Liquid Resistance Element Patents (Class 338/80)
  • Patent number: 6844806
    Abstract: A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 18, 2005
    Assignee: Southeastern Universities Research Assn., Inc.
    Inventor: Monty Ray Lehmann
  • Patent number: 6696964
    Abstract: A device for monitoring the filling of a bag (10) comprises a resistor element to be mounted on the outside surface of the bag, the resistor element being a flexible potentiometer (20), the resistance whereof being changed by bending of the potentiometer due to increasing bulging of the bag wall under continuing filling of the bag. The flexible potentiometer can be connected to an alarm device (24) reacting at a predetermined resistance value of the resistor element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Crafcare AB
    Inventor: Ola HÃ¥kansson
  • Publication number: 20030174042
    Abstract: There are provided a point contact array, in which a plurality of point contacts are arranged, each point contact electrically and reversibly controlling conductance between electrodes and being applicable to an arithmetic circuit, a logic circuit, and a memory device, a NOT circuit, and an electronic circuit using the same.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2003
    Publication date: September 18, 2003
    Inventors: Masakazu Aono, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Kazuya Terabe, Tomonobu Nakayama
  • Patent number: 6525642
    Abstract: A self-regenerating liquid metal current limiter including solid metal electrodes for connection to an electric circuit to be protected and several compression chambers which are partially filled with liquid metal. The compression chambers are located one behind the other between the electrodes and are formed by pressure-resistant insulating bodies and by partition walls with connecting channels that are supported by the insulating bodies. The partition walls are provided with a plurality of connecting channels that are not arranged in a generally concent arrangement with respect to a substantially horizontal longitudinal axis of the current limiter, the axis extending in a direction perpendicular to the partition walls. The current limiter provides for various positions of use corresponding to a position of rotation of the current limiter about its longitudinal axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2003
    Assignee: Moeller GmbH
    Inventors: Wolfgang Kremers, Andreas Kraetzschmar, Frank Berger
  • Publication number: 20020096207
    Abstract: Producing a photovoltaic panel, including forming holes in a first electrode plate, fitting, in the holes, photovoltaic elements, each having a P-N junction between a core and a shell, electrically connecting a first portion of the shell of each photovoltaic element to the first electrode plate, removing one second portion of the shell of each photovoltaic element located on both sides of the first portion of the shell, so that a third portion of the core of the each photovoltaic element that corresponds to the one second portion of the shell is exposed, and electrically connecting the third portion of the core of each photovoltaic element to a second electrode plate, wherein electrically connecting the first portion and electrically connecting the third portion includes soldering, a corresponding one of the first portion and the third portion to a corresponding one of the first electrode plate and the second electrode plate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2002
    Publication date: July 25, 2002
    Applicant: Fuji Machine MFG. Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koichi Asai, Yasuo Muto, Kazuya Suzuki
  • Patent number: 5767413
    Abstract: A gauge for measuring a dimensional change, such as a change in the periphery of a test object, is an elastomeric tube filled with an electrically conductive fluid such as mercury. The gauge can be formed into a loop around the test object. Thereafter, any change in, e.g. the circumference of the test object is monitored by measuring the change in resistance (or voltage) between the ends of the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Valerie D. Dombrowski, Lon M. Stevens, Boyd D. Bryner
  • Patent number: 5593949
    Abstract: Method and arrangement for detecting the level of a liquid cryogen having a predetermined boiling point and which is being held in a container relative to the bottom of the container. The arrangement includes a container which receives the liquid cryogen and a longitudinal extending sensing member having a length extending from the bottom of the container to a level that is greater than any depth experienced for the liquid cryogen. The sensing member is vertically disposed in the container with one end in contact with the bottom of the container and the other end extending out of the liquid cryogen. The sensing member is composed of a high temperature superconductor material having a critical temperature that is higher than the predetermined boiling point of a selected cryogen. An electrical current is passed through the sensing member and the voltage drop across the sensing member is measured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1997
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Eddie M. Leung, Kenneth R. Dawson
  • Patent number: 5393736
