Detail Of Pinned Film Or Additional Film For Affecting Or Biasing The Pinned Film Patents (Class 360/324.11)
  • Patent number: 11348970
    Abstract: A spin orbit torque (SOT) memory device includes an SOT electrode on an upper end of an MTJ device. The MTJ device includes a free magnet, a fixed magnet and a tunnel barrier between the free magnet and the fixed magnet and is coupled with a conductive interconnect at a lower end of the MTJ device. The SOT electrode has a footprint that is substantially the same as a footprint of the MTJ device. The SOT device includes a first contact and a second contact on an upper surface of the SOT electrode. The first contact and the second contact are laterally spaced apart by a distance that is no greater than a length of the MTJ device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2022
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin O'Brien, Benjamin Buford, Kaan Oguz, Noriyuki Sato, Charles Kuo, Mark Doczy
  • Patent number: 11346899
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive sensor includes a first non-magnetic layer, a second non-magnetic layer, and a magnetic free bi-layer. The magnetic free bi-layer is disposed between first non-magnetic layer and the second non-magnetic layer, the magnetic free bi-layer including a first magnetic free layer coupled to a second magnetic free layer. The first magnetic free layer is coupled to the first non-magnetic layer, and the second magnetic free layer is coupled to the second non-magnetic layer. The second non-magnetic layer comprises a non-magnetic material having an atomic radius within 10% of an atomic radius of at least one of the first magnetic free layer and the second magnetic free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2022
    Inventors: Juergen Zimmer, Klemens Pruegl
  • Patent number: 11257863
    Abstract: A magnetic random access memory includes a memory cell including a first fixed layer, a second fixed layer, and one or more free layers disposed between the first fixed layer and the second fixed layer. The first and second fixed layers are continuous layers and commonly shared by a plurality of memory cells. The magnetic random access memory has a relatively simple structure that not only reduces magnetic interference between memory cells, but also simplifies the fabrication process and increases the integration level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2022
    Assignees: SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING INTERNATIONAL (SHANGHAI) CORPORATION, SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING INTERNATIONAL (BEIJING) CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yibin Song, Zhuofan Chen
  • Patent number: 11251366
    Abstract: A magnetic junction usable in a magnetic device is described. The magnetic junction includes a free layer and an oxide interlayer on the free layer. The oxide interlayer includes at least one glass-forming agent. In some aspects, the magnetic junction includes a reference layer and a nonmagnetic spacer layer being between the reference layer and the free layer. The free layer is between the nonmagnetic spacer layer and the oxide interlayer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2022
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Ikhtiar, Jaewoo Jeong, Mohamad Towfik Krounbi, Xueti Tang
  • Patent number: 11209503
    Abstract: The magnetic sensor can prevent an increase of a positional detection error of a subject/object even in the case of applying an external magnetic field with a magnetic field intensity exceeding a predetermined range. A magnetic sensor is equipped with a magnetoresistive effect element (MR element) 11 that can detect an external magnetic field and a soft magnetic body shield 12. The soft magnetic body shield(s) 12 are/is positioned above and/or below the MR element 11 in a side view, and the size of the MR element 11 is physically included within a perimeter of the soft magnetic body shield 12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2021
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Keisuke Uchida, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 11209504
    Abstract: A magneto-resistive effect element includes a magnetization free layer, an intermediate layer, and a magnetization pinned layer. The magnetization free layer extends along a first plane. The intermediate layer extends along the first plane, and is stacked on the magnetization free layer. The magnetization pinned layer extends along the first plane, and is provided on side opposite to the magnetization free layer with the intermediate layer being interposed therebetween. Here, the magnetization free layer includes an end surface that has a maximum inclination angle of 42° or less relative to the first plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2020
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kenzo Makino, Suguru Watanabe, Yasushi Nishioka, Hirokazu Takahashi
  • Patent number: 11195988
