Having One Film Pinned (e.g., Spin Valve) Patents (Class 360/324.1)
  • Patent number: 11410689
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a non-magnetic layer positioned between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, and at least one of the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer is a Heusler alloy represented by the following General Formula (1): Co2Fe?X???(1) (in Formula (1), X represents one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Mn, Cr, Si, Al, Ga and Ge, and ? and ? represent numbers that satisfy 2.3??+?, ?<?, and 0.5<?<1.9).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2020
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2022
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazuumi Inubushi, Katsuyuki Nakada, Tetsuya Uemura
  • Patent number: 11385305
    Abstract: A tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensor device is disclosed that includes one or more TMR sensors. The TMR sensor device comprises a first resistor comprising a first TMR film, a second resistor comprising a second TMR film different than the first TMR film, a third resistor comprising the second TMR film, and a fourth resistor comprising the first TMR film. The first TMR film comprises a reference layer having a first magnetization direction anti-parallel to a second magnetization direction of a pinned layer. The second TMR film comprises a reference layer having a first magnetization direction parallel to a second magnetization direction of a first pinned layer, and a second pinned layer having a third magnetization direction anti-parallel to the first magnetization direction of the reference layer and the second magnetization direction of the first pinned layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2022
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Yuankai Zheng, Christian Kaiser, Zhitao Diao, Chih-Ching Hu, Chen-Jung Chien, Yung-Hung Wang, Dujiang Wan, Ronghui Zhou, Ming Mao, Ming Jiang, Daniele Mauri
  • Patent number: 11328743
    Abstract: Provided is a precursor of a current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistive element having a laminated structure of ferromagnetic metal layer/nonmagnetic metal layer/ferromagnetic metal layer, the precursor having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer containing a non-magnetic metal and an oxide in a predetermined ratio such that the distribution thereof is nearly uniform at the atomic level. Also provided is a current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistive element having a current-confinement structure (CCP) which has: a current confinement structure region made of a conductive alloy and obtained by heat-treating a laminated structure of a ferromagnetic metal layer and a nonmagnetic intermediate layer at a predetermined temperature; and a high-resistance metal alloy region containing an oxide and surrounding the current confinement structure region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2022
    Assignee: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Inventors: Tomoya Nakatani, Taisuke Sasaki, Takao Furubayashi, Kazuhiro Hono
  • Patent number: 11201189
    Abstract: A semiconductor device includes a first rare earth oxide layer, a first magnetic layer adjacent to the first rare earth oxide layer, a second rare earth oxide layer, a second magnetic layer adjacent to the second rare earth oxide layer, and a nonmagnetic layer. The first magnetic layer is disposed between the first rare earth oxide layer and the nonmagnetic layer and is oriented in a crystal surface which is the same as a crystal surface of the nonmagnetic layer. The second magnetic layer is disposed between the second rare earth oxide layer and the nonmagnetic layer and is oriented in a crystal surface which is the same as a crystal surface of the nonmagnetic layer. The nonmagnetic layer is disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2021
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Youngmin Eeh, Toshihiko Nagase, Daisuke Watanabe, Kazuya Sawada, Kenichi Yoshino, Tadaaki Oikawa, Hiroyuki Ohtori
  • Patent number: 11145807
    Abstract: An electronic device may include a semiconductor memory, and the semiconductor memory may include a substrate; a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structure including a free layer, a pinned layer, and a tunnel barrier layer, the free layer having a variable magnetization direction, the pinned layer having a fixed magnetization direction, the tunnel barrier layer being interposed between the free layer and the pinned layer; and an interface layer and a damping constant enhancing layer interposed between the tunnel barrier layer and the pinned layer, wherein the interface layer may be structured to reduce metal diffusion and the damping constant enhancing layer includes a material having a relatively high damping constant to suppress switching of the magnetization direction of the pinned layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2020
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2021
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventors: Jongkoo Lim, Gukcheon Kim, Soogil Kim, Jeongmyeong Kim
  • Patent number: 11127894
    Abstract: This spin-orbit-torque magnetization rotating element includes a spin-orbit torque wiring extending in a first direction and a first ferromagnetic layer laminated on the spin-orbit torque wiring, wherein the spin-orbit torque wiring includes a compound represented by XYZ or X2YZ with respect to a stoichiometric composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Katsuyuki Nakada, Yohei Shiokawa
