With Video Quantizer Patents (Class 342/197)
  • Patent number: 9077869
    Abstract: The invention relates to a new method and system for detection and removal of rain from video using temporal/spatiotemporal properties. Advantageously, the temporal/spatiotemporal properties are involved to separate the rain pixels from the non-rain pixels. It is thus possible by way of the present invention to involve less number of consecutive frames, reducing the buffer size and delay. It works only on the intensity plane which reduces the complexity and execution time significantly along with accurate rain detection. This new technique does not assume the shape, size and velocity of the raindrops which makes it robust to different rain conditions. This method reduces the buffer size which reduces the system cost, delay and power consumption while maintaining sufficient quality of rain detection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2015
    Assignee: Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
    Inventors: Abhishek Kumar Tripathi, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay
  • Patent number: 8717228
    Abstract: This disclosure provides a method of detecting a target object by receiving reflection echoes of detection signals transmitted sequentially from a revolving antenna, and by detecting a target object based on detection data resulted from sampling reception signals at a predetermined time interval. The method comprises temporarily storing the detection data within a predetermined geographical range, and identifying the type of the reflection echo based on a change between values of the detection data at physically-close locations within the predetermined geographical range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: Furuno Electric Company Limited
    Inventor: Koji Nishiyama
  • Patent number: 8354939
    Abstract: A logging system and method for measuring propped fractures and down-hole subterranean formation conditions including: a radar source; an optical source; an optical modulator for modulating an optical signal from the optical source according to a signal from the radar source; a photodiode for converting the modulated optical signal output from the optical modulator to the source radar signal. A transmitter and receiver unit receives the source radar signal from the photodiode and transmits the source radar signal via at least one antenna attached to the casing and in communication with at least one photodiode into the formation and receives a reflected radar signal. A mixer mixes the reflected radar signal with the source radar signal to provide an output. This can describe fractures connected to the wellbore and differentiate between the dimensions of the two vertical wings of a propped fracture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Assignee: Momentive Specialty Chemicals Inc.
    Inventors: Robert R. McDaniel, Michael L. Sheriff, Eric E. Funk, Ethan A. Funk
  • Patent number: 8115673
    Abstract: A UWB RF detector employs a pulsed self-oscillating mixer (SOM) and an output integrator to provide low-noise preamplification, mixing and sampling. The SOM produces short-burst, microwave self-oscillations that are phase-locked to a clock. The self-oscillations are used for mixing. The SOM can also radiate UWB RF pulses. A one-transistor SOM can simultaneously implement both a UWB emitter and a UWB detector in a radar transceiver. A control loop can stabilize the self-oscillations at nanowatt levels. Nanowatt UWB radars and radios can be realized, thereby opening new spectral bands beyond those formally designated for UWB operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2012
    Assignee: McEwan Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Thomas Edward McEwan
  • Patent number: 7940206
    Abstract: A real-time radar surveillance system comprises at least one land-based non-coherent radar sensor apparatus adapted for detecting maneuvering targets and targets of small or low radar cross-section. The radar sensor apparatus includes a marine radar device, a digitizer connected to the marine radar device for receiving therefrom samples of radar video echo signals, and computer programmed to implement a software-configurable radar processor generating target data including detection data and track data, the computer being connectable to a computer network including a database. The processor is figured to transmit at least a portion of the target data over the network to the database, the database being accessible via the network by at least one user application that receives target data from the database, the user application providing a user interface for at least one user of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: Accipiter Radar Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy J. Nohara, Al-Nasir Premji, Andrew M. Ukrainec, Peter T Weber, Graeme S. Jones, Carl E. Krasnor
  • Publication number: 20110032141
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the field active electronic scanning radar systems. It provides an architecture for active antenna radar based on a functional unit, the elementary radar unit. The elementary radar unit comprises all of the functions required for generating N independent radar channels. In this regard, it comprises a radiating face with N radiating elements and means for independently generating the radar waves emitted by each of the radiating elements and all of the functions for receiving the waves picked up by this radiating element, together with the digitization of the video signal obtained after reception. It also comprises local digital processing means allowing the digital signals coming from the N channels to be jointly processed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 31, 2008