    Abstract: A cryogenic fluid level sensor utilizing a high temperature ceramic superconductor material driven above its level of critical current density, an exterior housing for holding the length of ceramic superconductor material, a support material disposed between the ceramic superconductor material and the exterior housing, and a resilient retention material disposed opposite the ceramic superconductor material for holding the superconductor material while allowing expansion and contraction thereof during thermal cycling. A method of producing a superconductor material having a low level of critical current density and favorable structural properties is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1995
    Assignee: Illinois Superconductor Corporation
    Inventors: James D. Hodge, Lori J. Klemptner, Justin Whitney
  • Patent number: 5315162
    Abstract: An electrochemical synapse adapted for use in a neural network which includes an input terminal and an output terminal located at a distance of less than 100 microns from the input terminal. A permanent interconnect having controllable conductivity is located between the two inputs. The conductivity of the permanent interconnect is controlled by either growing or eliminating metallic whiskers between the inputs. The growth and elimination of whiskers provides a rapid and controllable electrochemical synapse. Partial neural network systems are disclosed utilizing the electrochemical synapse.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1994
    Assignee: Hughes Aircraft Company
    Inventors: John McHardy, Carl W. Townsend, Lin R. Higley, Frank A. Ludwig
  • Patent number: 5250924
    Abstract: A power supply testing system for non-utility power generators, etc. includes a test tank filled with a resistive liquid; a main electrode housed within the test tank to receive power from a non-utility power generator to be tested; a movable insulator member interposed between the main electrode and the test tank to regulate the amount of power supplied from the main electrode to the tank; and a piping system for cooling or filtering the resistive liquid within the test tank and returning it to the test tank, thereby recycling the resistive liquid. The main electrode is supported at an upper portion of the test tank and depends therefrom, and the piping system includes an inlet pipe located above the test tank for feeding the resistive liquid into the test tank, while power is supplied through said inlet pipe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1993
    Assignee: Tatsumi Corporation
    Inventor: Toyoshi Kondoh
  • Patent number: 5114907
    Abstract: A cryogenic level sensor assembly. A sensor assembly includes a continuous length of high temperature ceramic superconductor material, an exterior housing for holding the length of ceramic superconductor material, a support material disposed between the ceramic superconductor material and the exterior housing, and a resilient retention material disposed opposite the ceramic superconductor material for holding the superconductor material while allowing expansion and contraction thereof during thermal cycling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1992
    Assignee: Illinois Superconductor Corporation
    Inventors: Lewis Erwin, Keith Crandell, Justin Whitney
  • Patent number: 5097248
    Abstract: An electrode for level detection includes a detection electrode including conductor portions and resistor portions arranged and formed one after the other in a level change direction. An insulating coating layer is formed on either each conductor portion or each resistor portion. The insulating coating layer may be of a film having a property to repel a liquid to be measured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akira Kumada, Kenji Matsuo, Michihiro Murata
  • Patent number: 5001928
    Abstract: A level detecting resistor (Rd) is inserted into a liquid (5) and has a length immersed in the liquid. The level detecting resistor (Rd) is supplied a constant current (Id) from a constant current source (1). The voltage drop (Vd) developed across the level detecting resistor (Rd) is supplied to a non-inverting input terminal of a differential input amplifier (OP1, R1-R4). The output (Vo) of the differential input amplifier is then divided by a series-circuit of a temperature compensating resistor (Rc) and a resistor (R5). The divided voltage (Va) across the resistor (R5) is fed back via a voltage follower (OP2) to the non-inverting input terminal of the differential input amplifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1991
    Assignee: Yazaki Corporation
    Inventor: Kazuyoshi Ogasawara
  • Patent number: 4959525
    Abstract: A heating apparatus for heating an electrically conductive flowable medium includes a pipe having a conductivity no greater than that of the medium and a pair of electrodes projecting in a cantilever fashion into the pipe at spaced locations therealong and each having a noble metal plated surface exposed to the flowable medium. Each electrode is sealed to the wall of the pipe with a flat-faced aspetic seal formed between a flat end face of the elctrode and a cooperating flat face on the pipe wall. The electrodes may be hollow, fluid cooled and have a rounded free end made of an electrically non-conducting material on which is mounted a temperature or pressure sensor. The exposed electrode surface may be partially coated with an electrically insulative material to confine heating current flow to a particular surface portion of the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 25, 1990
    Assignees: Electricity Association Services Limited, APV U.K. Limited
    Inventors: Robert Stirling, Steven A. Coombes
  • Patent number: 4949064
