Solid State Active Element Oscillator Patents (Class 331/107R)
  • Patent number: 6091356
    Abstract: A source for a linear homodyne transceiver that generates repeated linear chirps. A YIG oscillator with a main coil and an FM coil receives a basic linear current ramp at the main coil to generate a chirp. The FM coil is coupled to receive a PLL error signal. The PLL receives a sample of the output signal from the YIG oscillator at one input and a linear chirp reference signal at the other input generated by a DDS chirp generator. Any variation between the linear chirp frequency at any instant and the actual frequency output by the YIG is corrected by an error signal to the FM coil to correct for nonlinearities of the YIG caused by variations in the chirp rate, the rate of change of frequency per second per chirp, temperature variations and microphonics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Sensor Concepts Incorporated
    Inventors: Michael Lee Sanders, John Hunt Ashton
  • Patent number: 6054403
    Abstract: A semiconductive ceramic in which the B constant is maintained at about 4000 K or more at elevated temperature to thereby decrease power consumption, and the B constant is lowered less than 4000 K at low temperature so as to avoid unnecessary increase of resistance; as well as a semiconductive ceramic element using the same. The semiconductive ceramic is formed of a lanthanum cobalt oxide, which serves as the primary component, and, as a secondary component, at least one oxide of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu and Zn. The semiconductive ceramic element is fabricated through use of the semiconductive ceramic and an electrode formed thereon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2000
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoichi Kawase, Akinori Nakayama, Satoshi Ueno, Terunobu Ishikawa, Hideaki Niimi
  • Patent number: 6014064
    Abstract: A voltage controlled oscillator includes a varactor (201) and a transistor (202) and a ground via (203), of epitaxially grown silicon that is etched to provide respective pedestals embodying the varactor (201) and the transistor (202) and the ground via (203), an L-C resonator circuit, the varactor (201) and an inductor providing a tank circuit that changes the frequency of the L-C resonator circuit, and that shifts the average frequency of the oscillator to that of an input voltage to the collector of the transistor (202).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: The Whitaker Corporation
    Inventors: Timothy E. Boles, Joel L. Goodrich, Paulette R. Noonan, Brian Rizzi
  • Patent number: 6009534
    Abstract: The present invention includes a fractional interpretation circuit to be used to correct pre-write compensation for writing data on a disk. The present invention need not be limited to a three phase interpreter but could easily be extended to a 4X or 5X. This could simply be implemented by adding additional current paths from the capacitors to ground in order to incrementally change the slew rate and consequently the phase interpretation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventors: Kar-Shing Chiu, Ming-Tak Leung
  • Patent number: 5994971
    Abstract: A clock generator or oscillator circuit for use in an integrated circuit for generating a clock signal includes a 555 timer circuit. The time constant circuit of the 555 timer includes a heater element for generating heat and a transducer for converting heat generated by the heater element into electrical energy. The clock signal is generated in response to the heating and cooling of the heater element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: STMicroelectronics, Inc.