    Publication date: February 10, 2011
    Applicant: THALES
    Inventor: Philippe Elleaume
  • Patent number: 7876257
    Abstract: A method compresses synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data by sampling the SAR data into blocks and transforming each block to a corresponding block of transform coefficients. Each block of transform coefficient is quantized according to a quantization parameter to obtain a corresponding block of quantized transform coefficients, which are demultiplexed into sets of blocks of quantized transform coefficients. The quantized transform coefficients in the blocks in each set are arithmetically encoding in parallel according to a probability model to produce an intermediate bitstream for each set of blocks. The encoding of the quantized transform coefficients of one block is independent of the quantized transform coefficients of a successive block. The intermediate of bitstreams are then multiplexed to a compressed bitstream, which can be transmitted, or stored, for subsequent decoding to construct an SAR image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2011
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventors: Anthony Vetro, Shan Liu, Jian Lou, Stephen R. Burgess
  • Patent number: 7847725
    Abstract: A computer software program which plots radar video data on a display screen for viewing by a user in a format that emulates a real display. The radar video data the program plots on the display screen is either recorded radar video data generated by a missile radar video seeker or telemetered radar video data generated by the radar video seeker. The display screen display multiple radar scans of video data in the form of a graph or plot on the display screen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Christian L. Houlberg
  • Patent number: 7847724
    Abstract: A computer software program which plots radar video data on a display screen for viewing by a user in a format that emulates a real display. The radar video data the program plots on the display screen is either recorded radar video data generated by a missile radar video seeker or telemetered radar video data generated by the radar video seeker. The display screen display multiple radar scans of video data in the form of a graph or plot on the display screen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Christian L. Houlberg
  • Patent number: 7737876
    Abstract: In a holographic surveillance system (10) for near real-time imaging of a target (15), a source of RF radiation directs a non-amplified reference beam of pulsed coherent RF electromagnetic radiation toward a target. An array of antennas (31) receives a reflected beam from the target together with a component of the reference beam so as to produce a signal representative of phase and amplitude data of received energy, and a processor (20) processes the signals so as to produce a holographic image for display on a display device coupled to the processor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: Gama-Medica-Ideas (Norway) As
    Inventors: Nikolai Pavlov, Gunnar Maehlum
  • Patent number: 7706978
    Abstract: A method for estimating unknown parameters (pan angle (?), instantaneous tilt angle (?) and road geometry of an upcoming road segment) for a vehicle object detection system. The vehicle object detection system is preferably a forward looking, radar-cued vision system having a camera, a radar sensor and an processing unit. The method first estimates the pan angle (?), then corrects the coordinates from a radar track so that pan angle (?) can be treated as zero, and finally solves a least squares problem that determines best estimates for instantaneous tilt angle (?) and road geometry. Estimating these parameters enables the vehicle object detection system to identify, interpret and locate objects in a more accurate and efficient manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Delphi Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Jan K. Schiffmann, David A. Schwartz
  • Patent number: 7688258
    Abstract: The present disclosure relates to a radio wave receiving system. The system includes an antenna that is operable for receiving a received signal. The received signal contains information. The radio wave receiving system also includes a reference signal generator that is operable for generating a reference signal. In addition, a selective output device is included that is operable for selectively outputting the received signal and the reference signal to a transmission path. The system also includes an information acquiring device that is operable for generating a signal component indicating a signal level difference between the received signal and the reference signal. The information acquiring device is further operable for acquiring the information from the signal component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2010
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventor: Yutaka Aoki
  • Patent number: 7675454
    Abstract: A system for analyzing and displaying radar information comprises: a transmit and receive unit operable to transmit radar signals to a survey volume and to receive radar returned radar signals, a processing unit operable to: receive radar data from the returned radar signals, reduce the data into depth bins, each with a score based on received signal strength, create connections among depth bins based on respective scores, and to eliminate ones of the depth bins that do not meet a threshold number of connections, the system further comprising a display unit operable to create a display of at least a subset of the depth bins that are not eliminated by the processing unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2010