    Abstract: A membrane of an ionic pendant-containing, water-insoluble copolymeric poly(amino acid) composed of a first moiety derived from a first amino acid which gives a water-soluble poly (amino acid) with ionic groups of carboxyl and/or amino groups as the pendants to the molecule, e.g., glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine and ornithine, and a second moiety derived from a second amino acid which gives a water-insoluble poly (amino acid), e.g., leucine, alanine and methionine, in a specified molar proportion serves as a functional element of an electronic device such as a non-linear resistor capable of working in an aqueous medium and exhibiting a non-linear voltage-current relationship or a phenomenon of hysteresis in the voltage/current scanning.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: Japan as represented by Director General of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Norihiko Minoura, Kei Urabe, Seiichi Aiba, Kazuhiro Taguchi, Yukihiko Fujiwara
  • Patent number: 4945257
    Abstract: A device provides an electrically settable resistance and comprises first and second electrodes. Each electrode comprises a redox active material. The device further comprises means defining an environment for each electrode such that the average redox state of the electrodes, taken together, remains substantially constant. The environment-defining means includes an electrolyte between the electrodes. The device further comprises a pair of terminals electrically connected to the first electrode at spaced-apart locations, the electrically settable resistance being defined between the pair of terminals and being a function of the oxidation state of the first electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1990
    Assignee: Maxdem Incorporated
    Inventor: Matthew L. Marrocco, III
  • Patent number: 4939500
    Abstract: The water rheostat has a main electrode unit including the main electrode shaped as a hollow cylinder and provided with an electrode water inlet port in the top of the hemispherical upper end portion of the electrode, electrode water outlet ports at equal intervals at the bottom of the electrode along the total circumference of the electrode. A sleeve resistant to arc discharge is fitted in the circular recess of the top portion of the support the main electrode unit so that the sleeve is in contact with the inside circumferential surface of the top portion and a circumferential gap is defined between the bottom of the main electrode and the inside circumferential surface of the top portion of the support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1990
    Assignee: Kouken Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kesafumi Matsumoto
  • Patent number: 4871000
    Abstract: A method of continuous measurement of the depth of fill of a radioactive ss melt flowing from a melting furnace or from a storage container into a chill mold (special steel receiver) consists in measuring the electrical resistance of the flowing jet stream. From the measured electrical resistance, which is proportional to the length of the jet of molten glass, the length of the stream of molten glass is determined. The length is a measure of the depth of fill. It decreases with increasing depth of fill. In an apparatus for the performance of the method the jet of molten glass is part of an electrical circuit which includes a current measuring instrument connected to an evaluator unit. The method and the apparatus enable the measurement of the depth of fill with the lowest outlay and the possibility of performing redundant diversionary measurements, whereby a high degree of availability may be achieved. Work of operation by hand on the chill mold is not impeded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 3, 1989
    Assignee: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Wiederaufarbeitung von Kernbrennstoffen mbH
    Inventor: Harald Ritter
  • Patent number: 4804936
    Abstract: A highly reliable bilge pump control system which distinguishes between oil and water and operates without a mechanical float switch. It uses a conductivity type probe of special construction which is unaffected by sludge and contamination at the oil-water interface. Multiple probes at varying depths feed high impedance operational amplifiers which operate a conventional pump through digital circuitry which assures that no oil is pumped from the bilge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1989
    Assignee: Saler Electronic Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronald G. S. Sale
  • Patent number: 4792777
    Abstract: An output controller for low-frequency treatment device for use in a bath, comprising a low-frequency oscillator; a variable water resistor having fixed terminals connected with the output terminal of the low-frequency oscillator; and an active electrode connected with the sliding terminal of the variable water resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1988
    Assignee: Ken Hayachibara
    Inventor: Kazumi Masaki
  • Patent number: 4730098
    Abstract: A heating device for an electrically conductive fluid, such as water, has a vessel with a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A plurality of closely spaced parallel electrode plates within a container having holes therein and a plurality of wall structures within the vessel between the electrode plates cooperate with the vessel walls and the holes in the electrode plates to define a number of fluid passages which extend alongside each other transversely through the plates. The passages are successively interconnected to each other in series and to the inlet and outlet so that the fluid introduced therein flows along the passages backwards and forwards in the opposite directions through the plates to the outlets. The heating device also has electrical terminals for connection to a source of power with alternate electrodes being connected to different terminals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Inventor: Norman M. Cave