    Inventor: William Ernest Edwards
  • Patent number: 5856764
    Abstract: An oscillation circuit comprises a surface acoustic wave resonance device of the single port type, an active circuit portion with which the surface acoustic wave resonance device is connected so that a signal feedback from the active circuit portion to the surface acoustic wave resonance device is carried out, an inductive element connected substantially in parallel with the surface acoustic wave resonance device, and a damping portion connected with one or both of the inductive element and the surface acoustic wave resonance device for suppressing parasitic oscillations caused by coaction between the inductive element and stray capacitance accompanying the surface acoustic wave resonance device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1999
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kozo Kobayashi, Tadashi Imai
  • Patent number: 5652551
    Abstract: Micro-scale and nano-scale devices which achieve high frequency signals ug materials having increased electron saturation velocity. These devices have frequencies in the terahertz range with high temperature and radiation hard characteristics. The transit time device includes a substrate, a buffer layer and an epitaxial layer made of a material in the 43 m and 6 mm crystallographic point groups and associated alloys, and at least two contacts on the device. In operation, one contact is forward biased and the other is reversed biased. Applications for this devices include transit-time-based oscillators for use in military and civilian radar receivers, logic devices, burglar alarm and proximity alarm systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: Richard H. Wittstruck
  • Patent number: 5558800
    Abstract: The output matching networks normally included in a microwave power transistor package as well as the transistor combining network therefor are eliminated for heating applications, e.g. microwave ovens. In a preferred embodiment, the transistor dies of four microwave silicon bipolar power transistors are directly connected to the low impedance points of a common patch type antenna element, also referred to as an applicator, located within the wall of a heating chamber in place of a magnetron. Each pair of power transistors are electrically spaced one half wavelength apart and are located transverse to each other on the antenna. The transistors are operated in pairs with a 180.degree. phase difference so that mutually orthogonal longitudinal modes are excited in the antenna. Moreover, the transistors are frequency modulated over their prescribed frequency band to eliminate standing waves in the load, i.e. the article or substance being heated or cooked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1996
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman
    Inventor: Derrick J. Page
  • Patent number: 5477198
    Abstract: A circuit design extending the range and linearizing the transfer characteristic of a fast voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). In addition, a multi-range VCO is described. Range extension is achieved by modifying the delay cell of a current controlled ring oscillator. The VCO transfer characteristic is linearized by piece-wise linear current control added to the delay cell. Additionally, a VCO capable of multi-range operation is provided. With the addition of multiple current sources which control booster inverter current, and by selectively enabling the additional current sources, a VCO with multiple frequency ranges can be achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 19, 1995
    Assignees: AT&T Global Information Solutions Company, Hyundai Electronics America
    Inventors: Michael B. Anderson, Frank Gasparik
  • Patent number: 5309343
    Abstract: The present invention is a driving circuit that comprises a magnetically permeable core, a high voltage secondary winding around the core with the secondary winding being connectable to a device to be powered, a circuit connectable to a D.C. power source and being magnetically coupled to the secondary winding to induce a voltage thereacross sufficient to power a device, a plurality cf connected windings wound around the core, a RC network and a plurality of parallel connected transistors coupled to the windings and the RC network with each respective transistor having a base terminal connected to the RC network by a respective current-variable resistive element, and a first primary winding connected in series with a plurality of second primary windings, and each primary winding connected in parallel with a respective capacitor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 3, 1994
    Inventor: Robert B. Schlenk
  • Patent number: 5304958
    Abstract: A gain stage for providing an automatic phase shift is provided. In particular, the gain stage detects whether an oscillation signal appears at its inputs. If an oscillation signal is not detected, then the gain stage inverts output signals occurring at outputs of a first amplifier before being respectively applied to inputs of a second amplifier. This has the overall effect of implementing a 180.degree. phase shift of a signal appearing at the outputs of the gain stage with respect to a signal appearing at the inputs of the gain stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: Motorola, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul B. Sofianos, Phuc C. Pham, Dwight D. Esgar
