Abstract: An accelerometer is included within the confined space and limited volume of a distal portion of a surgical instrument. The surgical instrument includes an end component, a joint coupled to the end component, a shaft coupled to the joint, and a force transducer and accelerometer apparatus. The force transducer and accelerometer apparatus is coupled between the joint and the shaft. The force transducer and accelerometer apparatus includes a force sensor and an accelerometer. The accelerometer includes an optic fiber having a Fiber Bragg Grating. Information acquired from the Fiber Bragg Grating is used to drive a vibro-tactile haptic feedback output device coupled to a master control arm surgeon grip.
November 13, 2014
Date of Patent:
November 14, 2017
Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.
Stephen J. Blumenkranz, Lawton N. Verner
Abstract: A hybrid sensor which is comprised of an acceleration sensor for detecting acceleration based on a temperature distribution of a predetermined gas hermetically enclosed within a fluid-tight space, and an angular velocity sensor for detecting angular velocity based on a deviation of a flow of a predetermined gas. The acceleration sensor and the angular velocity sensor are formed in one piece by the use of semiconductor processing technology in such a manner that the acceleration sensor and the angular velocity sensor are formed on a plurality of semiconductor substrates, and then the plurality of semiconductor substrates are superposed one upon another and united into a laminate.
Abstract: A force sensor is provided which incorporates a pressure transducer disposed within a housing structure. A force transmitting means, such as a shaft slidable within an opening, is provided to communicate force from an external source to a diaphragm of a pressure sensor. An elastomeric conductor is disposed between electronic components on the diaphragm of a pressure sensor die and conductive leads that are used to communicate signals from the pressure sensor die to components external to the present invention. In certain preferred embodiments, the present invention provides a preselected quantity of resilient material between a first end of the slidable shaft and the diaphragm of the pressure sensor die. Other embodiments place the first end of the shaft in direct contact with the diaphragm.
Abstract: The position sensor of the present invention includes a pair of elongated conducting members disposed in a parallel arrangement and a conducting metallic ball or mercury drop freely movable following the pair of elongated conducting members while maintaining a simultaneous contact with the pair of elongated conducting members, which combination provides two electric circuits respectively including a first circuit including a first poriton of the two elongated conducting members and the contact provided by the metallic ball or mercury drop, and a second electric circuit including the second portion of the two elongated conducting members and the same contact, wherein the metallic ball or mercury drop divides the combination of the two elongated conducting members into the first and second portions.
Abstract: A square diaphragm formed of monocrystalline silicon and integrally attached to a silicon frame surrounding the diaphragm at its four edges. A serpentine resistor is diffused into the surface of the diaphragm adjacent each of the edges and the resistors are connected in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. The frame of the diaphragm is anodically bonded to a pyrex base member so that all four edges of the diaphragm are fixed relative to the base member and each other. The volume between the base member and the diaphragm is vented to prevent any differential pressure from occurring on the diaphragm.
Abstract: A piezoresistive acceleration sensing transducer is disclosed which enables low cost microcircuit construction of accelerometers. A silicon wafer is etched to form individual acceleration sensing elements each of which includes a mass ring suspended from a diaphragm and mounted to a center pedestal support portion. A plurality of piezoresistive strain gauges are located on the diaphragm about the periphery of the pedestal portion and are positioned to form a circuit for sensing strain produced in the diaphragm by movement of the mass ring in response to acceleration. A pair of temperature sensors are located in a zero-stress area of the diaphragm to compensate for temperature effects. In one embodiment, the gauges are coupled in a bridge circuit to provide a measure of acceleration in one axis only. In another embodiment, the mass ring is modified to locate its center of mass above the plane of the diaphragm so that the mass ring responds to acceleration in three axes.
Abstract: An accelerometer sensor comprises an electrical resistor body disposed win a housing and including compacted interleavings of insulating sheet material coated with electrically-conductive particles imparting to the body a high electrical resistivity in the axial direction, which resistivity decreases with the degree of compaction of the body in the axial direction; and a mass movable within the housing in response to acceleration and effective to apply pressure to the resistor body in the axial direction to further compact same and thereby to decrease its axial resistivity.
June 13, 1977
Date of Patent:
September 19, 1978
Ben Gurion University of the Negev Research & Development Authority
Abstract: A transducer or accelerometer employs at least one slot or gap located in a seismic mass of a block-like configuration. The relative displacement of the opposing faces of the block, due to the slot, is monitored by means of a shim or similar metallic member, which spans the slot. Secured to the shim is a piezoresistive strain gage whose size and dimensions become relatively independent of the dimension of the slot, therefore enabling accurate and reliable strain detection without attendant temperature problems.