Detail Of Pinned Film Or Additional Film For Affecting Or Biasing The Pinned Film Patents (Class 360/324.11)
  • Patent number: 10665777
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is disclosed. MRAM device has a magnetic tunnel junction stack having a significantly improved performance of the free layer in the magnetic tunnel junction structure. The MRAM device utilizes a precessional spin current (PSC) magnetic structure in conjunction with a perpendicular MTJ where the in-plane magnetization direction of the PSC magnetic layer is free to rotate. The precessional spin current magnetic layer a first and second precessional spin current ferromagnetic layer separated by a nonmagnetic precessional spin current insertion layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Assignee: Spin Memory, Inc.
    Inventors: Bartlomiej Adam Kardasz, Mustafa Michael Pinarbasi
  • Patent number: 10600463
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic device includes a first memory cell including a magnetoresistive effect element and a selector, the selector including titanium (Ti), germanium (Ge) and tellurium (Te).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2020
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventor: Junya Matsunami
  • Patent number: 10586916
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization reversal element includes: a first ferromagnetic metal layer with a changeable magnetization direction, and a spin-orbit torque wiring, wherein a first direction is defined as a direction perpendicular to a surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, the wiring extends in a second direction intersecting the first and is bonded to a first surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, wherein the wiring includes a pure spin current generator which is bonded to the metal layer, and a low-resistance portion which is connected to both ends of the generator in the second direction and is formed of a material having a smaller electrical resistivity than the generator, and the generator is formed so that an area of a cross-section orthogonal to the first direction continuously and/or stepwisely increases as it recedes from a bonding surface bonded to the first ferromagnetic metal layer in the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yohei Shiokawa, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10580967
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction device includes a pinned magnetic layer, a free magnetic layer embodied as a synthetic antiferromagnetic device, and a nonmagnetic barrier layer sandwiched between the pinned magnetic layer and the free magnetic layer. The free magnetic layer includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic spacing layer sandwiched between them; and can transform from the antiferromagnetic state to the ferromagnetic state regulated by electric field. Under the coaction of the electric field and the current, the ferromagnetic layer close to the barrier layer of the magnetic tunnel junction is switched to write in data. Also, a magnetic random access memory based on a synthetic antiferromagnetic free layer can write in data under the coaction of the electric field and the current, and has advantages such as simple structure, low power consumption, rapid speed, radiation resistant, and non-volatility.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2020
    Assignee: XI'AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Tai Min, Xue Zhou, Lin Zhang, Lei Wang
  • Patent number: 10546995
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization reversal element includes: a first ferromagnetic metal layer with a changeable magnetization direction, and a spin-orbit torque wiring, wherein a first direction is defined as a direction perpendicular to a surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, the wiring extends in a second direction intersecting the first and is bonded to a first surface of the first ferromagnetic metal layer, wherein the wiring includes a pure spin current generator which is bonded to the metal layer, and a low-resistance portion which is connected to both ends of the generator in the second direction and is formed of a material having a smaller electrical resistivity than the generator, and the generator is formed so that an area of a cross-section orthogonal to the first direction continuously and/or stepwisely increases as it recedes from a bonding surface bonded to the first ferromagnetic metal layer in the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 28, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yohei Shiokawa, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10475474
    Abstract: A storage element is provided. The storage element includes a memory layer; a fixed magnetization layer; an intermediate layer including a non-magnetic material; wherein the intermediate layer is provided between the memory layer and the fixed magnetization layer; wherein the fixed magnetization layer includes at least a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer, and wherein the first magnetic layer includes a CoFeB composition. A memory apparatus and a magnetic head are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2019
    Assignee: SONY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 10454024