  • Patent number: 5223802
    Abstract: An optically controlled resonant tunnel diode oscillator assembly having a esonant tunnel diode (RTD) which, when voltage biased, oscillates at a free running frequency; an optical signal delivery system, such as a light intensity modulator connected to optical fibers; and other oscillator circuitry which one skilled in the art could readily adapt to the concepts of the present invention. In operation, the free running oscillation of the RTD can be frequency modulated or can be intensity locked to the intensity modulated optical signal delivered via the optical signal delivery system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1993
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: James F. Harvey, Robert A. Lux, Thomas P. Higgins, Arthur Paolella, Dana J. Sturzebecher
  • Patent number: 5144261
    Abstract: An optically injection locked resonant tunnel diode oscillator assembly hng a resonant tunnel diode (RTD) which, when voltage biased, oscillates at a free running frequency; an optical signal delivery system, such as a light intensity modulator connected to optical fibers; and other oscillator circuitry which one skilled in the art could readily adapt to the concepts of the present invention. In operation, the free running oscillation of the RTD can be locked to the phase and frequency of the intensity modulated optical signal delivered via the optical signal delivery system. This injection locking occurs as the modulation frequency approaches the free running oscillation frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: James F. Harvey, Robert A. Lux, Thomas P. Higgins, Arthur Paolella, Dana J. Sturzebecher
  • Patent number: 5019791
    Abstract: Flicker (1/f) noise is suppressed in an oscillator by reducing oscillator voltage-frequency pushing to zero. A varactor (56) is incorporated in the resonator circuit and is biased with a tuning voltage setting the varactor to a capacitance value providing the zero oscillator pushing at a given frequency. A common bias connection (62) is provided between the varactor and the active element (64) such that a random perturbation voltage change across the active element also causes a change in voltage across the varactor, to compensate a change in oscillator frequency otherwise caused thereby. The varactor capacitance versus voltage characteristic is shaped such that a change in active element voltage provides a change in varactor voltage, and the combination of these voltage changes results in a zero change in oscillator frequency. The tuning slope of the oscillator provided by the varactor is opposite the tuning slope of the oscillator resulting from a change in active element voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1991
    Assignee: All Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 5013933
    Abstract: A loadline bias circuit for biasing solid state devices operable at high frequencies is disclosed. The source impedance of the dc bias circuit is adjusted to influence the RF device characteristic, thereby creating a way to optimize the device performance. The bias circuit comprises a resistive element coupled in series connection with a constant voltage source or in parallel connection with a constant current source. The bias circuit may be adapted to set an optimum relationship between the bias current and bias voltage so that when one bias parameter changes, the other will automatically compensate with an appropriate change as well. The resistive element provides a device operating range throughout which the bias power supplied to the device is substantially constant. The value of the loadline, that is, the resistive element, can be selected to optimize particular performance parameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1991
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventor: Robert L. Eisenhart
  • Patent number: 4929924
    Abstract: In an electronic horn for alarm systems of the type in which an alarm condition is indicated by a reversal of polarity in the d.c. power supply, an improvement provides a pair of terminals for connection to said d.c.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 29, 1990
    Assignee: General Signal Corporation
    Inventors: William P. Buyak, Bruce V. Testa, Robert W. Right
  • Patent number: 4839832
    Abstract: A negative resistance device local extremum seeking circuit including a negative resistance device (NRD) and a biasing device for providing a bias signal to operate the NRD. The output of the NRD is detected by a detector that provides a signal which indicates the position of the bias signal in relation to the peak of the NRD. A bias adjust circuit responsive to the detector adjusts the bias signal toward the peak of the NRD to operate it at the peak.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1988
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.
    Inventor: Francis A. Galler
  • Patent number: 4796264
    Abstract: A semiconductor laser driver comprises a high frequency amplifier. Positive feedback from a load, including a semiconductor laser, is input to the amplifier. This arrangement provides self-sustained oscillation of the circuit at the relaxation oscillation frequency of the semiconductor laser, thus eliminating the need for an external oscillator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 3, 1989