  • Patent number: 4691187
    Abstract: The invention comprises a variable linear resistor. It comprises a first plate having a recessed area cut into one face and a second plate parallel to and facing the face of the first plate with the recessed area. A length of elastic tubing is disposed in the recessed area. The distance between the two plates is adjustable, and this allows for the compression of the elastic tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: George Mon
  • Patent number: 4633066
    Abstract: An electric water heating receptacle is provided with an anode member and a cathode member arranged in spaced juxtaposed relationship and connected to an electric power source such that water in the receptacle is heated by current flowing through the water from the anode member to the cathode member. The anode member has separate major and minor portions which are initially both connected to the power source in a "high mode" of operation to rapidly heat the water in the receptacle to a predetermined temperature. Upon attainment of the predetermined temperature, a thermostat responsive to the water temperature disconnects the major portion of the anode leaving only the minor portion energized in a "low mode" of operation intended to maintain the water substantially at the predetermined temperature. Should the water temperature drop below the predetermined temperature, the thermostat reconnects the major anode portion for operation in the "high mode" to reestablish the predetermined water temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 30, 1986
    Inventor: Tien-Song Chang
  • Patent number: 4577091
    Abstract: The electrical steam generator has a pressure vessel in which pairs of trays are disposed one above the other on a vertical riser. The bottom tray of each pair of trays is electrically insulated from the pressure vessel wall and is connected to a power supply while the top trays of each tray pair are electrically connected to the pressure vessel wall through the riser. The trays each have a peripheral overflow edge and are disposed so that water flows over the overflow edge in the form of a film or curtain from the uppermost tray to the tray therebeneath in an alternating manner from the outer peripheral edge to the inner peripheral edge. The generator provides for an increase in the steam generator output for a given tray size. The top tray of each pair of trays may be shaped to have an outer peripheral overflow edge and the bottom tray of each pair may have an inner peripheral overflow edge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 18, 1986
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventor: Albert Kunzli
  • Patent number: 4575613
    Abstract: An electrical steam generator includes a plurality of spaced trays disposed in a vertical axis within a pressure vessel defining a steam generating chamber. Alternate trays are electrically connected to the pressure vessel while the other trays are electrically insulated therefrom. Each tray has an overflow over which sump a film of water flows downwardly into the next lower tray to sump in the vessel below the trays and from which water is pumped to the uppermost tray. The other trays and vessel are connected to an electrical power source. Each tray is provided with a flat horizontally disposed stilling element at the overflow to calm the water in the tray, a perforated vertical water and steam permeable stilling wall upstream of the overflow and a vertical water impermeable shielding wall downstream of and spaced from the overflow. The spacing of the shielding wall provides a gap with a horizontal dimension greater than the maximum expected thickness of the film of water flowing out of the respective tray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1986
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventor: Albert Kunzli
  • Patent number: 4510483
    Abstract: A variable level liquid rheostat having a tubular overflow member between a starting chamber and a tank for controlling the level of electrolyte in the starting chamber. The overflow member has a closed upper end inside the starting chamber and lateral discharge orifices and communicates with the electrolyte in the tank. The overflow member produces a siphoning effect when the electrolyte level in the starting chamber is substantially above the discharge orifices for causing a sudden drop of the level in the starting chamber until the electrolyte level in the starting chamber again reaches the discharge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 9, 1985
    Assignee: Electricite de France Service National
    Inventor: Michel Bensadoun
  • Patent number: 4463248
    Abstract: A cool-running noiseless, non-spitting electric steam vaporizer has a liquid container with a top opening closed by a cap having a steam outlet and a vent opening. An inner housing cooperates with the cap to define a steam collection space communicating with the steam outlet and includes a depending heating chamber communicating with the steam collection space and surrounding a pair of electrodes extending into the container from the cap. An opening between the steam collection space and the container allows excess steam produced during periods of rapid boiling to flow to the container. An isolated conduit extending through the steam collection space from the container interior to the vent opening allows the excess steam to be exhausted without noise or spitting. An insulative double walled outer housing surrounds the heating chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1984