    Abstract: This technology provides a method for fabricating an electronic device. A method for fabricating an electronic device including a variable resistance element, which includes a free layer having a variable magnetization direction; a pinned layer having a first non-variable magnetization direction, and including first ferromagnetic materials and a first spacer layer interposed between adjacent two first ferromagnetic materials among the first ferromagnetic materials; a tunnel barrier layer interposed between the free layer and the pinned layer; a magnetic correction layer having a second magnetization direction which is anti-parallel to the first magnetization direction; and a third spacer layer interposed between the magnetic correction layer and the pinned layer, and providing an anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the magnetic correction layer and the pinned layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2021
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventors: Guk-Cheon Kim, Yang-Kon Kim, Seung Mo Noh, Won-Joon Choi
  • Patent number: 11170808
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to magnetic read heads comprising a dual free layer (DFL) structure. The magnetic read head comprises a first shield, a second shield, and a DFL structure disposed between the first and second shields. The DFL structure comprises a magnetic seed layer, a first free layer, and a second free layer. A non-magnetic spacer layer is disposed between and in contact with the first shield and the magnetic seed layer of the DFL structure at a media facing surface. A material and a thickness of the non-magnetic spacer layer is selected to control the coupling between the first shield and the magnetic seed layer of the DFL structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2021
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Xiaoyong Liu, Ji Li, Goncalo Marcos Baião de Albuquerque, Daniele Mauri, Yukimasa Okada
  • Patent number: 11171283
    Abstract: A modified double magnetic tunnel junction (mDMTJ) structure is provided which includes a non-magnetic, spin-conducting metallic layer sandwiched between a magnetic free layer and a first tunnel barrier layer; the first tunnel barrier layer contacts a first magnetic reference layer. A second tunnel barrier layer is located on the magnetic free layer and a second magnetic reference layer is located on the second tunnel barrier layer. The mDMTJ structure of the present application exhibits efficient switching (at a low current) and speedy readout (high TMR).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Jonathan Zanhong Sun
  • Patent number: 11156478
    Abstract: Magnetic sensor 1 has MR elements 11A to 14A that are connected to each other. MR elements 11A to 14A belongs either to group G1 in which electric resistance increases when the magnetization direction of each free layer 26 is rotated a predetermined angle in a same direction, or to group G2 in which the electric resistance decreases when the magnetization direction of each free layer 26 is rotated the predetermined angle in the same direction. A variation of an output of magnetic sensor 1 due to an increase of the electric resistance of the electric resistance elements of one group and a variation of the output of magnetic sensor 1 due to a decrease of the electric resistance of the electric resistance elements of another group are cancelled out.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2020
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2021
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Kenichi Takano, Yuta Saito, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 11125836
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor comprising a first shield and a second shield and a sensor stack between the first and the second shield, the sensor stack having a plurality of layers wherein at least one layer is annealed using in-situ rapid thermal annealing. In one implementation of the magnetic sensor a seed layer is annealed using in-situ rapid thermal annealing. Alternatively, one of a barrier layer, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer, and a cap layer is annealed using in-situ rapid thermal annealing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Qing He, Wonjoon Jung, Mark William Covington, Mark Thomas Kief, Yonghua Chen
  • Patent number: 11127422
    Abstract: Aspects of the present disclosure generally relate to magnetic recording heads of magnetic recording devices. A magnetic read head includes a first pinning layer magnetically oriented in a first direction, and a second pinning layer formed above the first pinning layer and magnetically oriented in a second direction that is opposite of the first direction. The magnetic read head includes a rear hard bias disposed outwardly of one or more of the first pinning layer relative or the second pinning layer. The rear hard bias is magnetically oriented to generate a magnetic field in a bias direction. The bias direction points in the same direction as the first direction or the second direction. The magnetic read head does not include an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer between a lower shield and an upper shield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2020