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Akira Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4745374
    Abstract: An extremely-high frequency semiconductor oscillator which produces a large but substantially noise-free output power with minimized fluctuation of output power for changes in device temperature is realized by using, as its power producing component, a semiconductor transit time diode having a frequency-dependent negative resistance mounted in a cavity resonator of a wave guide means provided with a tuning short at one side of the waveguide means and being designed to perform carrier injection by a combination of tunnel and avalanche phenomena.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1988
    Assignee: Zaidan Hojin Handotai Kenkyu Shinkokai
    Inventors: Jun-ichi Nishizawa, Kaoru Motoya
  • Patent number: 4736454
    Abstract: A three-element active device is physically and electrically integrated (e.g., by soldering) onto shaped conductive areas in a thin conformable microstrip structure which includes a microstrip antenna radiator. Two of the elements of the active device are connected to microstrip reactance structures which form a series-resonant partial oscillator circuit. The third (output) element of the active device is connected directly to the microstrip antenna radiator via a microstrip transmission line which, together, directly provide the r.f. load impedance for the thus completed oscillator circuit. Quarter wavelength r.f. microstrip segments are also provided to facilitate the feeding of d.c. bias to the active device without disturbing the r.f. circuitry. The oscillator load impedance to be provided by the microstrip radiator is predetermined in accordance with conventional device-line or loadpull impedance measurements so as to maximize the power output of the active device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 5, 1988
    Assignee: Ball Corporation
    Inventor: Vincent A. Hirsch
  • Patent number: 4728907
    Abstract: Frequency/temperature compensation of millimeter wave lumped active element oscillators is disclosed by use of a simple capacitive compensating element, and including printed circuit versions in which the temperature compensating capacitor is printed in-situ with the circuit elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 1, 1988
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventor: Leonard D. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4692791
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a monolithic circuit and method of making same which includes the use of two substrates of different semiconductor materials or two substrates of the same semiconductor material wherein the processing steps required for certain parts of the circuit are incompatible with the processing steps required for other parts of the circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1987
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventor: Burhan Bayraktaroglu
  • Patent number: 4673958
    Abstract: Two-terminal active devices, such as IMPATT and Gunn diodes, are combined with passive devices in a monolithic form using a plated metal heat sink to support the active elements and a coated-on dielectric to support the passive elements. Impedance-matching circuitry is preferably placed very close to (or partially overlapping) the active device, thereby eliminating detrimental device-to-circuit transition losses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1987
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventor: Burhan Bayraktaroglu
  • Patent number: 4639075
    Abstract: A distortion free fiber optic system having a single-mode optical fiber utilized in combination with a semiconductor material mounted in optical alignment therewith. Although it is preferable for the semiconductor material to be adjacent the input end of the fiber, it may, in the alternative, be placed adjacent the output end of the fiber. For appropriate distortion free propagation of a beam of electromagnetic radiation through the optical fiber, the semiconductor material must be receptive to the wavelength of the electromagnetic beam. This can be accomplished by either matching the semiconductor material to the wavelength of the beam or tuning the source of the electromagnetic beam to the excitonic-polariton resonance of the semiconductor crystal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Michael M. Salour, Gustav W. Fehrenbach
  • Patent number: 4636737
    Abstract: The present invention is a method and a device for the frequency modulation and/or demodulation of a signal applied to materials that carry sliding charge density waves. A particular example of such a material is orthorhombic TaS.sub.3 that acts as a frequency modulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1987
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Aaron N. Bloch, James P. Stokes
  • Patent number: 4617532