    Abstract: A magnetic cell includes a magnetic region formed from a precursor magnetic material. The precursor magnetic material included a diffusible species and at least one other species. An oxide region is disposed between the magnetic region and another magnetic region, and an amorphous region is proximate to the magnetic region. The amorphous region includes an attracter material that has a chemical affinity for the diffusible species that is higher than a chemical affinity of the at least one other species for the diffusible species. Thus, the diffusible species is transferred from the precursor magnetic material to the attracter material, forming a depleted magnetic material. The removal of the diffusible species and the amorphous nature of the region of the attracter material promotes crystallization of the depleted magnetic material, which enables high tunnel magnetoresistance and high magnetic anisotropy strength. Methods of fabrication and semiconductor devices are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2019
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Manzar Siddik, Witold Kula
  • Patent number: 10431275
    Abstract: A magnetic apparatus, a memory using the magnetic apparatus and method for providing the magnetic apparatus are described. The magnetic apparatus includes a magnetic junction and a hybrid capping layer adjacent to the magnetic junction. The hybrid capping layer includes an insulating layer, a discontinuous oxide layer, and a noble metal layer. The discontinuous oxide layer is between the insulating layer and the noble metal layer. The insulating layer is between the magnetic junction and the noble metal layer. In one aspect, the magnetic junction includes a reference layer, a nonmagnetic spacer layer that may be a tunneling barrier layer and a free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hong-Sik Jung, Xueti Tang
  • Patent number: 10374148
    Abstract: Apparatuses, systems, and methods are disclosed for magnetoresistive random access memory. A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) for storing data may include a reference layer. A free layer of an MTJ may be separated from a reference layer by a barrier layer. A free layer may be configured such that one or more resistance states for an MTJ correspond to one or more positions of a magnetic domain wall within the free layer. A domain stabilization layer may be coupled to a portion of a free layer, and may be configured to prevent migration of a domain wall into the portion of the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2019
    Assignee: SanDisk Technologies LLC
    Inventors: Young-Suk Choi, Won Ho Choi
  • Patent number: 10374147
    Abstract: A magnetic data recording element for magnetic random access memory data recording. The magnetic data recording element includes a magnetic tunnel junction element that includes a magnetic reference layer, a magnetic free layer and a non-magnetic barrier layer located between the non-magnetic reference layer and the magnetic free layer. The magnetic reference layer includes a layer of Hf that causes the magnetic reference layer to have an increased perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This increased perpendicular magnetic anisotropy improves reliability and stability of the magnetic data recording element by preventing loss of magnetic orientation of the magnetic reference layer such as during high writing current conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2019
    Assignee: SPIN MEMORY, INC.
    Inventors: Mustafa Pinarbasi, Bartlomiej Adam Kardasz, Jorge Vasquez, Manfred Ernst Schabes
  • Patent number: 10308051
    Abstract: A measurement device includes a light source that radiates an illumination light on a measurement object; and a measurement unit that measures a measurement light that is reflection light obtained by the illumination light being reflected by the measurement object or transmitted light obtained by the illumination light passing through the measurement object. The illumination light is a plurality of illumination lights. In a case where the measurement object is positioned at a reference position, an illumination center at which an optical axis of each of the plurality of illumination lights and the measurement object intersect, and a measurement center that is a center of a measurement region of the measurement object measured by the measurement unit are positioned at different positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventor: Tsugio Gomi
  • Patent number: 10283154
    Abstract: A magnetic recording medium includes a substrate, a barrier layer, a crystal grain size control layer, and a magnetic layer that are arranged in this order. The barrier layer includes at least one of oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and the crystal grain size control layer is a crystalline layer including Ag and having an average thickness in a range of 0.1 nm to 1 nm. The barrier layer makes contact with the crystal grain size control layer, and the magnetic layer includes an alloy having a L10 crystal structure and a (001) face orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignees: SHOWA DENKO K.K., TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Shintaro Hinata, Shin Saito, Takayuki Fukushima, Haruhisa Ohashi, Kazuya Niwa, Lei Zhang, Yuji Murakami, Hisato Shibata, Takehiro Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Kanbe, Tomoo Shige
  • Patent number: 10269866