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Xiaoyong Liu, Ji Li, Changhe Shang, Daniele Mauri, Yukimasa Okada
  • Patent number: 11107977
    Abstract: A magnetic element is disclosed wherein a composite seed layer such as TaN/Mg enhances perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in an overlying magnetic layer that may be a reference layer, free layer, or dipole layer. The first seed layer is selected from one or more of Ta, Zr, Nb, TaN, ZrN, NbN, and Ru. The second seed layer is selected from one or more of Mg, Sr, Ti, Al, V, Hf, B, and Si. A growth promoting layer made of NiCr or an alloy thereof is inserted between the seed layer and magnetic layer. In some embodiments, a first composite seed layer/NiCr stack is formed below the reference layer, and a second composite seed layer/NiCr stack is formed between the free layer and a dipole layer. The magnetic element has thermal stability to at least 400° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2021
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Guenole Jan, Ru-Ying Tong
  • Patent number: 10971175
    Abstract: A storage element is provided. The storage element includes a memory layer; a fixed magnetization layer; an intermediate layer including a non-magnetic material; wherein the intermediate layer is provided between the memory layer and the fixed magnetization layer; wherein the fixed magnetization layer includes at least a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer, and wherein the first magnetic layer includes a CoFeB composition. A memory apparatus and a magnetic head are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2021
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 10950260
    Abstract: A free layer comprising a bilayer (e.g., a first and a second layer) with an amorphous insertion layer in between the bilayer. The free layer includes a ferromagnetic nanolayer between the bilayer and a barrier layer. The magnetostriction of the free layer is tunable by varying the thicknesses of each of the first and the second layers. The free layer can be part of a magnetoresistive device with a reference layer or with another free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: James Mac Freitag, Zheng Gao
  • Patent number: 10908233
    Abstract: A Z detection unit includes magnetoresistive elements provided on inclined side surfaces of Z detection recesses. An X detection unit includes magnetoresistive elements provided on inclined side surfaces of X detection recesses. A Y detection unit includes magnetoresistive elements provided on inclined side surfaces of Y detection recesses. Directions of fixed magnetization of fixed magnetic layers included in the magnetoresistive elements are set to directions shown by arrows with solid lines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2021
    Assignee: ALPS ELECTRIC CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Eiji Umetsu
  • Patent number: 10872626
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to data storage devices, and more specifically, to a magnetic media drive employing a magnetic recording head. The head includes a main pole, a trailing shield, and a MAMR stack including at least one magnetic layer. The magnetic layer has a surface facing the main pole, and the surface has a first side at a media facing surface (MFS) and a second side opposite the first side. The length of the second side is substantially less than the length of the first side. By reducing the length of the second side, the area to be switched at a location recessed from the MFS is reduced as a current flowing from the main pole to the trailing shield or from the trailing shield to the main pole. With the reduced area of the magnetic layer, the overall switch time of the magnetic layer is decreased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2020
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Venkatesh Chembrolu, Muhammad Asif Bashir, Petrus Antonius Van Der Heijden, Terence Lam, Yaguang Wei
  • Patent number: 10840434
    Abstract: According to an embodiment, a storage device includes a resistance change element. The resistance change element includes a stacked structure including a first ferromagnet, a second ferromagnet, and a first nonmagnet between the first ferromagnet and the second ferromagnet. The first nonmagnet includes a boron-doped rare-earth oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2020
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Eiji Kitagawa, Young Min Eeh, Tadaaki Oikawa, Kenichi Yoshino, Kazuya Sawada, Taiga Isoda
  • Patent number: 10804458
