (10) operational in the millimeter wave range including frequencies greater than 30 GHz includes a lumped element active circuit (12) including an active element (14) with a negative resistance, a lumped element resonator circuit (16) in parallel therewith, and an antenna (18) extending directly from the oscillator without an intermediate impedance matching section therebetween and without an isolation element therebetween. The antenna has a length of nominally a quarter wavelength at the desired fundamental frequency, and has zero connection length from the oscillator. The antenna serves a dual function of radiating the energy generated by the oscillator and also transforming the output impedance of the oscillator to the impedance of transmission media providing a load, such as free space or a wave guide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1990
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4906947
    Abstract: A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) especially designed for use in the millimeter wave frequency band (Ka-band) and which exhibits an adjustable tuning sensitivity. A low tuning sensitivity is easily obtained, making it suitable for narrow-band FMCW applications. It comprises a Gunn diode as a negative resistance device and a voltage variable capacitance diode (varactor) as a tuning element. A fixed capacitance element is coupled in RF series with the varactor and microstrip transmission lines are configured to function as impedance matching, resonating and filtering elements. By incorporating the fixed capacitance in RF series with the varactor, the tuning sensitivity, measured in volts/Hz is markedly reduced. The VCO uses a novel RF structure which puts the fixed capacitance in RF series with the varactor, without introducing the fixed capacitance element in the varactor bias circuitry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Assignee: Honeywell, Inc.
    Inventors: Rebecca A. Hart, John R. Lamberg, Donald R. Singh
  • Patent number: 4862112
    Abstract: A microstrip oscillator utilizing a Gunn diode as its active element for operation in the W-Band. A microstrip shunt resonator is dimensioned to resonate the Gunn diode at either its fundamental frequency or second harmonic frequency while a matching circuit, including a quarter wavelength transformer and a coupled microstrip transformer is employed to match the complex impedance of the Gunn diode device to the load. A radial hat on the Gunn diode effectively prevents radiation of electromagnetic energy from the system to thereby maximize the energy delivered to the load while, at the same time, functioning as a transformer element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 29, 1989
    Assignee: Honeywell, Inc.
    Inventor: Donald R. Singh
  • Patent number: 4730169
    Abstract: A four-diode bridge is positioned within the cavity of a Gunn diode oscillator. A subharmonic signal is applied to the diode bridge and the diode bridge couples an odd harmonic of the injected signal into the cavity. The cavity is thus caused to resonate at the odd harmonic of the injected signal. The injected signal can be changed using a frequency synthesizer in order to provide a microwave oscillator with multiple-channel operation. The diode bridge provides a feedback signal indicative of the phase of cavity oscillation. The feedback signal is applied to a varactor which pretunes the Gunn diode oscillator and thereby provides phase-locked control.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Hsiu Y. Li
  • Patent number: 4636751
    Abstract: A millimeter wave microstrip transmission line is coupled to a solid state echanically tunable cylindrical resonating coaxial cavity millimeter-wave oscillator by means of a probe extending linearly from the microstrip through an access slot in the cylindrical cavity wall into the zone of optimum electric field strength in the oscillator cavity to effect the translation of a TEM wave from the resonating cavity to the microstrip line at optimum power transfer and without wave mode change.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Robert E. Horn, Harold Jacobs, deceased
  • Patent number: 4625182
    Abstract: A high power solid state source of microwave and millimeter wave signals is provided by an optically triggered body of bulk semiconductor material selected from the Group III-V compounds including GaAs, Cr:GaAs, and Fe:InP and having a relatively long gap length which is in the order of 0.5 to 10.0 mm as well as having a resistivity which is greater than 1.times.10.sup.7 ohm-cm. The device is further dc biased to a field of between 15 kV/cm and 35 kV/cm. Under such conditions, a very low dc current flows without any oscillatory behavior; however, illumination of the semiconductor body with a fast rising optical pulse having a wavelength suitable for carrier generation causes electrons to be lifted to the conduction band which is accompanied by a rapid reduction of the resistivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Lawrence J. Bovino, Maurice Weiner, Terence Burke
  • Patent number: 4588966
    Abstract: A millimeter wavelength oscillator combining a mechanically tunable resonating cavity oscillator element with an electronically tunable solid state diode element provides a basic stable steady wave energy source with fine-tuning capabilities not possible with a resonating cavity oscillator alone, and with an apparatus structure which is light in weight, compact, mechanically sturdy, and with easily accessible and quickly replaceable component parts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Robert E. Horn, Harold Jacobs, deceased, Hsieh T. Hao
  • Patent number: 4588967
    Abstract: An electronic varactor tuner is integrally combined with a mechanically tuned Gunn oscillator to provide an increased tuning range in a light weight, compact, rugged combination with easily and quickly replaceable components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Robert E. Horn, Harold Jacobs, deceased