  • Patent number: 11120933
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive sensor includes a free layer and a cap over the free layer. The cap includes an upper layer and an insertion layer between the upper layer and the free layer. The insertion layer includes a non-magnetic alloy formed of at least one refractory metal and at least one ferromagnetic metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2021
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Liwen Tan, Jae-Young Yi, Eric W. Singleton
  • Patent number: 11120856
    Abstract: An example article includes a composite free layer and a conductive channel. The composite free layer includes a high-anisotropy ferromagnetic layer, a non-magnetic transition metal layer adjacent to the high-anisotropy ferromagnetic layer, and an ultra-low damping magnetic insulator. The non-magnetic transition metal layer is between the ultra-low damping magnetic insulator and the high-anisotropy ferromagnetic layer. An example spin-orbit torque (SOT) stack may include the example article. Techniques for forming and switching example articles and SOT stacks are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2021
    Assignee: Regents of the University of Minnesota
    Inventors: Randall H. Victora, Roy C. Bell
  • Patent number: 10998491
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element is provided, which can, even in a region where the element size of the magnetoresistance effect element is small, implement stable record holding at higher temperatures, and moreover which has higher thermal stability. The magnetoresistance effect element has a configuration including reference layer (B1)/first non-magnetic layer (1)/first magnetic layer (21)/first non-magnetic insertion layer (31)/second magnetic layer (22). A magnetostatic coupling is established between the first magnetic layer (21) and the second magnetic layer (22) due to magnetostatic interaction becoming dominant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Kyota Watanabe, Shunsuke Fukami, Hideo Sato, Hideo Ohno, Tetsuo Endoh
  • Patent number: 10937951
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element according to an aspect of the present disclosure includes a first ferromagnetic layer as a magnetization fixed layer including a ferromagnetic Heusler alloy, a second ferromagnetic layer as a magnetization free layer including a ferromagnetic Heusler alloy, and a nonmagnetic spacer layer provided between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, and the nonmagnetic spacer layer includes a nonmagnetic Fe group, Co group, or Ni group Heusler alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Katsuyuki Nakada, Kazuumi Inubushi
  • Patent number: 10916283
    Abstract: A magnetic domain wall movement element includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a magnetic recording layer, a nonmagnetic layer, a first electrode, and a second electrode. The magnetic recording layer includes: a first region which overlaps with the first electrode and the first ferromagnetic layer in a first direction; a second region which overlaps with the second electrode and the first ferromagnetic layer in the first direction; and a third region which is located between the first region and the second region. An area of a first section in the first region facing the first electrode is larger than an area of a second section in the second region facing the second electrode. The first ferromagnetic layer overlaps with a part of the first electrode and a part of the second electrode in the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Takuya Ashida, Tomoyuki Sasaki, Tatsuo Shibata
  • Patent number: 10868235
    Abstract: A synthetic antiferromagnetic structure for a spintronic device is disclosed and has an FL2/Co or Co alloy/antiferromagnetic coupling/Co or Co alloy/CoFeB configuration where FL2 is a ferromagnetic free layer with intrinsic PMA. Antiferromagnetic coupling is improved by inserting a Co or Co alloy dusting layer on top and bottom surfaces of the antiferromagnetic coupling layer. The FL2 layer may be a L10 ordered alloy, a rare earth-transition metal alloy, or an (A1/A2)n laminate where A1 is one of Co, CoFe, or an alloy thereof, and A2 is one of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Mg, Mo, Os, Si, V, Ni, NiCo, and NiFe, or A1 is Fe and A2 is V. A method is also provided for forming the synthetic antiferromagnetic structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2020
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Robert Beach, Guenole Jan, Yu-Jen Wang, Ru-Ying Tong
  • Patent number: 10832847
    Abstract: An embodiment includes an apparatus comprising: a substrate; a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), on the substrate, comprising a fixed layer, a free layer, and a dielectric layer between the fixed and free layers; and a first synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) layer, a second SAF layer, and an intermediate layer, which includes a non-magnetic metal, between the first and second SAF layers; wherein the first SAF layer includes a Heusler alloy. Other embodiments are described herein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2020