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element includes: a first ferromagnetic layer; a second ferromagnetic layer; and a first nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, the first ferromagnetic layer including (MnxGay)100-zPtz, the (MnxGay)100-zPtz having a tetragonal crystal structure, where 45 atm %?x?75 atm %, 25 atm %?y?55 atm %, x+y=100 atm %, and 0 atm %<z?7 atm %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2019
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Yushi Kato, Tadaomi Daibou, Eiji Kitagawa, Takao Ochiai, Junichi Ito, Takahide Kubota, Shigemi Mizukami, Terunobu Miyazaki
  • Patent number: 10242700
    Abstract: A method and system provide a magnetic read apparatus. The magnetic read apparatus includes a read sensor. The read sensor includes a pinning layer, a nonmagnetic insertion layer and a pinned layer. The nonmagnetic insertion layer has a location selected from a first location and a second location. The first location is between the pinned layer and the pinning layer. The second location is within the pinning layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2019
    Assignee: Western Digital (Fremont), LLC
    Inventors: Joshua Jones, Christian Kaiser, Yuankai Zheng, Qunwen Leng
  • Patent number: 10157634
    Abstract: A process flow is disclosed for forming a MR sensor having an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer recessed behind a bottom shield to reduce reader shield spacing and improve pin related noise. An AP2/AFM coupling layer/AP1 stack that extends from an air bearing surface to the MR sensor backside is formed above the AFM layer. The AP2 layer is pinned by the AFM layer, and the AP1 layer serves as a reference layer to an overlying free layer during a read operation. The AP1 and AP2 layers have improved resistance to magnetization flipping because back portions thereof have a full cross-track width “w” between MR sensor sides thereby enabling greater pinning strength from the AFM layer. Front portions of the AP1/AP2 layers lie under the free layer and have a track width less than “w”. The bottom shield may have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2018
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Ruhang Ding, Yewhee Chye, Wenyu Chen, Kunliang Zhang, Yan Wu, Min Li
  • Patent number: 10103321
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element according to an embodiment includes: a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer; a first nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer; and a third magnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the first nonmagnetic layer, the first magnetic layer containing Mn and at least one of Ge, Ga, or Al, and the third magnetic layer containing Mn2VZ, where V represents vanadium, and Z represents at least one element of Al or Ga.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Yushi Kato, Tadaomi Daibou, Qinli Ma, Atsushi Sugihara, Shigemi Mizukami, Terunobu Miyazaki
  • Patent number: 10026425
    Abstract: A double pinned magnetoresistance element has a temporary ferromagnetic layer, two PtMn antiferromagnetic pinning layers, and two associated synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) pinned layer structures, the temporary ferromagnetic layer operable to improve annealing of the two PtMn antiferromagnetic pinning layers and the two associated SAFs to two different magnetic directions that are a relative ninety degrees apart.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2018
    Assignee: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
    Inventor: Paolo Campiglio
  • Patent number: 10008251
    Abstract: The disclosed technology generally relates to magnetic memory and more particularly to voltage-controlled magnetic memory, and to methods of using same. In one aspect, a magnetic memory comprises a first magnetic stack including a first gate dielectric layer formed between a first gate electrode and a first free ferromagnetic layer. The magnetic memory additionally comprises a second magnetic stack including a second gate dielectric layer formed between a second gate electrode and a second free ferromagnetic layer. The first free ferromagnetic layer and the second free ferromagnetic layer of the magnetic memory are magnetically coupled, contiguous and are positioned at an oblique angle relative to each other, and the first gate electrode and the second gate electrode are electrically isolated from each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignees: IMEC vzw, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
    Inventors: Koen Martens, Adrien Vaysset
  • Patent number: 9997179
    Abstract: A storage element is provided. The storage element includes a memory layer; a fixed magnetization layer; an intermediate layer including a non-magnetic material; wherein the intermediate layer is provided between the memory layer and the fixed magnetization layer; wherein the fixed magnetization layer includes at least a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer, and wherein the first magnetic layer includes a CoFeB composition. A memory apparatus and a magnetic head are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2018
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 9990943