  • Patent number: 4573213
    Abstract: A dual Gunn self-oscillating mixer is shown which can mix signals in the range substantially without introducing any noise and with high input signal power handling capacity and with higher output mixed signal power than conventional, owing to boosted power from more than one microwave cavity. The device is comprised of two cavities and connected by a phase shift coax line for injection locking, or a cavity wall hole in yet another embodiment. The device handles larger power levels without burning out as compared to conventional type mixer devices such as Schottky barrier diodes having nearly 30 times the burnout susceptibility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1986
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Samuel Dixon, Jr., Harold Jacobs
  • Patent number: 4503404
    Abstract: A primed oscillator for microwave amplification includes a single tank conductor (16) coupled to a coupling conductor (17) by an interdigitated coupler (26). The coupling conductor (17) is connected to the cathode of an IMPATT diode (22) which is triggered by the application of a back-biasing trigger pulse that biases it into its negative-resistance region. When a keying pulse is applied to the IMPATT diode (22), the diode couples power through the interdigitated coupler (26) to the tank circuit (16) to cause oscillations that are initially in phase with any incoming signals, but the frequency of the oscillations is determined by the configuration of the tank circuit (16), not by the frequency of the incoming signal. If the incoming signal is near enough to the resonant frequency, and if the duration of the keying pulses is short enough, the output of the primed oscillator appears to a band-limited receiver to be an amplified version of the input signal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1985
    Assignee: Sanders Associates, Inc.
    Inventor: Joseph E. Racy
  • Patent number: 4488124
    Abstract: A frequency stabilized oscillator includes a rectangular resonant cavity having a ground or short circuit wall, an H wall, and a top wall having an inductive window therein. A solid-state oscillating device such as a GUNN diode is attached at one end thereof to the short circuit wall, and a disk type dielectric resonator is supported from the short circuit wall and is located substantially adjacent the solid-state oscillating device so as to electromagnetically couple with the oscillating device. The inductive window is located so as to be in substantially overlying relationship with the dielectric resonator. A strip conductor is attached to the upper end of the oscillating device and extends through the H wall to the exterior of the oscillator to thereby provide a DC supply terminal for the oscillating device. The H wall of the resonant cavity is isolated from the DC supply applied to the strip conductor by means of a thin insulating layer between the strip conductor and the H wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 11, 1984
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yoshikazu Yoshimura
  • Patent number: 4481485
    Abstract: Transferred-electron device (TED) microwave burst and single pulse generators which are triggered by picosecond optical pulses. The burst generator includes a TED having a cathode, an anode, and a gate electrode positioned therebetween, all located on a semiconductor substrate. An optical pulse applied to the substrate between the gate and anode electrodes causes a plurality of space charge domains to sequentially travel from the gate to the illuminated region thereby causing an oscillatory burst of current to occur in the external leads of the TED. The frequency of the burst is proportional to the distance between the gate and the illuminated region and the burst duration is proportional to the optical pulse amplitude and/or duration. Alternatively, the burst generators may be formed from a two terminal TED with the cathode electrode being treated as the gate. A single pulse generator may be formed by applying an optical pulse to the substrate between the cathode and the gate of a three terminal TED.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1984
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Thomas F. Carruthers, Joseph F. Weller, Henry F. Taylor
  • Patent number: 4468633
    Abstract: A typical coaxial circuit which couples a negative resistance diode to the cavity of a power combiner consists of a metallic rod which is biased by a spring against the diode supported by a carrier which is effective to vary the position of the diode along the longitudinal axis of the rod. The rod cooperates with bores in a block to comprise, in series, between the diode and the cavity, a transmission line whose length varies in accordance with diode position, a fixed impedance transformer and a fixed length transmission line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1984
    Assignee: The Bendix Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald L. Chilluffo, Gary D. Kelpien
  • Patent number: 4459564
    Abstract: A length of conventional hollow waveguide having an interior rectangular cavity has openings in the broad walls along a common axis. A diode support structure positions a negative resistance diode in the waveguide through one opening. A DC bias conductor structure positions a bias conductor through the other opening and into contact with the diode to provide a DC bias thereto. These two structures are secured together and to the conventional waveguide structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 10, 1984
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Walter M. Janton
  • Patent number: 4371849