    Abstract: A semiconductor device is optically phase-locked by utilizing (1) the Burstein shift in differently doped semiconductor layers and injecting light having an energy level lower than the absorption edge of the heavily doped layer in which optical absorption is not desired and higher than the more lightly doped region where it is desired; and (2) the internal photoemission and injecting light having an energy level lower than the band gap of the semiconductor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1986
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Corporation
    Inventors: Wenpeng Chen, Norman E. Byer
  • Patent number: 4617531
    Abstract: A directly modulated microwave source for use in communications equipment is disclosed. The arrangement, fabricated in an open ended waveguide comprises an oscillator section operating in the TE.sub.101 mode and an impedance matching section providing adjustable coupling to a load. A suitable active element is a Gunn diode, post mounted in proximity to the closed end of the waveguide for H field coupling. Modulation in frequency or phase is achieved by a varactor diode, also post mounted, positioned approximately 2/3 of the length of the waveguide from the closed end. A vertically adjusted post for the load coupling adjustment, is placed adjacent the varactor post, but nearer the opening. The two adjacent posts define the boundary between sections and provide H field coupling to the varactor diode. Temperature stabilization means and frequency tuning means are located respectively on the upper and lower surfaces of the waveguide at anti-nodial portions of the oscillator section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1986
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Daniel P. Bowlds, Edward B. Foster
  • Patent number: 4580108
    Abstract: An oscillator formed in a rectangular waveguide (1) with both mechanical and electronic tuning comprises an oscillator device (4) spaced from a movable short-circuit termination (2) with a varactor diode (5) therebetween, the effective electrical spacing between the oscillator device (4) and the varactor (5) being approximately an integral number of half-wavelengths at the operating frequency. The varactor (5) extends into the waveguide (1) from one broad wall thereof and engages a transverse member (10) extending between the narrow walls so that only part of the height of the waveguide (1) at that region is obscured. This enables the operating frequency and hence the extent of coupling of the varactor (5) to the oscillator cavity, and thus the electronic tuning range, to be varied by adjusting the position of the short-circuit (2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1986
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: John S. Barstow
  • Patent number: 4580110
    Abstract: The present invention is a method and a device for the frequency modulation and/or demodulation of a signal applied to materials that carry sliding charge density waves. A particular example of such a material is orthorhombic TaS.sub.3 that acts as a frequency modulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1986
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Aaron N. Bloch, James P. Stokes
  • Patent number: 4568889
    Abstract: In a distributed IMPATT structure, power is coupled out through a side contact. That is, in previously proposed distributed IMPATT structures, the gain medium (the active region of the IMPATT) operates as a transmission line. The prior art has attempted to couple output power from the gain medium through an end contact, i.e., through a contact which is perpendicular to the primary direction of energy propagation (and also to the direction of maximum elongation) of the active medium. In the present invention, a sidewall contact extends in a direction which is parallel to the principal direction of propagation of the energy in the active medium. Thus, the sidewall contact plus the active region together can be considered as a single transmission line. This extended transmission line is also connected to a second distributed semiconductor element which functions as a varactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventor: Burhan Bayraktaroglu
  • Patent number: 4568891
    Abstract: In an R.F. oscillator arrangement comprising a diode (D), such as a TRAPATT diode, operable to produce pulses of R.F. energy when d.c. pulses (P) above a critical level (I.sub.k) are applied to the diode (D), the frequency of oscillation is markedly dependent on the temperature of the diode (D). To reduce variations of the frequency over a wide operating range of ambient temperatures a direct current (I.sub.a) below the critical level (I.sub.k) is passed through the diode (D) to heat it, the heating current (I.sub.a) being controlled by measuring the temperature of a heat-sink (N) on which the diode (D) is mounted and which is substantially at ambient temperature, or by measuring the oscillating frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Robert Davies
  • Patent number: 4555678
    Abstract: An improvement in a microwave oscillator using a GaAs FET as the active element is shown to include a phase detector responsive to a portion of the positive feedback signals applied to a resonator having a high Q and to a portion of the signals out of the GaAs FET, shifted by 90.degree., to obtain signals to degenerate noise internally formed in the GaAs FET.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1985