    Abstract: A magnetic field-assisted magnetic recording (MAMR) head is provided, which includes a recording main pole and a texture control layer (TCL), a seed control layer, and a spin torque oscillator (STO) positioned over the main pole, in this order, in a stacking direction from a leading side to a trailing side of the recording head. The STO has a crystallographic preferred growth orientation and includes a spin polarized layer (SPL). The TCL may include a Cu layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2018
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Susumu Okamura, Yo Sato, Keiichi Nagasaka, Masashige Sato
  • Patent number: 9939466
    Abstract: A non-contact current sensor includes a spin valve structure (2), an electrical unit (4) that applies a varying current to the spin valve structure (2), and a resistance reading unit that electrically reads out a resistance value of the spin valve structure (2). When a current-induced magnetic field is detected, a coercive force of a free layer (14) is configured to be larger than the current-induced magnetic field as a detection target, and the electrical unit (4) allows the magnetization directions of a pinned layer (12) and the free layer (14) to transition between a mutually parallel state and a mutually anti-parallel state by applying the current to the spin valve structure (2). The resistance reading unit (5) detects a threshold value corresponding to the transition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: III HOLDINGS 3, LLC
    Inventor: Yasushi Ogimoto
  • Patent number: 9922670
    Abstract: A data reader may have a magnetoresistive stack consisting of at least magnetically free and magnetically fixed structures with the magnetically fixed structure set to a first magnetization direction by a pinning structure separated from an air bearing surface by a front shield portion of a magnetic shield. The pinning structure can meet the front shield portion with a planar sidewall angled at 10° or less with respect to the ABS.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Adam A. Lapicki, Marcus W. Ormston, Mark T. Kief
  • Patent number: 9870790
    Abstract: A read sensor and fabrication method thereof. The method includes forming a bottom stack that includes an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer, a lower ferromagnetic stitch layer above the AFM layer and a sacrificial cap layer on the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer. The sacrificial cap layer is formed of a material that alloys magnetically with the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer. The method further includes substantially removing the sacrificial cap layer. After substantially removing the sacrificial layer, an upper ferromagnetic stitch layer is deposited on the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer of the bottom stack to form a stitch interface that provides relatively strong magnetic coupling between the lower ferromagnetic stitch layer of the bottom stack and the upper ferromagnetic stitch layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Sameh Hassan, Yuqing Du, Marcus Ormston, Denis O'Donnell, Kevin McNeill
  • Patent number: 9831422
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device includes a first magnetic structure on a substrate, a second magnetic structure between the substrate and the first magnetic structure, and a tunnel barrier between the first and second magnetic structures. At least one of the first and second magnetic structures includes a perpendicular magnetic layer on the tunnel barrier, and a polarization enhancement layer interposed between the tunnel barrier and the perpendicular magnetic layer. Here, the polarization enhancement layer contains cobalt, iron, and at least one of the elements of Group IV, and the polarization enhancement layer has a magnetization direction perpendicular to or substantially perpendicular to a top surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignees: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD., INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Woojin Kim, Joonmyoung Lee, Yong Sung Park, Stuart S. P. Parkin
  • Patent number: 9825219
    Abstract: Embodiments of the inventive concepts provide magnetic memory devices. The magnetic memory device includes a magnetic tunnel junction including a free layer, a pinned layer, and a tunnel barrier layer between the free layer and the pinned layer. The free layer includes a perpendicular magnetic material doped with non-magnetic impurities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Sungmin Ahn
  • Patent number: 9812637
    Abstract: A spin valve magnetoresistance element has an even number of free layer structures for which half has an antiferromagnetic coupling and the other half has a ferromagnetic coupling with respect to associated pinned layers. The different couplings are the result of an even number different spacer layers having respective different thicknesses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2017
    Assignees: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC, Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique Et Aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Claude Fermon, Paolo Campiglio, Bryan Cadugan
  • Patent number: 9804234