    Assignee: Niitek, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven Lavedas, Ajay Patrikar, Mark Hibbard
  • Patent number: 7646329
    Abstract: A method of detecting a target in a scene comprises the steps of generating a comparison of the value of data elements in first and second data sets, the data elements corresponding to returns from the same part of the scene and setting a detection threshold value for the comparison so as to detect targets entering said that part of scene The method provides improved target detection in the presence of clutter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2010
    Assignee: Qinetiq Limited
    Inventors: Adrian Britton, Michael Andrew Evans, Carol Anne Evans, legal representative, Adrian Thomas Shalley, Samantha Jane Lycett, Iain Baird Smith
  • Patent number: 7427942
    Abstract: An apparatus for adaptively generating video signal thresholds for a comparator circuit having a plurality of signal channels. The apparatus has input circuitry in electrical signal communication with the plurality of signal channels. The input circuitry uses a selector circuit to select one signal channel of the plurality of signal channels for processing. The apparatus also has a processing resource having an input joined to process the electrical signals on the selected one signal channel to determine if a video signal is present and, if no video signal is present, to process noise signals on the selected one signal channel to generate a new video signal threshold. The processing resource has an output to provide the new video signal threshold to the comparator circuit corresponding to the selected signal channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2008
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Derek J. Catabia
  • Patent number: 7425919
    Abstract: A computer program which plots radar video data generated by a seeker on a missile. The program allows a user to plot multiple scans of radar video data on a chart, which is obtained from a Data Worksheet. The chart displays one or more sets of radar video data scans and a detection gate plot for each radar video data scan. The program includes Zoom In, Zoom Out, Pan Left and Pan Right functions which allow the user to view and manipulate views of the data displayed by the chart.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2008
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Christian L. Houlberg
  • Publication number: 20080100504
    Abstract: A passive millimeter wave imaging system that includes at least one millimeter wave frequency scanning antenna and multiple beam formers collecting narrow beams of millimeter wave radiation from a two-dimensional field of view. The collected radiation is amplified and separated into bins corresponding to various vertical and horizontal beam orientations. In a preferred embodiment each beam formers include one phase processor with 232 inputs and 192 outputs that feed into 192 frequency processors. In another preferred embodiment each beam formers include one phase processor with 232 inputs and 72 outputs that feed into only 24 frequency processors. In this second embodiment 26 3×1 PIN diode switches sequentially switch one of three phase processor outputs into a frequency processor. As in the first embodiment two dimensional images of a target are obtained by the simultaneous detection of signal power within each beam and converting it into pixel intensity level.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 14, 2005
    Publication date: May 1, 2008
    Inventors: Chris Martin, John Lovberg
  • Publication number: 20080055150
    Abstract: A method and system are provided for detecting an edge of a received signal associated with air traffic control communications. The system includes an A/D converter to convert a received signal to a series of digital data samples and an edge detector module to determine a change rate between the data samples. The change rate represents a change in amplitude between the data samples per unit of time. The edge detector module validates an edge of the received signal based on the change rate between the data samples. A decoder module may derive timing information from the leading/trailing edge pulses and associates the reply message with the framing pulse based on the timing information.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 6, 2006
    Publication date: March 6, 2008
    Applicant: GARMIN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
    Inventors: Weiguang Hou, Edward W. Needham
  • Patent number: 7327309
    Abstract: A method transforms an image from polar coordinates into Cartesian coordinates. Therefore, the target image in Cartesian coordinates is subdivided into triangles defined by the vertices given in Cartesian coordinates. The respective polar coordinates are coded into attributes and these attributes are attached to each vertex. The attributes of any coordinates within the triangle are calculated by performing a bilinear interpolation on a graphics card and the polar coordinates are calculated from these attributes. Finally, the characteristics of the coordinates of the image in polar coordinates are transferred to the corresponding coordinates of the target image given in Cartesian coordinates. A method also consistently displays single ore multiple radar scan images with additional geographical data in one display plane. These methods may be performed by a computer program and implemented in a radar scan converter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2008
    Assignee: Barco Orthogon GmbH
    Inventor: Michael Wimmer
  • Patent number: 7170443