    Assignee: Kaz Manufacturing Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence Katzman, Edward Briggin
  • Patent number: 4439669
    Abstract: An electrode-type water heater or steam generator constructed from only three different manufactured parts includes an electrically non-conductive housing formed from a pair of complementary identical open-face housing sections. The housing sections each have a plurality of spaced grooves on the interior surface thereof and a port in one end wall. One of the housing sections is inverted and secured face-to-face to the other housing section to form a hollow housing having an inlet port in one end, an outlet port in its other end and a series of spaced, parallel, continuous grooves on its inner surface. A plurality of identical disk-shaped carbon electrodes are each supported in a different one of the continuous grooves and are apertured to allow flow of water through the housing from the inlet port to the outlet port.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1984
    Inventor: Louis Ryffel
  • Patent number: 4347429
    Abstract: An electrode boiler containing an aqueous electrolyte is provided with a pair of spaced electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and connected to an AC power source. Each electrode comprises an electrically conductive metal substrate having adhered to one face thereof a microporous electrochemically active mass comprising a reversible electrode couple covering essentially the entire face and being present in such quantity that at least some of each member of the electrode couple is present at all times during use. The electrodes are arranged with the active masses facing each other and in contact with the electrolyte. The electrode couple consists essentially of a material which is electrochemically reversibly oxidized and reduced in response to alternating current flow therethrough from one electrode to the other; thereby allowing high current density use without promoting corrosion or erosion of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1979
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Fritz G. Will
  • Patent number: 4338510
    Abstract: An electrode type steam vaporizer device is disclosed which includes a plurality of ferrite electrodes positioned in a water receptacle wherein AC voltage is applied to the electrodes thereby vaporizing water in the receptacle. Each of the ferrite electrodes is a sintered body made of a mixture of iron oxide and a divalent nickel oxide. The ferrite electrodes are contained in an electrode assembly located within the body of the water receptacle such that a pair of electrode terminals extend through the top wall of the receptacle. A cover having a power source connector receiving concavity in its surface is positioned on top on the water receptacle. The cover is rotatable between a first position where the concavity is in registry with the electrode terminals and a second position where the concavity is out of registry with the terminals. A power source connector is received in the concavity and is connectable with the electrode terminals only when the cover is in the first position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1982
    Assignee: TDK Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masao Chihara, Shigeo Araki, Kazuhiko Asakawa
  • Patent number: 4330439
    Abstract: The electric device according to the present invention has as its constituents the insulating materials and elements comprising films of synthetic resin, for instance, polypropylene, impregnated with 1-phenyl-2-ethylphenylethane and/or 1-phenyl-2-isopropylphenylethane.According to the present invention, insulating oils having favorable compatibility with the film of synthetic resin such as polypropylene and favorable affinity to metals and having low viscosity have been provided, and in addition, electric devices excellent in properties of withstanding a high voltage and dielectric properties in a broad range of temperature from a low temperature to a high temperature have also been offered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1980
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1982
    Assignees: Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Nissin Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Mineaki Nishimatsu, Sadayoshi Mukai, Yoshinori Hayashi, Osamu Yamaguchi, Akira Ito, Nobuo Ahiko
  • Patent number: 4292498
    Abstract: An electrode assembly for an electrode boiler employing electric current flow between spaced electrode assemblies immersed in an electrically conductive fluid in a boiler vessel for raising the temperature of the fluid includes an upright electrode member having an internal flow passage terminating in outlet slots in the outer peripheral surface of the bottom portion of the electrode member. The conductive fluid is pumped under pressure through the internal passage and exits through the slots into contact with fluid guide vanes on the electrode member and surrounding the bottom portion thereof. The guide vanes, which may be cupped-shaped or curved, are arranged in the path of the fluid exiting the outlet slots and create fluid circulation adjacent to outer peripheral surface of the electrode member to remove steam bubbles therefrom for the prevention of detrimental arcing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1981