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance element can have a substrate; a ferromagnetic seed layer consisting of a binary alloy of NiFe; and a first nonmagnetic spacer layer disposed under and directly adjacent to the ferromagnetic seed layer and proximate to the substrate, wherein the first nonmagnetic spacer layer is comprised of Ta or Ru. A method fabricating of fabricating a magnetoresistance element can include depositing a seed layer structure over a semiconductor substrate, wherein the depositing the seed layer structure includes depositing at least a ferromagnetic seed layer over the substrate. The method further can further include depositing a free layer structure over the seed layer structure, wherein the depositing the ferromagnetic seed layer comprises depositing the ferromagnetic seed layer in the presence of a motion along a predetermined direction and in the presence of a predetermined magnetic field having the same predetermined direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2017
    Assignees: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC, Commissariat à L'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
    Inventors: Cyril Dressler, Claude Fermon, Myriam Pannetier-Lecoeur, Marie-Claire Cyrille, Paolo Campiglio
  • Patent number: 9799357
    Abstract: A MR sensor is disclosed with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer recessed behind a bottom shield to reduce reader shield spacing and improve pin related noise. Above the AFM layer is an AP2/AFM coupling layer/AP1 stack that extends from an air bearing surface to the MR sensor backside. The AP2 layer is pinned by the AFM layer, and the AP1 layer serves as a reference layer to an overlying free layer during a read operation. The AP1 and AP2 layers have improved resistance to magnetization flipping because back portions thereof have a full cross-track width “w” between MR sensor sides thereby enabling greater pinning strength from the AFM layer. Front portions of the AP1/AP2 layers lie under the free layer and have a track width less than “w”. The bottom shield may have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling structure. A process flow is provided for fabricating the MR sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Ruhang Ding, Yewhee Chye, Wenyu Chen, Kunliang Zhang, Min Li
  • Patent number: 9779767
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes a transducer structure having: a lower shield, an upper shield above the lower shield, a current-perpendicular-to-plane sensor between the upper and lower shields, and an insulating layer between the at least one lead and the shield closest thereto. At least one lead is selected from a group including: an upper electrical lead between the sensor and the upper shield and a lower electrical lead between the sensor and the lower shield. The at least one lead is in electrical communication with the sensor. A width of one or more of the at least one lead in a cross track direction is about equal to a width of the sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Robert E. Fontana, Jr., Jason Liang, Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 9653103
    Abstract: A magnetic head according to an embodiment includes: a spin valve element with three terminals including a nonmagnetic base layer, a first terminal including a first magnetic layer, a second terminal including a second magnetic layer, and a third terminal including a third magnetic layer; and a slider including a first external lead terminal connecting to the first terminal, a second external lead terminal connecting to the second terminal, and a third external lead terminal connecting to the third terminal, in an operation, a first current being caused to flow from the second external lead terminal to the third terminal via the second terminal and the nonmagnetic base layer, and a second current that is lower than the first current being caused to flow to the first terminal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2017
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Yuuzo Kamiguchi, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Masayuki Takagishi, Tomomi Funayama, Kenichiro Yamada, Satoshi Shirotori, Susumu Hashimoto
  • Patent number: 9647030
    Abstract: Provided is a magnetic memory device for applying an in-plane current to a conductive wire adjacent to a free magnetic layer having an in-plane magnetic anisotropy to induce a flux reversal of the free magnetic layer and simultaneously applying a voltage to each magnetic tunnel junction cell selectively to reverse magnetization of the free magnetic layer selectively at each specific voltage. The magnetic memory device may implement high density integration by reducing a volume since a spin-hall spin-torque causing a flux reversal is generated at an interface of the conductive wire and the free magnetic layer, ensure thermal stability by enhancing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic layer, and reduce a critical current density by increasing an amount of spin current. In addition, by increasing tunnel magnetic resistance with a thick insulating body, the magnetic memory device may increase a reading rate without badly affecting the critical current density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: KOREA UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AND BUSINESS FOUNDATION
    Inventors: Kyung-Jin Lee, Seo-Won Lee
  • Patent number: 9647203