    Abstract: A microwave evanescent-mode oscillator comprises a length of waveguide W1 having a cut-off frequency higher than the working frequency of the oscillator together with a Gunn element G disposed within the waveguide characterized in that the oscillator comprises, spaced in sequence along the waveguide a Gunn element G post-coupled into the waveguide and spaced from a first end of the waveguide, a capacitive member C and at the other end of the waveguide an end wall formed by a diaphragm D having therein an output aperture I for coupling out energy from the waveguide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 1, 1983
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Stuart R. Longley
  • Patent number: 4342009
    Abstract: The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength oscillator includes a Gunn diode coupled to a hole in a ferrite image waveguide in such a way that a portion of the waveguide acts as a resonant cavity, and oscillation results. A coil surrounding the portion of the waveguide has a variable dc current applied to it to variably magnetize the waveguide and hence correspondingly vary the oscillator frequency. By applying an RF signal to the Gunn diode, the oscillator frequency can be mixed with the RF to yield heterodyne or intermediate frequencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1982
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: Samuel Dixon, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4329663
    Abstract: A lumped element microwave oscillator is mounted on the back plate secured to a wave guide for generating electromagnetic waves which propagate through the wave guide. The oscillator includes a two-terminal solid-state device, such as a Gunn diode, which exhibits negative resistance in the microwave range, connected in circuit with a dc source and lumped elements, including a variable capacitive element. The variable capacitive element is accessible without removing the back plate from the wave guide so that the capacitance can be easily adjusted for controlling the frequency of the oscillator. The power of the electromagnetic waves which propagate through the wave guide is preferably controlled by adjusting the coupling between the oscillator and the load in two ways. The physical orientation of various lumped elements mounted on the back plate can be adjusted with respect to the plane of the E field in the wave guide for controlling the coupling between the oscillator and the load in steps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1982
    Inventor: Alexander B. Bereskin
  • Patent number: 4305049
    Abstract: The oscillator comprises a main cavity housing a Gunn diode and auxiliary cavity branching laterally and allowing only inlet of the harmonic components.The auxiliary cavity is provided with harmonic tuning means for varying the reactance of the auxiliary cavity to the harmonic components. The load impedance seen by the Gunn diode is thus varied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1981
    Assignee: C.I.S.E. Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze S.p.A.
    Inventor: Ezio M. Bastida
  • Patent number: 4277763
    Abstract: A hand held, short range FM radar device is provided employing a unique tracking circuit and a predistortion circuit to linearize the sweep function to a Gunn oscillator which produces the rf signal. A parabolic generator comprising a linear operational amplifier and passive elements connected thereto is used to shape the saw tooth sweep signal to the Gunn oscillator.The output is directly read out on an LED display; an audio signal is also produced whose frequency is a function of target distance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1981
    Inventor: William H. Ward, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4246550
    Abstract: A tunable millimeter wave frequency Gunn oscillator operates efficiently beyond the normal Gunn oscillator frequency range through the use of a second harmonic enhancement circuit. The enhancement circuit is tuned to the fundamental frequency of the oscillator and is tracked with a second harmonic circuit to provide a wide tuning range. Lumped element circuitry is used to aid in providing the wide tuning range and to facilitate adjustment and fabrication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1981
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4222014
    Abstract: A microwave/millimeterwave oscillator includes a transferred electron device adapted to operate at a first frequency. The device is housed in a waveguide transmission line in a quarter wavelength, quasi-radial mode cavity dimensioned to enable the device to oscillate at a second frequency, higher then the first frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1980
    Assignee: Alpha Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: John Ondria
  • Patent number: 4204132
    Abstract: A semiconductor capable of exhibiting an electron transfer effect in a high electric field is used as a Hall element. Application of a voltage large enough to give rise to an electron transfer effect to the current input electrodes of the Hall element brings about a decrease in the concentration of electrons contributing to the Hall effect occurring within the semiconductor, an increase in the Hall coefficient and a notable enhancement in the sensitivity of the Hall element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 20, 1980
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry of International Trade & Industry
    Inventors: Shoei Kataoka, Yoshinobu Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Fujisada
  • Patent number: 4201956
    Abstract: Apparatus for the generation and radiation of microwave radiation including a microwave oscillator having a cavity resonator directly coupled with the input of a horn resonator by way of a first apertured diaphragm. There is arranged within the horn radiator a second apertured diaphragm disposed at a distance from the first apertured diaphragm such that together with the first diaphragm it forms a filter resonator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: Endress u. Hauser GmbH u. Co.