    Assignee: Kewanee Boiler Corporation
    Inventor: Mohammad A. Rouf
  • Patent number: 4288683
    Abstract: An electrode boiler has a pair of boiler electrodes defining a volume therebetween to be filled with electrolyte to be heated by electrical current passage between the electrodes through the electrolyte. A porous insulating matrix is confined by a pair of porous insulating support walls between but spaced apart from said electrodes in the volume occupied by said electrolyte. The space between said walls is filled with a plurality of insulating members, thereby providing paths exhibiting increased resistance to electrical current flow relative to the electrical resistance of the electrolyte located between said electrodes and said support walls in the direction perpendicular to said support walls. The insulating members may comprise spheres, pellets or cylindrical rods or tubes made of glass, polymeric material, ceramics or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1979
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1981
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Fritz G. Will
  • Patent number: 4260874
    Abstract: A pair of boiler electrodes defines a volume therebetween to be filled with electrolyte to be heated by electrical current passage between the electrodes through the electrolyte. A microporous insulating barrier permeable to the electrolyte is disposed between the electrodes to limit current flow in the electrical current path between the electrodes to a level within the maximum allowable range of the electrode material, the barrier being spaced from the surface of the electrodes at least sufficiently to prevent concentration of current on the electrode surfaces. The barrier includes channels in the vertical direction to accommodate steam removal from the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1981
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Fritz G. Will
  • Patent number: 4206342
    Abstract: An electrode steam generator of the type wherein water is directed in free fall from a water distribution device in a stream onto an electrode to generate steam employs a horizontal dish-shaped water distribution device having a circular rim defining a dam to cause a shroud of water to fall onto an electrode of either S-shaped transverse cross section or onto an annular electrode having a convex curvature. The water distribution device receives water from a load proportional supply means and the water overflows the dam in unthrottled manner for all loads of the steam generator. The rim defining the dam is rounded in a downward direction with the curvature thereof extending in each radial plane up to a point with an approximately vertical tangent. A portion of the water falling on the electrode is diverted to provide a gap to allow the release of steam generated within the water shroud.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1980
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventor: Albert Kuenzli
  • Patent number: 4163895
    Abstract: An electrolytic water heater is provided which has general utility for heating and boiling water, or other electrically conductive solutions, by passing an electric current through the solution. The heater includes a housing composed of electrically nonconductive material, whose interior is divided by a common wall into two separate chambers. An opening is provided in the common wall of restricted dimensions which may be in the form of a slot in the upper edge of the wall, and the solution in the two chambers extends into the opening to complete an electrical path through the solution in the two chambers. Two electrodes are respectively mounted in the chambers in contact with the solution in the two chambers. An electric voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce a current flow through the solution, so as to heat the solution in the opening in the common wall to the boiling point, without producing cavitation in the solution in the vicinity of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1979
    Inventors: Stephen G. Hauser, John G. Bowen
  • Patent number: 4121090
    Abstract: The water distribution device is dish-shaped to receive a flow of water from a load-proportional supply means and defines a dam to permit the water to overflow in unthrottled manner for all loads and to fall onto the electrode below the distributing device. The dam may be defined by slots in the bottom of the distributing device such as Y-shaped slots or slots of involute shape. The dam may also be defined by the rim of the device and in this case is rounded or serrated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1978
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventor: Albert Kuenzli
  • Patent number: 4109137
    Abstract: The electrodes of the steam generator are each formed as a horizontally extending disk to receive descending water jets from a distribution chamber above the electrode as well as with openings to direct water jets downwardly onto a collecting grid. The current flows from the electrodes through the water jets to evaporate part of the water to steam. Movable interceptors are also mounted in the vessel to intercept the water jets for partial loads. Suitable means are also provided for selectively moving the interceptors into the path of the water jets at partial loads.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1978
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Ltd.