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetoresistive element includes a first magnetic layer including O and one of Co, Fe, Ni and Mn, a second magnetic layer, a nonmagnetic layer between the first and second magnetic layers, a first electrode connected to the first magnetic layer, a second electrode connected to the second magnetic layer, and a resistive layer including N between the first magnetic layer and the first electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Eiji Kitagawa, Minoru Amano
  • Patent number: 9634239
    Abstract: A magnetic element is provided. The magnetic element includes a free magnetization layer having a surface area that is approximately 1,600 nm2 or less, the free magnetization layer including a magnetization state that is configured to be changed; an insulation layer coupled to the free magnetization layer, the insulation layer including a non-magnetic material; and a magnetization fixing layer coupled to the insulation layer opposite the free magnetization layer, the magnetization fixing layer including a fixed magnetization so as to be capable of serving as a reference of the free magnetization layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida
  • Patent number: 9601138
    Abstract: A read head is longitudinally biased unidirectionally by laterally abutting soft magnetic layers or multilayers. The soft magnetic layers are themselves magnetically stabilized by layers of antiferromagnetic material that are exchange coupled to them. The same layers of antiferromagnetic materials can be used to stabilize a unidirectional anisotropy of an overhead shield by means of exchange coupling. By including the antiferromagnetic material layer within the patterned biasing structure itself, an additional layer of antiferromagnetic material that normally covers the entire sensor structure is eliminated. The elimination of an entire layer is also advantageous for reducing the inter-sensor spacing in a TDMR (two dimensional magnetic recording) configuration where two sensor are vertically stacked on top of each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2017
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Glen Garfunkel, Yan Wu, Junjie Quan, Yewhee Chye
  • Patent number: 9590010
    Abstract: Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) devices employing a pinned layer stack with a thin top anti-parallel (AP2) layer and having a transitioning layer providing a transitioning start to a body-centered cubic (BCC) crystalline/amorphous structure below the top anti-parallel (AP2) layer, to promote a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) with reduced pinned layer thickness are disclosed. A first anti-parallel (AP) ferromagnetic (AP1) layer in a pinned layer has a face-centered cubic (FCC) or hexagonal closed packed (HCP) crystalline structure. A transitioning material (e.g., Iron (Fe)) is provided in a transitioning layer between the AP1 layer and an AFC layer (e.g., Chromium (Cr)) that starts a transition from a FCC or HCP crystalline structure, to a BCC crystalline/amorphous structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2017
    Assignee: QUALCOMM Incorporated
    Inventors: Matthias Georg Gottwald, Jimmy Jianan Kan, Chando Park, Xiaochun Zhu, Seung Hyuk Kang
  • Patent number: 9552834
    Abstract: A multi-sensor reader that includes a first sensor that has a first sensor stack, which includes a sensing layer that has a magnetization that changes according to an external magnetic field. The first sensor also includes a first seed element below the first sensor stack. The multi-sensor reader also includes a second sensor stacked over the first sensor. The second sensor includes a second sensor stack, which includes a sensing layer that has a magnetization that changes according to the external magnetic field. The second sensor also includes a second seed element below the second sensor stack. The second seed element is structurally different from the first seed element and includes a stabilization feature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Victor Boris Sapozhnikov, Steven P. Bozeman, Mohammed Shariat Ullah Patwari, LiWen Tan, Jae Young Yi, Eric W. Singleton
  • Patent number: 9537088
    Abstract: Some embodiments include a magnetic tunnel junction comprising magnetic reference material having an iridium-containing region between a multi-layer stack and a polarizer region. Some embodiments include a magnetic tunnel junction having a conductive first magnetic electrode which contains magnetic recording material, a conductive second magnetic electrode spaced from the first electrode and which contains magnetic reference material, and a non-magnetic insulator material between the first and second electrodes. The magnetic reference material of the second electrode includes a first region containing a stack of cobalt alternating with one or more of platinum, palladium and nickel; includes an iridium-containing second region over the first region; and includes a cobalt-containing third region over the second region. The third region is directly against the non-magnetic insulator material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2017
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan D. Harms, Wei Chen, Sunil S. Murthy
  • Patent number: 9514771