    Abstract: A method for the evaluation of radar data for fully automatic creation of a map of regions with interference, in which undesirable reflections frequently occur includes the following method steps. The region to be mapped is divided up into cells. The short-lived target tracks that occur in these cells are counted. Statistics are kept, in such a manner that the short-lived target tracks are counted only within a predetermined period of time, while all older short-lived target tracks are left out of consideration. At least one threshold value is predetermined, in such a manner that a cell is considered to have been marked if the short-lived target tracks that are counted in the previous time period exceed the threshold value or values. The map of the current regions with interference results as the totality of the marked cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2007
    Assignee: EADS Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Dirk Liebscher, Juergen Altmann, Ulrich Lode, Christoph Schenk
  • Patent number: 7161531
    Abstract: A scan conversion is provided which allows the scan converter to work with data in its most convenient format in a radar memory. A displayable image is mirrored to a graphics memory simultaneously with the write portion of the radar memory of the scan conversion process. On every write to the radar memory, radar data is simultaneously converted to associated colors by indexing a color look-up table and writing the indexed color to the graphics memory. A simulated phosphor decay for the display is provided by decreasing the intensity of each pixel in the radar memory once each antenna scan and similarly decreasing the intensity of data in corresponding locations in the graphics memory to simulate the decay of a phosphor coated screen in a CRT display. The signals in the graphics memory are coupled to a display at a rate that simulates a display on a phosphor coated screen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2007
    Assignee: Northrop Grumman Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas G. Beazell
  • Patent number: 6806825
    Abstract: A radar scan conversion protocol is defined to communicate radar data from application servers to thin clients with reduced network bandwidth requirements. The radar scan conversion protocol may be implemented as an extension to existing thin client protocols. The system is also capable of transmitting audio and video data through the application servers to the thin clients using appropriate compressed formats in order to minimize network bandwidth requirements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2004
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventors: Martin J. Andrusiak, Scott J. Benjamin
  • Publication number: 20030210182
    Abstract: A video amplifier for a radar receiver includes a temperature compensating attenuator. The attenuator includes a temperature sensitive device, such as a thermistor, arranged in a voltage divider network and is coupled in cascade between two filter stages. Each of the filter stages has a bandpass characteristic in order to filter low-frequency leakage signals and provide sensitivity control based on frequency and thus range, while also filtering high frequency signals to reduce aliasing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 16, 2001
    Publication date: November 13, 2003
    Inventors: James T. Hanson, Walter Gordon Woodington, Michael Joseph Delcheccolo, Joseph S. Pleva, Mark E. Russell, H. Barteld Van Rees
  • Publication number: 20030210183
    Abstract: A radar scan conversion protocol is defined to communicate radar data from application servers to thin clients with reduced network bandwidth requirements. The radar scan conversion protocol may be implemented as an extension to existing thin client protocols. The system is also capable of transmitting audio and video data through the application servers to the thin clients using appropriate compressed formats in order to minimize network bandwidth requirements.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2002
    Publication date: November 13, 2003
    Applicant: LOCKHEET MARTIN CORPORATION
    Inventors: Martin J. Andrusiak, Scott J. Benjamin
  • Publication number: 20030184467
    Abstract: The present invention is an apparatus and method for displaying a foreign body in a relatively uniform mass having similar electromagnetic impedance as the foreign body comprising of at least two ultra wide band holographic radar units adapted to generate, transmit and receive a plurality of 12-20 GHz frequency signals in a dual linear antenna with slant-angle illumination. The invention may be utilized to obtain qualitative and quantitative data regarding the composition of the object under investigation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 27, 2002
    Publication date: October 2, 2003
    Inventor: Carolyn Collins
  • Patent number: 6433730
    Abstract: A system and method is disclosed for a radar receiver, such as a wideband crystal video early warning receiver, to automatically detect the noise level of the radar receiver with immunity to high pulse repetition frequencies and high duty cycle signals. The noise riding threshold circuit utilizes high frequency components of the noise and, to the attenuated extent present, high frequency components of the video signal to produce the noise riding threshold voltage. An amplifier gain control permits adjusting the noise-riding threshold to a fixed relative level. In a preferred embodiment, the noise riding threshold control of the present invention utilizes current feedback amplifiers for wide bandwidth, high gain video amplifiers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2002
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: John D. Borla
  • Patent number: 6400313