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Brian S. Doyle, Kaan Oguz, Kevin P. O'Brien, David L. Kencke, Charles C. Kuo, Mark L. Doczy, Satyarth Suri, Robert S. Chau
  • Patent number: 10790441
    Abstract: A switching device, comprising an anti-ferromagnet structure having an upper layer and a lower layer, the upper layer and lower layer anti-ferromagnetically coupled by an exchange coupling layer, the upper and lower layer formed of a similar material but having differing volumes, and wherein the device is configured to inject symmetrically spin-polarized currents through the upper and lower layers to achieve magnetic switching of the anti-ferromagnet structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2020
    Assignee: Purdue Research Foundation
    Inventors: Kerem Y. Camsari, Ahmed Zeeshan Pervaiz, Rafatul Faria, Esteban E Marinero-Caceres, Supriyo Datta
  • Patent number: 10756257
    Abstract: Provided is a magnetoresistance effect device comprising a magnetoresistance effect element including a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer and a spacer layer and a high-frequency signal line. The high-frequency signal line includes an overlapping part disposed at a position overlapping the magnetoresistance effect element and a non-overlapping part disposed at a position not overlapping the magnetoresistance effect element in a plan view from a stacking direction. At least a part of the non-overlapping part is formed to be thicker than at least a part of the overlapping part. A distance in the stacking direction between a virtual plane including a surface on the side of the overlapping part of the first ferromagnetic layer and a center line in the high-frequency signal line in the stacking direction is shorter in at least a part of the overlapping part than in at least a part of the non-overlapping part.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Naomichi Degawa
  • Patent number: 10755733
    Abstract: A read head includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, a first diffusion-assist nonmagnetic metallic layer located between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, a second diffusion-assist nonmagnetic metallic layer located between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer, and a semiconductor spacer layer located between the first diffusion-assist nonmagnetic metallic layer and the second diffusion-assist nonmagnetic metallic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES LLC
    Inventors: Yuankai Zheng, Christian Kaiser, Zhitao Diao
  • Patent number: 10749105
    Abstract: To provide a key monocrystalline magnetoresistance element necessary for accomplishing mass production and cost reduction for applying a monocrystalline giant magnetoresistance element using a Heusler alloy to practical devices. A monocrystalline magnetoresistance element of the present invention includes a silicon substrate 11, a base layer 12 having a B2 structure laminated on the silicon substrate 11, a first non-magnetic layer 13 laminated on the base layer 12 having a B2 structure, and a giant magnetoresistance effect layer 17 having at least one laminate layer including a lower ferromagnetic layer 14, an upper ferromagnetic layer 16, and a second non-magnetic layer 15 disposed between the lower ferromagnetic layer 14 and the upper ferromagnetic layer 16.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2020
    Assignee: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Inventors: Jiamin Chen, Yuya Sakuraba, Jun Liu, Hiroaki Sukegawa, Kazuhiro Hono
  • Patent number: 10741318
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization rotational element is provided in which deterioration in the degree of integration is prevented from being caused and a magnetization rotation can be easily realized. A spin current magnetization rotational element includes a spin-orbit torque wiring which extends in a first direction, a first ferromagnetic layer which is laminated in a second direction intersecting the first direction; and a first magnetic field applying layer which is disposed to be separated from the first ferromagnetic layer in the first direction and configured to apply an assistant magnetic field assisting a magnetization rotation of the first ferromagnetic layer to the first ferromagnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yugo Ishitani, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10720570
    Abstract: Magnetic sensors using spin Hall effect and methods for fabricating same are provided. One such magnetic sensor includes a spin Hall layer including an electrically conductive, non-magnetic material, a magnetic free layer adjacent to the spin Hall layer, a pair of push terminals configured to enable an electrical current to pass through the magnetic free layer and the spin Hall layer in a direction that is perpendicular to a plane of the free and spin Hall layers, and a pair of sensing terminals configured to sense a voltage when the electrical current passes through the magnetic free layer and the spin Hall layer, where each of the push and sensing terminals is electrically isolated from the other terminals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Quang Le, David John Seagle, Xiaoyong Liu, Daniele Mauri, Yongchul Ahn, Hongquan Jiang, Guangli Liu, David Patrick Druist, Jui-Lung Li
  • Patent number: 10714130