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventors: Zvi Galani, Richard W. Laton, Raymond C. Waterman, Jr., Robert DiBiase
  • Patent number: 4525732
    Abstract: In a distributed IMPATT structure, power is coupled out through a side contact. That is, in previously proposed distributed IMPATT structures the gain medium (the active region of the IMPATT) operates as a transmission line. The prior art has attempted to couple output power from the gain medium through an end contact, i.e. through a contact which intercepts the primary direction of energy propagation of the active medium. In the present invention, a side contact extends along the whole active region in a direction which is parallel to the principal direction of propagation of the energy in the active medium. Thus, the side contact plus the active region together can be considered as a single transmission line.The present invention can be configured as an oscillator, amplifier, phase shifter, or attenuator. When configured as an oscillator, multiple short active regions can be sequentially coupled to a single long microstrip, which serves as the side contact for each of the active regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1983
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1985
    Assignee: Texas Instruments Incorporated
    Inventor: Burhan Bayraktaroglu
  • Patent number: 4504718
    Abstract: A microwave heating apparatus comprises a solid state oscillating circuit, a pre-amplifier module for amplifying the output of the oscillating circuit, a plurality of amplifier modules for amplifying the output of the pre-amplifier module, a first power supply source for energizing the solid state oscillating circuit and a second power supply source for energizing all of the amplifier modules. Such an apparatus further comprises a delay circuit for activating the first power supply source after the second power supply source has been activated and the amplifier modules have been in a stable state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1985
    Assignee: Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hisashi Okatsuka, Koichi Taniguchi, Mitsuo Konno, Ryuho Narita
  • Patent number: 4502023
    Abstract: In a method of fabrication of a module formed by a semiconductor diode which oscillates in millimeter waves and by a variable-capacitance diode, the oscillating diode is mounted on a pedestal at the center of a support base. A ring of fused silica for supporting a metallic disk of predetermined diameter serves to form a radial space between two metallic surfaces with a view to readily obtaining oscillation in a predetermined frequency band. A similar ring is welded at one end to the opposite face of the disk and at the other end to another metallic base fitted with a central variable-capacitance diode. Flexible connections bonded to the diodes are clamped between the rings and the disk. The module may be incorporated in a tunable oscillator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1985
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventor: Michel Heitzmann
  • Patent number: 4468633
    Abstract: A typical coaxial circuit which couples a negative resistance diode to the cavity of a power combiner consists of a metallic rod which is biased by a spring against the diode supported by a carrier which is effective to vary the position of the diode along the longitudinal axis of the rod. The rod cooperates with bores in a block to comprise, in series, between the diode and the cavity, a transmission line whose length varies in accordance with diode position, a fixed impedance transformer and a fixed length transmission line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1984
    Assignee: The Bendix Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald L. Chilluffo, Gary D. Kelpien
  • Patent number: 4380744
    Abstract: An oscillator including, a parametric amplifier which has three branches at the terminals of a non-linear capacitor C(V). In the pump branch there is a negative resistance dipole (D) which is able to oscillate at frequency f.sub.p. One of the two other branches is matched to a resonant circuit (C.sub.s) exhibiting a high Q factor at frequency f.sub.s, and the other branch is matched to a load impedance, namely that of resonant circuit (C.sub.o) at frequency f.sub.o .multidot.(f.sub.o =f.sub.p -f.sub.s). A high level output signal f.sub.o is thus provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1983
    Assignee: Thomson - CSF
    Inventor: Gerard Kantorowicz
  • Patent number: 4376917
    Abstract: A solid-state cyclotron maser for generating low power (1 watt or less) signals in the submillimeter frequency range (300 GHz-30,000 GHz) includes an accelerating region, a drift region, and a metal grid therebetween. Both regions are formed from semiconductor material, such as indium antimonide, having non-parabolic energy bands. The drift region is a thin disc having metallized outer surfaces, but includes an annular opening in the metal on the front side and a circular opening in the metal on the back side, and is grounded. A grid of metal rings is placed on the annular opening of the drift region. The accelerating region is a hollow cylinder having a metallized front surface. It couples to the drift region for covering the annular opening and the grid. A negative bias voltage is applied to the accelerating region and a magnetic field is applied to the maser at an angle to the axis of the maser. Electrons propagate in spiral trajectories through the accelerating region, grid and drift region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1983