    Abstract: Memory devices and methods of forming the same include forming a memory stack over a bottom electrode. The memory stack has a free magnetic layer formed on the tunnel barrier layer. A first boron-segregating layer is formed directly on the free magnetic layer. An anneal is performed to cause boron to leave the free magnetic layer at an interface with the first boron-segregating layer. A top electrode is formed over the memory stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignees: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS, CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Guohan Hu, Younghyun Kim, Chandrasekara Kothandaraman, Jeong-Heon Park
  • Patent number: 10718828
    Abstract: A magneto-resistive effect element includes a magnetization free layer, an intermediate layer, and a magnetization pinned layer. The magnetization free layer extends along a first plane. The intermediate layer extends along the first plane, and is stacked on the magnetization free layer. The magnetization pinned layer extends along the first plane, and is provided on side opposite to the magnetization free layer with the intermediate layer being interposed therebetween. Here, the magnetization free layer includes an end surface that has a maximum inclination angle of 42° or less relative to the first plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kenzo Makino, Suguru Watanabe, Yasushi Nishioka, Hirokazu Takahashi
  • Patent number: 10714131
    Abstract: Reader-to-reader separation (RRS) is substantially decreased, and cross-track alignment of top and bottom sensors is improved with a process where a sidewall on the two sensors is formed during a single photolithography and ion beam etch sequence. RRS is minimized since the two sensors share a common reference layer (RL), and shields between the readers are omitted. A RL front portion is formed on a first stack of layers with a first free layer and uppermost first tunnel barrier, and a RL back portion is on a second stack comprising a reference layer and antiferromagnetic coupling layer sequentially formed on an antiferromagnetic layer. The RL may be a single layer or a synthetic antiferromagnetic structure so that the sensors operate in a common mode or differential mode, respectively. A third stack with a bottom second tunnel barrier and overlying second free layer is formed on the RL front portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Yan Wu
  • Patent number: 10665777
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is disclosed. MRAM device has a magnetic tunnel junction stack having a significantly improved performance of the free layer in the magnetic tunnel junction structure. The MRAM device utilizes a precessional spin current (PSC) magnetic structure in conjunction with a perpendicular MTJ where the in-plane magnetization direction of the PSC magnetic layer is free to rotate. The precessional spin current magnetic layer a first and second precessional spin current ferromagnetic layer separated by a nonmagnetic precessional spin current insertion layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Assignee: Spin Memory, Inc.
    Inventors: Bartlomiej Adam Kardasz, Mustafa Michael Pinarbasi
  • Patent number: 10600463
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic device includes a first memory cell including a magnetoresistive effect element and a selector, the selector including titanium (Ti), germanium (Ge) and tellurium (Te).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2020
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventor: Junya Matsunami
  • Patent number: 10586916
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization reversal element includes: a first ferromagnetic metal layer with a changeable magnetization direction, and a spin-orbit torque wiring, wherein a first direction is defined as a direction perpendicular to a surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, the wiring extends in a second direction intersecting the first and is bonded to a first surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, wherein the wiring includes a pure spin current generator which is bonded to the metal layer, and a low-resistance portion which is connected to both ends of the generator in the second direction and is formed of a material having a smaller electrical resistivity than the generator, and the generator is formed so that an area of a cross-section orthogonal to the first direction continuously and/or stepwisely increases as it recedes from a bonding surface bonded to the first ferromagnetic metal layer in the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yohei Shiokawa, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10580967
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction device includes a pinned magnetic layer, a free magnetic layer embodied as a synthetic antiferromagnetic device, and a nonmagnetic barrier layer sandwiched between the pinned magnetic layer and the free magnetic layer. The free magnetic layer includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic spacing layer sandwiched between them; and can transform from the antiferromagnetic state to the ferromagnetic state regulated by electric field. Under the coaction of the electric field and the current, the ferromagnetic layer close to the barrier layer of the magnetic tunnel junction is switched to write in data. Also, a magnetic random access memory based on a synthetic antiferromagnetic free layer can write in data under the coaction of the electric field and the current, and has advantages such as simple structure, low power consumption, rapid speed, radiation resistant, and non-volatility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2020