    Abstract: A method and apparatus which perform efficient projection of 4-dimensional data (3 spatial and 1 time dimension) onto planar grids are described. Multiple frames of data are drawn from a limited time history data buffer and projected onto a planar grid, which need not be flat, defined in its own coordinate system. Higher dimensional data structures can also be formed from multiple projection grids. Measurement data from multiple data frames is projected into the planar grid such that distance out of plane is the z-dimension. Computational efficiency is achieved by processing only those data samples that are relevant to the planar grid. To be considered relevant, the impulse response of the sensor's measurement rays must cross the planar grid. Samples of relevant rays must also map onto the planar grid's coordinate mesh to be relevant. Multiple data measurements may determine the planar grid's final amplitude result.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2002
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: Martin M. Morici, James R. Brinsley
  • Patent number: 6362773
    Abstract: A method via which the range of vision in a vehicle's field of view can be determined precisely, so that with the help of range-of-vision information the driver can be advised to modify his driving style. The contrast of an object detected by a radar or lidar sensor is measured by a monocular video sensor, and the range of vision is determined from the measured values supplied by the radar or lidar sensor and by the monocular video sensor. Alternatively, the distance to and contrast of at least one object can be measured by a binocular video sensor, the range of vision then being determined from the measured contrast and distance values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2002
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventor: Werner Pöchmüller
  • Patent number: 6359582
    Abstract: A weapons detector (12) and method utilizing radar. The system comprises a transmitter (27) for producing an output (14) of frequencies of a set of self-resonant frequencies of weaponry; an antenna (28) directing the transmitter output toward locations potentially having weaponry and collecting backscattered signals (15); a receiver (29) receiving the backscattered signals (15) and operating over a range of the self-resonant frequencies; and a signal processor (30) for detecting the presence of a plurality of the self-resonant frequencies in the backscattered signals (15). Accuracies of greater than 98% can be obtained at distances, preferably between 4-15 yards. The weapons detector (12) is capable of detecting metal and non-metal weapons (16) on a human body (13) in purses, briefcases and under clothing; and discerning weapons (16) from objects such as belt buckles, coins, keys, calculators, cellular phones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2002
    Assignee: The MacAleese Companies, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory B. MacAleese, Jerry Hausner, Paul J. Menicucci, Robert H. Gorman
  • Patent number: 6255987
    Abstract: A block adaptive quantization device processes blocks of input data samples to determine an aggregate or average value which is applied to each of a number of exponent look-up tables to derive an exponent value dependent on the extent of compression required. The exponent value is split by an exponent splitter into a remainder value and a shift value. The remainder value is used to select one of a number of divide look-up tables to which the unsigned data sample is applied, and the shift value is used to apply a variable bit shift to the data sample. Each divide look-up table comprises the same group of divide look-up tables. The combination of the four look-up tables in the group, together with the variable bit shift defines a series of code tables made up of a group of divide look-up tables repeated at six dB intervals. The remainder value selects one of the code tables within the group, and the bit shift operation determines the selected one of the repeated groups.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Matra Marconi Space UK Limited
    Inventors: David C Lancashire, Bartholomew A. F. Barnes, Stephen J Udall
  • Patent number: 6166677
    Abstract: The present invention provides a small-size image radar apparatus to be mounted on an aircraft, having a high resolution not only the flying direction but also in the direction vertical to the flying direction. The image radar apparatus comprises a transmission antenna 2, a plurality of independent reception antennas 5.sub.1, 5.sub.2, and a computer 10 for simultaneously executing a two-dimensional phase synthesis. The synthesis result is obtained as a two-dimensional image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Takeshi Kikuchi, Hitoshi Nohmi
  • Patent number: 6043775
    Abstract: The Radar Scan Converter receives range and azimuth data that is generated by a conventional radar and presented in a polar coordinate system, and processes and displays this data, in real time, on a conventional generally rectangular display screen which has a display formed by a relatively large number of pixels organized in the X- and Y-axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. The Radar Scan Converter sequentially updates each pixel in the display by (1) selecting a pixel address in the Cartesian coordinate system, (2) determining the corresponding cell address in a direct display memory interface, (3) reading the video level in this corresponding cell, (4) then responsive to this respective video level, either initially loading or subsequently updating the associated pixel in a screen image memory, and (5) refreshing the display from the screen image memory through respective cycles over repeated radar scans.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Fred W. Erickson, Ray C. Pizzuti, John B. Rodwig
  • Patent number: 6014099