    Abstract: An MTJ or MR read sensor is formed by depositing a stack in a reverse order with a free layer (FL) deposited on a lower shield, followed by a tunneling barrier layer (for an MTJ) or a conducting spacer layer (for an MR) and, finally, an antiferromagnetically coupled pinning structure and an upper shield. This reverse order permits a series of etching processes to be accurately performed on the lower shield and the stack together with the formation of biasing layers that are coupled to the lower shield and the stack, without adversely affecting the stability of the pinning structure. Further, the distance between the FL and the shield is accurately determined and repeatable even down to the sub-nm regime. An upper shield can then be formed and also coupled to the biasing layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Wenyu Chen, Yan Wu
  • Patent number: 10707005
    Abstract: A spin current magnetization rotational element is provided in which deterioration in the degree of integration is prevented from being caused and a magnetization rotation can be easily realized. A spin current magnetization rotational element includes a spin-orbit torque wiring which extends in a first direction, a first ferromagnetic layer which is laminated in a second direction intersecting the first direction; and a first magnetic field applying layer which is disposed to be separated from the first ferromagnetic layer in the first direction and configured to apply an assistant magnetic field assisting a magnetization rotation of the first ferromagnetic layer to the first ferromagnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yugo Ishitani, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10622552
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive stack includes a seed region formed above a base region, a fixed magnetic region formed above the seed region and an intermediate region positioned between the fixed magnetic region and a free magnetic region. The base region may be formed of a material having a lower standard free energy of oxidation than iron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2020
    Assignee: Everspin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Sumio Ikegawa, Jon Slaughter, Renu Whig
  • Patent number: 10622546
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device includes a substrate, a tunnel barrier pattern on the substrate, a first magnetic pattern and a second magnetic pattern spaced apart from each other with the tunnel barrier pattern therebetween, and a short preventing pattern spaced apart from the tunnel barrier pattern with the second magnetic pattern therebetween. The short preventing pattern includes at least two oxide layers and at least two metal layers, which are alternately stacked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2020
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Sung Chul Lee, Se Chung Oh, Sangjun Yun, Jae Hoon Kim, KyungTae Nam, Eunsun Noh
  • Patent number: 10388854
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic memory device includes a stacked structure, the stacked structure including a first magnetic layer having a variable magnetization direction, a second magnetic layer having a fixed magnetization direction and a nonmagnetic layer provided between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer, wherein the nonmagnetic layer comprises a structure in which a first oxide layer formed of a first metal oxide and a second oxide layer formed of a second metal oxide having a relative dielectric constant greater than a relative dielectric constant of the first metal oxide are stacked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2019
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masatoshi Yoshikawa, Shuichi Tsubata
  • Patent number: 10381550
    Abstract: A magnetic junction, a memory using the magnetic junction and method for providing the magnetic junction are described. The magnetic junction includes first and second reference layers, a main barrier layer having a first thickness, a free layer, an engineered secondary barrier layer and a second reference layer. The free layer is switchable between stable magnetic states when a write current is passed through the magnetic junction. The main barrier layer is between the first reference layer and the free layer. The secondary barrier layer is between the free layer and the second reference layer. The engineered secondary barrier layer has a resistance, a second thickness less than the first thickness and a plurality of regions having a reduced resistance less than the resistance. The free and reference layers each has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy and an out-of-plane demagnetization energy less than the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Zheng Duan, Dmytro Apalkov, Vladimir Nikitin
  • Patent number: 10312436
    Abstract: A method for fabricating artificial skyrmions and skyrmion lattices with a stable ground state at room temperature and in the absence of magnetic fields is provided. The lattices are formed by patterning vortex-state nanodots over macroscopic areas on top of an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA); and preparing artificial skyrmion lattices using ion irradiation to suppress PMA in the underlayer and allow imprinting of the vortex structure from the nanodots to form the skyrmion lattices. Alternatively the skyrmions can be formed by ion-irradiating select asymmetric nanodot regions of the PMA underlayer, leading to planar skyrmions without nanodot protrusions. These artificial skyrmions can be used for low dissipation information storage, such as magnetic memory, logic devices and sensors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