    Assignee: XI'AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Tai Min, Xue Zhou, Lin Zhang, Lei Wang
  • Patent number: 10546995
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization reversal element includes: a first ferromagnetic metal layer with a changeable magnetization direction, and a spin-orbit torque wiring, wherein a first direction is defined as a direction perpendicular to a surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, the wiring extends in a second direction intersecting the first and is bonded to a first surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, wherein the wiring includes a pure spin current generator which is bonded to the metal layer, and a low-resistance portion which is connected to both ends of the generator in the second direction and is formed of a material having a smaller electrical resistivity than the generator, and the generator is formed so that an area of a cross-section orthogonal to the first direction continuously and/or stepwisely increases as it recedes from a bonding surface bonded to the first ferromagnetic metal layer in the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 28, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yohei Shiokawa, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10475474
    Abstract: A storage element is provided. The storage element includes a memory layer; a fixed magnetization layer; an intermediate layer including a non-magnetic material; wherein the intermediate layer is provided between the memory layer and the fixed magnetization layer; wherein the fixed magnetization layer includes at least a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer, and wherein the first magnetic layer includes a CoFeB composition. A memory apparatus and a magnetic head are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2019
    Assignee: SONY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 10454024
    Abstract: A magnetic cell includes a magnetic region formed from a precursor magnetic material. The precursor magnetic material included a diffusible species and at least one other species. An oxide region is disposed between the magnetic region and another magnetic region, and an amorphous region is proximate to the magnetic region. The amorphous region includes an attracter material that has a chemical affinity for the diffusible species that is higher than a chemical affinity of the at least one other species for the diffusible species. Thus, the diffusible species is transferred from the precursor magnetic material to the attracter material, forming a depleted magnetic material. The removal of the diffusible species and the amorphous nature of the region of the attracter material promotes crystallization of the depleted magnetic material, which enables high tunnel magnetoresistance and high magnetic anisotropy strength. Methods of fabrication and semiconductor devices are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2019
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Manzar Siddik, Witold Kula
  • Patent number: 10431275
    Abstract: A magnetic apparatus, a memory using the magnetic apparatus and method for providing the magnetic apparatus are described. The magnetic apparatus includes a magnetic junction and a hybrid capping layer adjacent to the magnetic junction. The hybrid capping layer includes an insulating layer, a discontinuous oxide layer, and a noble metal layer. The discontinuous oxide layer is between the insulating layer and the noble metal layer. The insulating layer is between the magnetic junction and the noble metal layer. In one aspect, the magnetic junction includes a reference layer, a nonmagnetic spacer layer that may be a tunneling barrier layer and a free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hong-Sik Jung, Xueti Tang
  • Patent number: 10374147
    Abstract: A magnetic data recording element for magnetic random access memory data recording. The magnetic data recording element includes a magnetic tunnel junction element that includes a magnetic reference layer, a magnetic free layer and a non-magnetic barrier layer located between the non-magnetic reference layer and the magnetic free layer. The magnetic reference layer includes a layer of Hf that causes the magnetic reference layer to have an increased perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This increased perpendicular magnetic anisotropy improves reliability and stability of the magnetic data recording element by preventing loss of magnetic orientation of the magnetic reference layer such as during high writing current conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2019
    Assignee: SPIN MEMORY, INC.