    Abstract: A method of analyzing the radar cross section of a target vehicle determines the contributions to total radar cross section of various vehicle design details. The method includes obtaining ISAR images of the vehicle with a radar at a known position relative to the vehicle. A visible three-dimensional set of images of the vehicle is created. The visible images have the same point of view as the ISAR images. Each visible image is matched by one or more corresponding ISAR images in terms of distance from the target and angular position of the target relative to the vehicle's axis of rotation. The corresponding ISAR images are used to paint the visible images so as to produce one or more rendered composite images of the vehicle. A relation is then found between chosen vehicle details and bright zones in the composite image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: John G. Bennett, Jack C. Jones
  • Patent number: 5945937
    Abstract: An along-track interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) of the present invention includes a single SAR line and observes a target only once. SAR data derived from a single observation are subjected to look division in order to reproduce two SAR images deviated in time from each other. Interference processing is executed with the two SAR images in order to determine a phase difference. The phase difference is converted to the velocity of the target. This can be done without resorting to any additional hardware.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Takashi Fujimura
  • Patent number: 5920276
    Abstract: A weather radar and terrain map display system for aircraft with the terrain elevation and weather information displayed in an easy to read and comprehend presentation. The system includes an antenna for transmitting and receiving radar signals, a receiver for digitizing the reflected radar signals, and a computer for storing the signals and calculating the latitude and longitude coordinates of the locations from which the reflected radar signals were reflected, and for storing terrain elevation data. A display simultaneously shows a plan view image and vertical views of contoured terrain elevation data and the weather conditions found by the radar. The terrain and weather displays are superimposed over one another to enable quick and efficient location of critical terrain and weather conditions. The system can also calculate the latitude and longitude coordinates of the radar echoes without antenna stabilization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Imaging Accessories, Inc.
    Inventor: Philip R. Frederick
  • Patent number: 5886662
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest. The method includes providing an airborne radar system, overflying the area of interest while directing radar energy having a frequency of under 400 MHz, and preferably between 80 and 120 MHz, toward the area of interest, using the radar system to collect backscatter data from the radar energy as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and using an inversion algorithm to determine a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1999
    Assignee: ZAI AMELEX
    Inventor: Patrick W. Johnson
  • Patent number: 5867121
    Abstract: The Radar Scan Converter System (1) receives range and azimuth data generated by a conventional radar as presented in a polar coordinate system, (2) stores this data in associated cell locations in a range/azimuth polar video map, and (3) displays this polar coordinate range/azimuth data in a Cartesian coordinate system, in real time, on a conventional computer monitor having a rectangular display formed by a relatively large number of pixels organized in the Cartesian coordinate system. Each pixel in the display is sequentially update by (1) selecting a respective pixel address, (2) determining the corresponding range/azimuth cell address in the polar video map, (3) reading the video level in this corresponding range/azimuth cell, and (4) in response to this associated video level, either initially loading or subsequently updating the selected pixel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: Litton Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Fred W. Erickson, William F. Smith
  • Patent number: 5835054
    Abstract: A non-invasive imaging system for analyzing engineered structures comprises pairs of ultra wideband radar transmitters and receivers in a linear array that are connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitters and receivers are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receivers are moved about the surface, e.g., attached to the bumper of a truck, to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: John P. Warhus, Jeffrey E. Mast
  • Patent number: 5828332
    Abstract: A weather radar and terrain map display system for aircraft with the terrain elevation and weather information displayed in an easy to read and quickly comprehendible presentation. The system includes an antenna for transmitting and receiving radar signals, a digitizer for digitizing the reflected radar signals, a means for storing the signals and calculating the latitude and longitude coordinates of the features from which the reflected radar signals were reflected, and for storing terrain elevation data. Flight modes are programmable to rapidly change a size of an alert region appropriate for the current flight mode. A display simultaneously shows a plan view image and vertical views of contoured terrain elevation data and the weather conditions found by the radar. The terrain and weather displays 15 are superimposed over one another to enable quick and efficient location of critical terrain and weather conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Imaging Accessories, Inc.