    Inventors: Dustin Gilbert, Kai Liu
  • Patent number: 10190923
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a strain sensing element provided on a deformable substrate. The strain sensing element includes: a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer; and an intermediate layer. The second magnetic layer includes Fe1-yBy (0<y?0.3). Magnetization of the second magnetic layer changes according to deformation of the substrate. The intermediate layer is provided between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Shiori Kaji, Hideaki Fukuzawa, Yoshihiko Fuji
  • Patent number: 10126262
    Abstract: A nanopore measurement circuit is disclosed. The nanopore measurement circuit includes a nanopore electrode, a first analog memory and a second analog memory. The nanopore measurement circuit also includes a switch network that selectively connects the nanopore electrode to at least one of the first analog and the second analog memory.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2018
    Assignee: Genia Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Bill Maney, Hui Tian, Santiago Fernandez-Gomez
  • Patent number: 10128435
    Abstract: There is disclosed an information storage element including a first layer including a ferromagnetic layer with a magnetization direction perpendicular to a film face; an insulation layer coupled to the first layer; and a second layer coupled to the insulation layer opposite the first layer, the second layer including a fixed magnetization so as to be capable of serving as a reference of the first layer. The first layer is capable of storing information according to a magnetization state of a magnetic material, and the magnetization state is configured to be changed by a spin injection. A magnitude of an effective diamagnetic field which the first layer receives is smaller than a saturated magnetization amount of the first layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2018
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Hiroyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Asayama
  • Patent number: 10090007
    Abstract: An oscillation mechanism comprises a first spin-polarization layer having a first magnetic moment; a second spin-polarization layer having a second magnetic moment, wherein an orientation of the second magnetic moment is configured to oppose an orientation of the first magnetic moment; and a field-generating layer disposed between the first spin-polarization layer and the second spin-polarization layer for generating a magnetic field that oscillates around one or more of the first and second magnetic moment orientations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2018
    Assignee: Carnegie Mellon University
    Inventor: Jian-Gang Zhu
  • Patent number: 10060992
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor includes an MR element and a bias magnetic field generation unit. The MR element includes a magnetization pinned layer, a nonmagnetic layer and a free layer stacked along Z direction. The bias magnetic field generation unit includes a first antiferromagnetic layer, a ferromagnetic layer and a second antiferromagnetic layer stacked along the Z direction. The bias magnetic field generation unit has a first end face and and a second end face located at opposite ends in the Z direction. The MR element is placed such that the entirety of the MR element is contained in a space formed by shifting an imaginary plane equivalent to the first end face of the bias magnetic field generation unit away from the second end face along the Z direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Yosuke Komasaki
  • Patent number: 10049710
    Abstract: A nonvolatile memory cell includes: a first fixed magnetic layer; a first nonmagnetic electrode disposed on the first magnetic layer; a memory storage layer disposed on the first nonmagnetic electrode; a tunnel barrier layer disposed on the memory storage layer; a second fixed magnetic layer disposed on the tunnel barrier layer; and a second nonmagnetic electrode disposed on the second fixed magnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignees: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS REPRESENTED BY THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, UNIVERSITY OF DENVER
    Inventors: Thomas Silva, Justin Shaw, Eric Edwards, Xin Fan, Hans Nembach
  • Patent number: 10002903
    Abstract: Implementations of the disclosed technology provide an electronic device including a semiconductor memory, wherein the semiconductor memory includes: a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structure including a free layer having a changeable magnetization direction, a pinned layer having a pinned magnetization direction, and a tunnel barrier layer sandwiched between the free layer and the pinned layer; and an under layer located under the MTJ structure, wherein the under layer includes a first under layer including a silicon-based alloy, and a second under layer located on the first under layer and including a metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2018
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventors: Jong-Koo Lim, Guk-Cheon Kim, Yang-Kon Kim, Ku-Youl Jung, Won-Joon Choi