    Inventors: Mustafa Pinarbasi, Bartlomiej Adam Kardasz, Jorge Vasquez, Manfred Ernst Schabes
  • Patent number: 10374148
    Abstract: Apparatuses, systems, and methods are disclosed for magnetoresistive random access memory. A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) for storing data may include a reference layer. A free layer of an MTJ may be separated from a reference layer by a barrier layer. A free layer may be configured such that one or more resistance states for an MTJ correspond to one or more positions of a magnetic domain wall within the free layer. A domain stabilization layer may be coupled to a portion of a free layer, and may be configured to prevent migration of a domain wall into the portion of the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2019
    Assignee: SanDisk Technologies LLC
    Inventors: Young-Suk Choi, Won Ho Choi
  • Patent number: 10308051
    Abstract: A measurement device includes a light source that radiates an illumination light on a measurement object; and a measurement unit that measures a measurement light that is reflection light obtained by the illumination light being reflected by the measurement object or transmitted light obtained by the illumination light passing through the measurement object. The illumination light is a plurality of illumination lights. In a case where the measurement object is positioned at a reference position, an illumination center at which an optical axis of each of the plurality of illumination lights and the measurement object intersect, and a measurement center that is a center of a measurement region of the measurement object measured by the measurement unit are positioned at different positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventor: Tsugio Gomi
  • Patent number: 10283154
    Abstract: A magnetic recording medium includes a substrate, a barrier layer, a crystal grain size control layer, and a magnetic layer that are arranged in this order. The barrier layer includes at least one of oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and the crystal grain size control layer is a crystalline layer including Ag and having an average thickness in a range of 0.1 nm to 1 nm. The barrier layer makes contact with the crystal grain size control layer, and the magnetic layer includes an alloy having a L10 crystal structure and a (001) face orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignees: SHOWA DENKO K.K., TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Shintaro Hinata, Shin Saito, Takayuki Fukushima, Haruhisa Ohashi, Kazuya Niwa, Lei Zhang, Yuji Murakami, Hisato Shibata, Takehiro Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Kanbe, Tomoo Shige
  • Patent number: 10269866
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element includes: a first ferromagnetic layer; a second ferromagnetic layer; and a first nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, the first ferromagnetic layer including (MnxGay)100-zPtz, the (MnxGay)100-zPtz having a tetragonal crystal structure, where 45 atm %?x?75 atm %, 25 atm %?y?55 atm %, x+y=100 atm %, and 0 atm %<z?7 atm %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2019
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Yushi Kato, Tadaomi Daibou, Eiji Kitagawa, Takao Ochiai, Junichi Ito, Takahide Kubota, Shigemi Mizukami, Terunobu Miyazaki
  • Patent number: 10242700
    Abstract: A method and system provide a magnetic read apparatus. The magnetic read apparatus includes a read sensor. The read sensor includes a pinning layer, a nonmagnetic insertion layer and a pinned layer. The nonmagnetic insertion layer has a location selected from a first location and a second location. The first location is between the pinned layer and the pinning layer. The second location is within the pinning layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2019
    Assignee: Western Digital (Fremont), LLC
    Inventors: Joshua Jones, Christian Kaiser, Yuankai Zheng, Qunwen Leng
  • Patent number: 10157634
    Abstract: A process flow is disclosed for forming a MR sensor having an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer recessed behind a bottom shield to reduce reader shield spacing and improve pin related noise. An AP2/AFM coupling layer/AP1 stack that extends from an air bearing surface to the MR sensor backside is formed above the AFM layer. The AP2 layer is pinned by the AFM layer, and the AP1 layer serves as a reference layer to an overlying free layer during a read operation. The AP1 and AP2 layers have improved resistance to magnetization flipping because back portions thereof have a full cross-track width “w” between MR sensor sides thereby enabling greater pinning strength from the AFM layer. Front portions of the AP1/AP2 layers lie under the free layer and have a track width less than “w”. The bottom shield may have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2018
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Ruhang Ding, Yewhee Chye, Wenyu Chen, Kunliang Zhang, Yan Wu, Min Li
  • Patent number: 10103321
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element according to an embodiment includes: a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer; a first nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer; and a third magnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the first nonmagnetic layer, the first magnetic layer containing Mn and at least one of Ge, Ga, or Al, and the third magnetic layer containing Mn2VZ, where V represents vanadium, and Z represents at least one element of Al or Ga.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Yushi Kato, Tadaomi Daibou, Qinli Ma, Atsushi Sugihara, Shigemi Mizukami, Terunobu Miyazaki