    Inventor: Philip R. Frederick
  • Patent number: 5808580
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for preventing the occurrence of range ambiguities and Doppler ambiguities in both a radar and sonar environment. A series of N pulses are produced, each of which contains a number of contagious subpulses. Each of the subpulses exhibit a different frequency than the remaining subpulses in that particular pulse. Furthermore, the order of appearance of the subpulses in each of the pulses is unique with respect to the remaining pulses in the series. A matched filter receiver and Doppler processor are used to provide auto correlations and cross correlations to prevent the range ambiguities and Doppler ambiguities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1998
    Inventor: Grealie A. Andrews, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5805098
    Abstract: The method and system quickly and simultaneously generate multi-resolution and high-resolution imagery from projection data obtained, e.g., through synthetic aperture radar, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray CAT scans, seismic imaging, sonar imaging, and acoustic imaging. The backprojector technique is modified by a quadtree decomposition of the image area. The sensor elements are grouped into subapertures, and an image is formed in each subaperture by backprojection. The subapertures are grouped into larger subapertures and an image is formed in each of the larger subapertures by backprojection. This operation is repeated until a single large subaperture is defined which covers the entire antenna array. In this way, common additions are factored, computed once and reused many times. A set of N projections can produce an N.times.N image through O(N.sup.2 log N) operations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventor: John W. McCorkle
  • Patent number: 5805099
    Abstract: A synthetic aperture radar apparatus which analyzes Doppler frequency displacements arising from a range direction motion component of a target and motion components of a flying body to produce a motion target image wherein only azimuth direction motion components of the target are converted into Doppler components. An SAR apparatus wherein SAR reproduction processing is performed based on target information obtained from a reflected wave received from a target and flying information of a flying body includes a recording and reproduction unit for recording the target information and reproducing the data in a designated range, and a moving target processor for analyzing Doppler frequency displacements arising from a range direction motion component of the target and motion components of the flying body from the reproduced data and producing a moving target image wherein only azimuth direction motion components of the target are converted into Doppler components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventor: Hidefumi Nagata
  • Patent number: 5796363
    Abstract: An imaging system for analyzing structures comprises a radar transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1998
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Jeffrey E. Mast
  • Patent number: 5781146
    Abstract: A weather radar and terrain map display system for aircraft with the terrain elevation and weather information displayed in an easy to read and comprehend presentation. The system includes an antenna for transmitting and receiving radar signals, a receiver for digitizing the reflected radar signals, and a computer for storing the signals and calculating the latitude and longitude coordinates of the locations from which the reflected radar signals were reflected, and for storing terrain elevation data. A display simultaneously shows a plan view image and vertical views of contoured terrain elevation data and the weather conditions found by the radar. The terrain and weather displays are superimposed over one another to enable quick and efficient location of critical terrain and weather conditions. The system can also calculate the latitude and longitude coordinates of the radar echoes without antenna stabilization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 14, 1998
    Assignee: Imaging Accessories, Inc.