    Inventors: Karl-Heinz Kienberger, Don J. R. Stock
  • Patent number: 4182964
    Abstract: Occurrence of high field domain in the conventional Gunn diode is prevented by covering a solid body such as a semiconductor element partially or wholly by a dielectric member or by a control element such as a metallic layer coupled reactively with the solid body through a dielectric member, whereby a solid state element having a negative differential conductivity is obtained. Such a type of negative-resistance solid state element, together with its various modes of embodimental construction disclosed herein, affords a superior solid state element which is applicable to amplifiers, oscillators, logic memories, and the like of millimeter or submillimeter bands.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1972
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1980
    Assignee: Kogyo Gijutsuin
    Inventors: Shoei Kataoka, Hiroshi Tateno, Hiroyuki Fujisada, Hideo Yamada, Mitsuo Kawashima, Yasuo Komamiya
  • Patent number: 4166965
    Abstract: A transferred electron logic input device (TELD) is cascaded with a field effect transistor output device (FET) to provide a threshold gate having switching times compatible with gigabit rate logic and having the capability to drive low impedance loads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1979
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Walter R. Curtice
  • Patent number: 4162458
    Abstract: In an oscillator or power combiner of the type operating at microwave, millimeter wave and above, apparatus for increasing the size, so that one or more active devices can be coupled to the oscillator, including a TM coaxial cavity operating at a predetermined frequency, which cavity has an output coupled thereto for removing power, and a second cavity operating at a dominant mode and coupled to the TM coaxial cavity, which second cavity assures efficient and spurious free operation of the oscillator or power combiner at the desired frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 24, 1979
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Dydyk, Joseph R. Tuzzolino
  • Patent number: 4158784
    Abstract: A pulse train generator operating at subnanosecond periods includes a transferred-electron device (TED) in series with an open circuited resonant transmission line. The transmission line sustains domain formation in the TED. A filter coupled to the TED may be utilized to produce pulses at a subharmonic of the TED transit time frequency, determined by the length of the transmission line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1979
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Walter R. Curtice
  • Patent number: 4149126
    Abstract: A microwave oscillator in which the power supplied by 2N microwave diodes such as avalanche or Gunn effect diodes is added. The diodes are connected together in two by sections of strip lines which enables magnetic coupling between these diodes and a dielectric resonator, with the diodes in each couple operating in phase opposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: April 10, 1979
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Yves Archambault, Didier Kaminsky
  • Patent number: 4117464
    Abstract: Microwave apparatus for detecting the movement of a moving object comprising a Gunn oscillator device having input terminals that are capable of receiving a potential difference which serves to produce a bias current in the device, said potential difference being subject to variations, the device being responsive to a constant potential difference and operative to radiate microwave energy at a first frequency, and further responding to Doppler shifted energy reflected from the moving object and producing a variation in the bias current, an operational amplifier responsive to the potential difference and a reference signal for developing a first signal when the potential difference exceeds the reference signal and a second signal when it is less, a series-pass transistor connected to a source of DC potential and the operational amplifier and being switchable between a conducting and a non-conducting state in response to the first and second signals and serving to maintain the potential difference at a constant
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1978
    Assignee: Solfan Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Erno B. Lutz
  • Patent number: 4106959
    Abstract: The operating frequency of an IMPATT diode depends on the width of the depletion region formed during operation. The frequency of high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes comprising a non-uniformly doped depletion region contacted by a rectifying barrier can be more precisely fixed by forming a "clump" of charge at exactly the depth below the surface contacted by the rectifying barrier corresponding to the desired depletion region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1978
    Assignee: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated
    Inventors: James Vincent DiLorenzo, William Charles Niehaus, Lawrence John Varnerin, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4099144
    Abstract: An injection-locked ultra-high frequency solid-state oscillator employs an injection locking method in which an ultra-high frequency output power from a solid-state oscillator is stabilized by injecting an output signal from another stable oscillator. The signal injected into the solid-state oscillator has an optional frequency low enough as compared to that of the output power from the solid-state oscillator and is supplied through a bias supplying circuit or the like. Injection of such low-frequency signal produces sideband waves around the oscillation-wave from the solid-state oscillator while one of such sideband waves is trapped by a high-Q cavity resonator provided in the vicinity of a solid-state oscillating element of the solid state oscillator. The oscillation wave from the solid-state oscillator becomes low noise with the sideband wave trapped, and the frequency of the oscillation wave from the solid-state oscillator is made variable in obedience to the variation of the injection signal frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1978
    Assignee: Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Public Corp.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Okamoto, Mutsuo Ikeda
  • Patent number: 4097829
    Abstract: A tuning compensation device to reduce post-tuning frequency drift in voltage controlled oscillators, comprising a thermoelectric element, such as a wafer of doped semiconductor material, in contact with the junction of a tuning element, such as a varactor diode, to produce a correction to the control voltage and thereby compensate for thermally induced frequency drift.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1978
    Assignee: Cutler-Hammer, Inc.
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4086501
    Abstract: A planar transferred electron logic device comprising a substrate of substantially insulating material and a layer of semiconductor material which exhibits a differential negative resistance through the "transferred electron effect" upon application of an electric field above threshold level. Spaced anode, cathode and gate terminals are located on the semiconductor layer. The anode and cathode terminals are biased slightly below threshold creating thereby a reverse bias on the gate terminal. An input signal is applied to the gate terminal to trigger the device causing the formation of domains. The terminals are biased by an improved biasing circuit to reduce the magnitude of the reverse bias and the input signal to enhance the trigger sensitivity and stability of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1978
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventor: Lakshminarasimha Chainulu Upadhyayula