    Inventor: Jaroslav Zabelka
  • Patent number: 4101758
    Abstract: An electric steam generator includes a vessel housing at least one dish-shaped electrode having a bottom with a plurality of openings. A water distribution means is spaced above each electrode and provides a plurality of water jets which impinge on the electrode. The water distribution means is movable relative to the electrode to adjust the number of jets which impinge on the electrode. A stationary collecting means is provided between the water distribution means and the electrode for intercepting the excess water. Each collecting means is also located out of vertical alignment with the respective electrode. The distribution means are fixed to a rotatable pipe which serves to move the distribution means and through which water can be fed to the distribution means. A collecting grid is disposed below each of the electrodes to collect the water jets issuing from the opening in the bottom of each electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1978
    Assignee: Cam Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Brinton Sprague
  • Patent number: 4093846
    Abstract: An electrode boiler of the type in which each electrode is located in a steam generating compartment surrounded by a control compartment and the boiler load is regulated by transfer of water between these compartments. A manifold is mounted at the top of each steam generating compartment and is connected to a source of electrical energy. Water received by the manifold is formed into multi-jets that are directed downwardly in the steam generating compartment. The rate of steam generation is controlled, in part, by the height of water in the steam generating compartment. In one embodiment, the jets are directed inwardly to converge adjacent the center bottom of the chamber. In another embodiment, the jets are directed vertically downward and may be reformed at an intermediate point of their travel. Water is removed from the boiler and pumped to the manifolds. Normally this water is mixed with other water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1976
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1978
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Milton Eaton
  • Patent number: 4052586
    Abstract: The steam generator is provided with electrodes each of which is constructed with at least one longitudinally slotted tube into which a plate is placed in order to deflect incoming water from a central source tangentially into the tube. The deflecting plate is secured against one side of the slot and projects into the electrode tube to form an opening into the tube interior and has a free end within the tube. A trough collects excess water below the plate for delivery into the tube. The delivered water flows in a helical path within the tube while being heated to steam. The water discharge nozzles in the base of the electrode are partitioned so that water flows continuously and evenly from the electrode to prevent arcing below the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1975
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1977
    Assignee: Sulzer Brothers Limited
    Inventor: Alfred Brunner
  • Patent number: 4009462
    Abstract: A fast actuating water resistor of high power, especially for use in thermal power plants for transient assumption of loads in the event of a rapid reduction in load in the electrical system supplied by the plant or faults within the system includes a low-pressure steam boiler containing a pressurized hot highly conductive aqueous solution such as brine which is ejected from a ring-shaped nozzle producing an annular conical jet spray through a tubular electrode having a truncated conical configuration. The nozzle and electrode are located in a tank which also contains a grounded collecting grid on which the spray impinges after passing through the electrode which is electrically connected to a bus bar lead passing out of the tank to one of the phases of the electrical power system supplied by the plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1975
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1977
    Assignee: BBC Brown Boveri & Company Limited
    Inventor: Felix Bernasconi
  • Patent number: 3935554
    Abstract: In a polyphase liquid rheostat cells for separately accommodating adjustable electrodes with the cells filled with an electrolyte, covered at the top and open at one end face, are formed from electrically nonconducting plastic sheets which are welded together in a liquid tight manner with the welds arranged, at least in the zones which are subject to voltage stresses, so that they are adjacent only to external spaces which are free of liquid thereby preventing an electrical short circuit between cells of different phases in the case of a leak in the welded seam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1976
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Kurt Rabus