    Abstract: A magneto-resistive effect element has a first shield layer, a second layer, and a multilayer film that is positioned between the first shield layer and the second shield layer. The multilayer film has a free layer, a first pinned layer, a nonmagnetic spacer layer, a second pinned layer that fixes a magnetization direction of the first pinned layer, and an antiferromagnetic layer that is exchange-coupled with the second pinned layer. The antiferromagnetic layer is positioned away from an air bearing surface (ABS).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Kenzo Makino, Satoshi Miura
  • Patent number: 9484049
    Abstract: A TMR sensor with a free layer having a FL1/FL2/FL3 configuration is disclosed in which FL1 is FeCo or a FeCo alloy with a thickness between 2 and 15 Angstroms. The FL2 layer is made of CoFeB or a CoFeB alloy having a thickness from 2 to 10 Angstroms. The FL3 layer is from 10 to 100 Angstroms thick and has a negative ? to offset the positive ? from FL1 and FL2 layers and is comprised of CoB or a CoBQ alloy where Q is one of Ni, Mn, Tb, W, Hf, Zr, Nb, and Si. Alternatively, the FL3 layer may be a composite such as CoB/CoFe, (CoB/CoFe)n where n is ?2 or (CoB/CoFe)m/CoB where m is ?1. The free layer described herein affords a high TMR ratio above 60% while achieving low values for ? (<5×10?6), RA (1.5 ohm/?m2), and Hc (<6 Oe).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 1, 2016
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Hui-Chuan Wang, Tong Zhao, Min Li, Kunliang Zhang
  • Patent number: 9472215
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic sensor includes a lower scissor free layer, and an upper scissor free layer above the lower scissor free layer in a track direction, where at least one of the scissor free layers has a generally T-shaped periphery. According to another embodiment, a method includes forming a lower scissor free layer, and forming an upper scissor free layer above the lower scissor free layer in a track direction, where at least one of the one of the scissor free layers has a generally T-shaped periphery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2016
    Assignee: HGST Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Hongquan Jiang, Quang Le, Xiaoyong Liu, Lei Wang
  • Patent number: 9459293
    Abstract: A current sensor includes: four magnetic sensor elements arranged within a plane orthogonal to a measured current, having a symmetrical magnetic characteristics curve, and adapted to convert a magnitude of a magnetic field into an electrical signal and output the electrical signal; a bridge circuit including the four magnetic sensor elements; and a bias magnetic field application member adapted to applying a bias magnetic field to the magnetic sensor elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2016
    Assignee: YOKOGAWA ELECTRIC CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shinya Mito, Kazuma Takenaka, Satoshi Kato
  • Patent number: 9444037
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive memory array including a plurality of magnetoresistive memory elements wherein each magnetoresistive memory element comprises a free layer including at least one ferromagnetic layer having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, a fixed layer, and a tunnel barrier, disposed between and in contact with the free and fixed layers. The tunnel barrier includes a first metal-oxide layer, having a thickness between 1 and 10 Angstroms, a second metal-oxide layer, having a thickness between 3 and 6 Angstroms, disposed on the first metal-oxide layer, and a third metal-oxide layer, having a thickness between 3 and 6 Angstroms, disposed over the second metal-oxide layer. In one embodiment, the third metal-oxide layer is in contact with the free layer or fixed layer. The tunnel barrier may also include a fourth metal-oxide layer, having a thickness between 1 and 10 Angstroms, disposed between the second and third metal-oxide layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2016
    Assignee: Everspin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Renu Whig, Jason Janesky, Nicholas Rizzo, Jon Slaughter, Dimitri Houssameddine
  • Patent number: 9437810
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetoresistive element includes a first magnetic layer having a variable magnetization direction; a second magnetic layer having an invariable magnetization direction; and a tunnel barrier layer provided between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer and including an MgFeO film, wherein the MgFeO film contains at least one element selected from a group consisting of Ti, V, Mn, and Cu.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2016
    Assignee: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Eiji Kitagawa, Takao Ochiai, Kay Yakushiji, Makoto Konoto, Hitoshi Kubota, Shinji Yuasa, Takayuki Nozaki, Akio Fukushima
  • Patent number: 9437222
    Abstract: A magnetic oscillator for use in Microwave Assisted Magnetic Recording (MAMR). The magnetic oscillator can be a spin torque oscillator and includes a magnetic spin polarization layer, a magnetic field generation layer and a non-magnetic intermediate layer sandwiched between the magnetic spin polarization layer and the magnetic field generation layer. The non-magnetic intermediate layer is constructed of a material that provides improved performance, increased lifespan and thermal robustness. The magnetic intermediate layer is constructed of an alloy of Ag and an element X. More preferably the element X can be Sn or Zn.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2016
    Assignee: HGST Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Susumu Okamura, Masao Shiimoto, Katsuro Watanabe, Masashige Sato, Keiichi Nagasaka, Yo Sato, Masukazu Igarashi