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Achintya K. Ganguly, Kenneth L. Davis, Kwo R. Chu
  • Patent number: 4358759
    Abstract: A microwave generating and receiving module generates and transmits a microwave signal which is reflected by a moving target and received back by the module. The module comprises a disc-form Baritt diode BD1 or Gunn diode acting as both oscillator and mixer and forming part of microstrip circuitry and signal processing circuitry which processes the reflected signal to extract relevant target information. The signal processing circuitry can be physically displaced from the module and connected to it by a coaxial line. By operating the diode in the diplex mode the requisite target information can be provided for with a compact construction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1982
    Assignee: The Queens University of Belfast
    Inventors: James A. C. Stewart, Brian M. Armstrong, Harold S. Gamble, John Mallon, Fabian C. Monds, William D. Ryan, James Wakefield
  • Patent number: 4352115
    Abstract: A semiconducting diode utilizing the transit time of electrical charge carriers in a semiconductor medium, having an input structure formed by a matrix of micropoints, said matrix consisting of a plurality of microscopic contacts separated by an insulating layer. The diameter of each contact is of the order of 0.5 to 5 micrometers, the distance between the closest contacts being of the order of 0.5 to 15 micrometers. The contacts are made of metal or of an alloy of low resistivity or of a semiconductor material generally doped more heavily than the layer of the semiconductor lying under the microscopic contact. The result of such a structure is an increase in efficiency attributable to the reduction in avalanche voltage or to a better injection by tunnel effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1982
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Paul C. Moutou, Jacques Montel
  • Patent number: 4317091
    Abstract: A negative semiconductor resistance comprises two separate semiconductor elements of the same conductivity characteristic and with at least three areas of contact of a diameter less than 1.10.sup.-2 cm, a voltage being applied to the semiconductor elements such that it generates an electrical field which is greater than the breakdown field strength at the contact areas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 23, 1982
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-G.m.b.H.
    Inventor: Reinhard Dahlberg
  • Patent number: 4311970
    Abstract: Stabilization on a desired frequency fo of a solid-state oscillator is obtained by means of an additional damping load 6 preventing oscillations outside a narrow band about this frequency. In order to prevent losses in said load, the load in question is cut out at frequency fo by a stop band filter 7 mounted in the transmission line to which is connected the oscillator, a negative resistance diode 4, arranged in series with the load and terminated on a reactive impedance. Realization may be carried out by way of microband technology for devices operating at 10 gigahertz with an output power of several watts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1982
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Alain Bert, Bernard Le Clerc
  • Patent number: 4283689
    Abstract: A microwave oscillator circuit, suitable for use as the local oscillator in beam transmitters, radar systems and satellite TV receivers, comprises an active element (IMPATT, Gunn diode) at one end of a coaxial transmission line which is terminated at its other end by a matched load. At a suitable distance from the diode a high Q transmission cavity resonator is coupled to the transmission line via a first coupling hole.A drawback of such a circuit is that a portion of the oscillator power at the required oscillator frequency f.sub.o is dissipated in the terminal impedance Z.sub.o.This is obviated by coupling the transmission resonant cavity to the transmission line via a second coupling hole (12, FIG. 1 and FIG. 2). The distance between the first and the second coupling hole is 1/4.lambda..
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1981
    Assignee: U.S. Philips Corporation
    Inventor: Hindrik Tjassens
  • Patent number: 4280110
    Abstract: A millimeter wave source, wherein an active diode, for example an avalanche diode, forming the emitter of the source is arranged opposite to a variable capacity diode, so as to have the source frequency-modulated by varying the biassing voltage of the variable capacity diode. In this source, each diode is mounted in a "module" comprising a thermally and electrically conductive support onto which a diode is in contact by one of its electrodes, the other electrode being in contact with a metallization deposited on a thick layer of dielectric material surrounding the diode. Owing to the capacitive coupling between the metallizations of both modules, the source can be frequency-modulated with a high efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1981