    Inventor: Philip R. Frederick
  • Patent number: 5781144
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for high speed denoising of an input signal received by a radar warning receiver (RWR) system. The novel system digitizes the input signal into sample windows each having a number of sample data points. The novel system includes a signal transformation processor system which convolves Haar wavelet basis functions across individual time segments of the input signal to produce sets of coefficients. Signal noise is poorly represented by the selected Haar wavelet basis functions while expected pulse signal characteristics are well represented by the basis functions. Within the wavelet transformation process, a plurality of frequency resolution levels are simultaneously determined, each frequency resolution level having a fixed number of correlation coefficients equal to the number of sample points in the sample window. Each coefficient also corresponds to a different basis function, or a same basis function applied to a different time segment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 14, 1998
    Assignee: Litton Applied Technology
    Inventor: Chen Hwa
  • Patent number: 5699068
    Abstract: A doppler video signal conditioning circuit comprising first, second and rd buffers which respectively receive a voltage controlled oscillator signal, a second intermediate frequency signal and a second local oscillator signal from a missile' radar receiver. The buffered voltage controlled oscillator, second intermediate frequency and second local oscillator signals are then supplied to a doppler processing circuit. The doppler processing circuit processes these signals, providing at its output a reconstructed doppler video signal which includes a marker which is 20 kHz above the frequency the missile's radar is tracking. The doppler processing circuit provides the reconstructed doppler video signal to an analog-to-digital converter. The analog-to-digital converter digitizes the reconstructed doppler video signal before supplying the digitized signal to a frame controller.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 16, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Anthony Cirineo
  • Patent number: 5668555
    Abstract: A three dimensional imaging system that utilizes an ultra-wideband radar circuit, a focused radar antenna, an erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) means which includes a translational software program for translating radar signals received from the radar circuit into signals representing three dimensional coordinates, a memory means 13 for storing the translated signals, and a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program means for processing the translated signals into three dimensional images.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1997
    Inventor: Jon E. Starr
  • Patent number: 5666121
    Abstract: The present invention is a block adaptive quantizer and an associated VLSI processor to provide real-time data compression for high resolution imaging radar systems. The block adaptive quantizer receives data from a synthetic radar aperture in a burst-mode. The block adaptive quantizer encodes and quantizes the data via a data-compression scheme. The image data is encoded by the block adaptive quantizer using thresholds generated from current bursts of image data collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Wai-Chi Fang, William T. K. Johnson
  • Patent number: 5663730
    Abstract: The radar system comprises a transmitter unit and a receiving unit for radar signals, a trigger unit for guiding the radar signals from the transmitter unit and an aerial unit for transmitting the radar signals from the transmitting unit and for receiving reflected video signals. The transmitter unit and receiving unit each comprise at least two separate transmitters and receivers. All of the transmitters and receivers are triggered off by a common trigger which is arranged to trigger each individual transmitter mutually in series during a sequence period so that the transmitters produce signals with mutually distinct frequencies/characteristics. The individual receivers are matched to the respective transmitters to be able to present the frequencies/characteristics of video signals in approximately the entire sequence.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1997
    Inventor: Per-Arne Isaksen
  • Patent number: 5640165
    Abstract: A range cell formation process that are used to enhance the quality of an image following a perspective transformation from range-azimuth coordinates (B-scan) into elevation-azimuth coordinates (C-scan). The present range cell formation process eliminate situations where there are missing data points at the far range, and large areas that have the same data point at the near range. The range cell formation process evaluates the data content in range cells on a case by case basis using a prioritized system to determine what is to be displayed so that a high level of image contrast is maintained. In the far range, range cell data that are in between range points defined by every two adjacent elevation points are processed and a priority system is used to determine the best intensity value to use for the elevation points. The priority system is such that bright objects have the highest priority, followed by dark objects, and then followed by an average background level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1997
    Assignee: Hughes Electronics
    Inventors: Leo H. Hui, Michael W. Autry