  • Patent number: 10026425
    Abstract: A double pinned magnetoresistance element has a temporary ferromagnetic layer, two PtMn antiferromagnetic pinning layers, and two associated synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) pinned layer structures, the temporary ferromagnetic layer operable to improve annealing of the two PtMn antiferromagnetic pinning layers and the two associated SAFs to two different magnetic directions that are a relative ninety degrees apart.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
    Inventor: Paolo Campiglio
  • Patent number: 10008251
    Abstract: The disclosed technology generally relates to magnetic memory and more particularly to voltage-controlled magnetic memory, and to methods of using same. In one aspect, a magnetic memory comprises a first magnetic stack including a first gate dielectric layer formed between a first gate electrode and a first free ferromagnetic layer. The magnetic memory additionally comprises a second magnetic stack including a second gate dielectric layer formed between a second gate electrode and a second free ferromagnetic layer. The first free ferromagnetic layer and the second free ferromagnetic layer of the magnetic memory are magnetically coupled, contiguous and are positioned at an oblique angle relative to each other, and the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode are electrically isolated from each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignees: IMEC vzw, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
    Inventors: Koen Martens, Adrien Vaysset
  • Patent number: 9997179
    Abstract: A storage element is provided. The storage element includes a memory layer; a fixed magnetization layer; an intermediate layer including a non-magnetic material; wherein the intermediate layer is provided between the memory layer and the fixed magnetization layer; wherein the fixed magnetization layer includes at least a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer, and wherein the first magnetic layer includes a CoFeB composition. A memory apparatus and a magnetic head are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2018
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 9990943
    Abstract: A magnetic field-assisted magnetic recording (MAMR) head is provided, which includes a recording main pole and a texture control layer (TCL), a seed control layer, and a spin torque oscillator (STO) positioned over the main pole, in this order, in a stacking direction from a leading side to a trailing side of the recording head. The STO has a crystallographic preferred growth orientation and includes a spin polarized layer (SPL). The TCL may include a Cu layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2018
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Susumu Okamura, Yo Sato, Keiichi Nagasaka, Masashige Sato
  • Patent number: 9939466
    Abstract: A non-contact current sensor includes a spin valve structure (2), an electrical unit (4) that applies a varying current to the spin valve structure (2), and a resistance reading unit that electrically reads out a resistance value of the spin valve structure (2). When a current-induced magnetic field is detected, a coercive force of a free layer (14) is configured to be larger than the current-induced magnetic field as a detection target, and the electrical unit (4) allows the magnetization directions of a pinned layer (12) and the free layer (14) to transition between a mutually parallel state and a mutually anti-parallel state by applying the current to the spin valve structure (2). The resistance reading unit (5) detects a threshold value corresponding to the transition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: III HOLDINGS 3, LLC
    Inventor: Yasushi Ogimoto
  • Patent number: 9922670
    Abstract: A data reader may have a magnetoresistive stack consisting of at least magnetically free and magnetically fixed structures with the magnetically fixed structure set to a first magnetization direction by a pinning structure separated from an air bearing surface by a front shield portion of a magnetic shield. The pinning structure can meet the front shield portion with a planar sidewall angled at 10° or less with respect to the ABS.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Adam A. Lapicki, Marcus W. Ormston, Mark T. Kief
  • Patent number: 9870790
    Abstract: A read sensor and fabrication method thereof. The method includes forming a bottom stack that includes an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer, a lower ferromagnetic stitch layer above the AFM layer and a sacrificial cap layer on the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer. The sacrificial cap layer is formed of a material that alloys magnetically with the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer. The method further includes substantially removing the sacrificial cap layer. After substantially removing the sacrificial layer, an upper ferromagnetic stitch layer is deposited on the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer of the bottom stack to form a stitch interface that provides relatively strong magnetic coupling between the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer of the bottom stack and the upper ferromagnetic stitch layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Sameh Hassan, Yuqing Du, Marcus Ormston, Denis O'Donnell, Kevin McNeill