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Gerard Cachier, Jean Stevance
  • Patent number: 4270100
    Abstract: The microwave oscillator is formed by a free oscillator 1 coupled with two surface or volume acoustic wave delay lines 9 and 10 connected in series or in parallel and operating by reflection. The first line imposes a delay 2.tau..sub.1, corresponding to one reciprocation, which is a multiple of the delay 2.tau..sub.2 imposed by the second line, and a=.tau.1/.tau.2 is preferably equal to 2 or 3. Application to oscillators operating at ultra-high frequencies, particularly in the L-band.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1981
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventors: Jean-Pierre Bergero, Yves Charlet, Philippe Leschaeve
  • Patent number: 4189652
    Abstract: An optical parametric oscillator is disclosed in which the resonant radiation is separated from the pump and output radiation so that it can be manipulated without interfering with them. Thus, for example, very narrow band output may readily be achieved by passing the resonant radiation through a line narrowing device which does not in itself interfere with either the pump radiation or the output radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Nicholas J. Levinos, George P. Arnold
  • Patent number: 4185253
    Abstract: A temperature sensitive thyristor is incorporated in a relaxation oscillator to provide active temperature sensing. As temperature decreases, the breakover voltage V.sub.BO of the thyristor increases, and when V.sub.BO becomes greater than the supply voltage, oscillations will cease, thus providing a low temperature alarm point. As temperature increases, V.sub.BO decreases and the amplitude of oscillation diminishes, thus providing a high temperature alarm point. This is a "fail-safe" arrangement because component failure also provides a warning condition (absence of oscillation). Frequency of oscillation may also be sensed as an indication of temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1980
    Assignee: Eaton Corporation
    Inventors: Robert W. Lade, Stanley V. Jaskolski, Gordon B. Spellman, Herman P. Schutten
  • Patent number: 4180751
    Abstract: Improved mode-locked optical parametric oscillator apparatus comprises a mode-locked pump laser having a cavity with a predetermined effective length l.sub.p and a parametric oscillator having a nonlinear crystal, such as lithium niobate (LiNbO.sub.3), and singly resonant mirrors spaced apart by an effective distance l.sub.o which is substantially less than l.sub.p, i.e., l.sub.p .apprxeq.nl.sub.o where n.apprxeq.5-50. The interaction of the mode-locked pump output with the nonlinear crystal produces parametric outputs at signal (f.sub.s) and idler (f.sub.i) frequencies, the parametric oscillator mirrors being singly resonant at one of those two frequencies. The parametric oscillator may be disposed either externally of or within the pump cavity and the pump laser optionally may be Q-switched.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1979
    Assignee: GTE Sylvania Incorporated
    Inventor: Eugene O. Ammann
  • Patent number: 4176366
    Abstract: An avalanche diode of the IMPact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) type with heterojunction structure of two different semiconductor materials, wherein a semiconductor junction P/N or N/P is located at the interface of the two materials. In order to improve the efficiency of the diode functioning as an oscillator, the impurity concentrations of the semiconductors are chosen so that the avalanche zone is located in one and only one of the materials, the thickness of the materials being determined in conjunction with the impurity concentrations to have transit zones of equal length, thus producing a "double drift" avalanche zone. In the case of Ge/Ga As the condition to be fulfilled by the impurity concentration K.sub.1 of Ge and the impurity concentration K.sub.2 of Ga AS is very simple:K.sub.1 =2/3K.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1979
    Assignee: Thomson-CSF
    Inventor: Daniel Delagebeaudeuf
  • Patent number: 4172240
    Abstract: An improved solid state transmitter (and elements therefor) adapted particularly well to pulsed operation at radio frequencies is disclosed. Such transmitter includes the combination of: A crystal-controlled oscillator producing a continuous wave output signal which, ultimately, determines the frequency of each transmitted pulse; a first oscillatory circuit, including a resonant cavity and at least one normally quiescent coaxial oscillator incorporating an IMPATT diode; a second oscillatory circuit, including a resonant cavity and a plurality of normally quiescent coaxial oscillators, each one of such oscillators incorporating an IMPATT diode; and an improved modulator for periodically actuating all of the IMPATT diodes in such a manner that a pulsed output of the first oscillatory circuit is produced which remains locked to the then existing continuous wave signal out of the crystal-controlled oscillator and the pulsed outputs of the coaxial oscillators in the second oscillatory circuit similarly are locked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1977
    Date of Patent: October 23, 1979
    Assignee: Raytheon Company
    Inventor: George Jerinic