  • Patent number: 9412401
    Abstract: A data storage device may be configured at least with a magnetic stack that contacts a magnetic shield. The magnetic stack can be disposed between first and second side shields and having at least one layer constructed of a CoFeNiB material. The magnetic shield may have a synthetic antiferromagnet with a non-magnetic layer disposed between first and second ferromagnetic layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2016
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Yuqing Du, Sameh Sayed Ali Hassan, Kevin A. McNeill, Aidan Goggin, Marcus W. Ormston
  • Patent number: 9379312
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive effect element of the present invention includes: a domain wall motion layer, a spacer layer and a reference layer. The domain wall motion layer is made of ferromagnetic material with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spacer layer is formed on the domain wall motion layer and made of non-magnetic material. The reference layer is formed on the spacer layer and made of ferromagnetic material, magnetization of the reference layer being fixed. The domain wall motion layer includes at least one domain wall, and stores data corresponding to a position of the domain wall. An anisotropy magnetic field of the domain wall motion layer is larger than a value in which the domain wall motion layer can hold the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and smaller than an essential value of an anisotropy magnetic field of the ferromagnetic material of the domain wall motion layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2016
    Assignee: NEC CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tadahiko Sugibayashi, Eiji Kariyada, Kaoru Mori, Norikazu Ohshima, Shunsuke Fukami, Tetsuhiro Suzuki, Hironobu Tanigawa, Sadahiko Miura, Nobuyuki Ishiwata
  • Patent number: 9373776
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetoresistive element includes first and second magnetic layers and a first nonmagnetic layer. The first magnetic layer has an axis of easy magnetization perpendicular to a film plane, and a variable magnetization. The second magnetic layer has an axis of easy magnetization perpendicular to a film plane, and an invariable magnetization. The first nonmagnetic layer is provided between the first and second magnetic layers. The second magnetic layer includes third and fourth magnetic layers, and a second nonmagnetic layer formed between the third and fourth magnetic layers. The third magnetic layer is in contact with the first nonmagnetic layer and includes Co and at least one of Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, and W.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2016
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Toshihiko Nagase, Eiji Kitagawa, Katsuya Nishiyama, Tadashi Kai, Koji Ueda, Daisuke Watanabe
  • Patent number: 9368176
    Abstract: One embodiment of a magnetoresistive element comprises: a free ferromagnetic layer comprising a reversible magnetization direction directed substantially perpendicular to a film surface in its equilibrium state; a pinned ferromagnetic layer comprising a fixed magnetization direction directed substantially perpendicular to the film surface; a nonmagnetic tunnel barrier layer disposed between the free ferromagnetic layer and the pinned ferromagnetic layer and having a direct contact with the free and pinned ferromagnetic layers; a first nonmagnetic conductive layer disposed adjacent to and having a direct contact with a side of a free ferromagnetic layer opposite to the tunnel barrier layer; and a second nonmagnetic conductive layer disposed adjacent to a side of the pinned ferromagnetic layer opposite to the tunnel barrier layer, wherein the free ferromagnetic layer and the pinned ferromagnetic layers comprise at least one element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, and Ni, at least one element selec
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2016
    Inventor: Alexander Mikhailovich Shukh
  • Patent number: 9355668
    Abstract: A hard-disk drive having a structurally efficient magnetic head slider utilizes a MAMR-based spin torque oscillator (STO) for head-disk contact detection and for flying height sensing. Contact detection and spacing estimation techniques consider the nominal temperature difference, and thus different criteria, between read and write operations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2016
    Assignee: HGST Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Yasutaka Nishida, Masato Shiimoto, Hiroyuki Katada, Ikuya Tagawa, Junguo Xu
  • Patent number: 9343657
    Abstract: There is provided a storage element including a layered construction including a storage layer that has magnetization perpendicular to a surface of the storage layer and whose direction of magnetization is changed corresponding to information, a pinned magnetization layer that has magnetization perpendicular to a surface of the pinned magnetization layer and serves as a standard for information stored in the storage layer, and an insulating layer that is composed of a non-magnetic material and is provided between the storage layer and the pinned magnetization layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Tetsuya Asayama, Hiroyuki Uchida