  • Patent number: 9831422
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device includes a first magnetic structure on a substrate, a second magnetic structure between the substrate and the first magnetic structure, and a tunnel barrier between the first and second magnetic structures. At least one of the first and second magnetic structures includes a perpendicular magnetic layer on the tunnel barrier, and a polarization enhancement layer interposed between the tunnel barrier and the perpendicular magnetic layer. Here, the polarization enhancement layer contains cobalt, iron, and at least one of the elements of Group IV, and the polarization enhancement layer has a magnetization direction perpendicular to or substantially perpendicular to a top surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignees: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD., INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Woojin Kim, Joonmyoung Lee, Yong Sung Park, Stuart S. P. Parkin
  • Patent number: 9825219
    Abstract: Embodiments of the inventive concepts provide magnetic memory devices. The magnetic memory device includes a magnetic tunnel junction including a free layer, a pinned layer, and a tunnel barrier layer between the free layer and the pinned layer. The free layer includes a perpendicular magnetic material doped with non-magnetic impurities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Sungmin Ahn
  • Patent number: 9812637
    Abstract: A spin valve magnetoresistance element has an even number of free layer structures for which half has an antiferromagnetic coupling and the other half has a ferromagnetic coupling with respect to associated pinned layers. The different couplings are the result of an even number different spacer layers having respective different thicknesses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2017
    Assignees: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC, Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Claude Fermon, Paolo Campiglio, Bryan Cadugan
  • Patent number: 9804234
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance element can have a substrate; a ferromagnetic seed layer consisting of a binary alloy of NiFe; and a first nonmagnetic spacer layer disposed under and directly adjacent to the ferromagnetic seed layer and proximate to the substrate, wherein the first nonmagnetic spacer layer is comprised of Ta or Ru. A method fabricating of fabricating a magnetoresistance element can include depositing a seed layer structure over a semiconductor substrate, wherein the depositing the seed layer structure includes depositing at least a ferromagnetic seed layer over the substrate. The method further can further include depositing a free layer structure over the seed layer structure, wherein the depositing the ferromagnetic seed layer comprises depositing the ferromagnetic seed layer in the presence of a motion along a predetermined direction and in the presence of a predetermined magnetic field having the same predetermined direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2017
    Assignees: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC, Commissariat à L'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Cyril Dressler, Claude Fermon, Myriam Pannetier-Lecoeur, Marie-Claire Cyrille, Paolo Campiglio
  • Patent number: 9799357
    Abstract: A MR sensor is disclosed with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer recessed behind a bottom shield to reduce reader shield spacing and improve pin related noise. Above the AFM layer is an AP2/AFM coupling layer/AP1 stack that extends from an air bearing surface to the MR sensor backside. The AP2 layer is pinned by the AFM layer, and the AP1 layer serves as a reference layer to an overlying free layer during a read operation. The AP1 and AP2 layers have improved resistance to magnetization flipping because back portions thereof have a full cross-track width “w” between MR sensor sides thereby enabling greater pinning strength from the AFM layer. Front portions of the AP1/AP2 layers lie under the free layer and have a track width less than “w”. The bottom shield may have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling structure. A process flow is provided for fabricating the MR sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Ruhang Ding, Yewhee Chye, Wenyu Chen, Kunliang Zhang, Min Li
  • Patent number: 9779767
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes a transducer structure having: a lower shield, an upper shield above the lower shield, a current-perpendicular-to-plane sensor between the upper and lower shields, and an insulating layer between the at least one lead and the shield closest thereto. At least one lead is selected from a group including: an upper electrical lead between the sensor and the upper shield and a lower electrical lead between the sensor and the lower shield. The at least one lead is in electrical communication with the sensor. A width of one or more of the at least one lead in a cross track direction is about equal to a width of the sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Robert E. Fontana, Jr., Jason Liang, Calvin S. Lo