  • Patent number: 9941464
    Abstract: A semiconductor device includes a resistance variable element including a free magnetic layer, a tunnel barrier layer and a pinned magnetic layer; and a magnetic correction layer disposed over the resistance variable element to be separated from the resistance variable element, and having a magnetization direction which is opposite to a magnetization direction of the pinned magnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventors: Seok-Pyo Song, Se-Dong Kim, Hong-Ju Suh
  • Patent number: 9910106
    Abstract: A magnetic field sensor includes a plurality of transducer legs coupled together as a first circuit to sense a magnetic field, wherein each transducer leg comprises a plurality of magnetoresistance sense elements. The magnetic field sensor also includes a second circuit including a first plurality of current lines, wherein each current line of the first plurality of current lines is adjacent to a corresponding plurality of magnetoresistance sense elements of a transducer leg of the plurality of transducer legs. When at least one current line of the first plurality of current lines is energized, a magnetization of each magnetoresistance sense element of the transducer leg is aligned in a first direction or a second direction opposite to the first direction. A routing pattern of the at least one current line is configured to generate an equal population of magnetoresistance sense elements with magnetization aligned in the first and second directions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: Everspin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Phillip G. Mather, Bradley Neal Engel, Guido De Sandre
  • Patent number: 9865799
    Abstract: Provided is an electronic device including a semiconductor memory. The semiconductor memory may include: a pinned layer having a pinned magnetization direction; a free layer having a changeable magnetization direction; a tunnel barrier layer interposed between the pinned layer and the free layer, and including a metal oxide; and a carbon-based compound patch positioned at one or more of between the pinned layer and the tunnel barrier layer, between the free layer and the tunnel barrier layer, and in the tunnel barrier layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventors: Jeong-Myeong Kim, June-Seo Kim, Jong-Koo Lim, Jung-Hwan Moon, Sung-Joon Yoon
  • Patent number: 9859490
    Abstract: This technology provides an electronic device. An electronic device in accordance with an implementation of this document includes semiconductor memory, and the semiconductor memory includes a free layer having a variable magnetization direction; a pinned layer having a pinned magnetization direction; and a tunnel barrier layer interposed between the pinned layer and the free layer, wherein the free layer includes: a first ferromagnetic material; a second ferromagnetic material having a coercive force smaller than that of the first ferromagnetic material; and an amorphous spacer interposed between the first ferromagnetic material and the second ferromagnetic material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2018
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventor: Jeong-Myeong Kim
  • Patent number: 9842615
    Abstract: A method and system provide a magnetic read apparatus. The magnetic read apparatus includes a read sensor. The read sensor includes a pinning layer, a nonmagnetic insertion layer and a pinned layer. The nonmagnetic insertion layer has a location selected from a first location and a second location. The first location is between the pinned layer and the pinning layer. The second location is within the pinning layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: Western Digital (Fremont), LLC
    Inventors: Joshua Jones, Christian Kaiser, Yuankai Zheng, Qunwen Leng
  • Patent number: 9799386
    Abstract: Improved STT MRAM midpoint reference cell configurations are provided. In one aspect, a STT MRAM midpoint reference cell includes: a plurality of word lines having at least one write reference word line and at least one read reference word line; a plurality of bit lines perpendicular to the word lines; at least one source line perpendicular to the bit lines; at least one first magnetic tunnel junction in series with i) a first field effect transistor gated by the write reference word line and ii) a second field effect transistor gated by the read reference word line; and at least one second magnetic tunnel junction in series with iii) a third field effect transistor gated by the write reference word line and iv) a fourth field effect transistor gated by the read reference word line. A method of operating a STT MRAM midpoint reference cell is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: John K. DeBrosse, Matthew R. Wordeman
  • Patent number: 9664572
    Abstract: An apparatus comprises a head transducer and a resistive temperature sensor provided on the head transducer. The resistive temperature sensor comprises a first layer comprising a conductive material and having a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and a second layer comprising at least one of a specular layer and a seed layer. A method is disclosed to fabricate such sensor with a laminated thin film structure to achieve a large TCR. The thicknesses of various layers in the laminated thin film are in the range of few to a few tens of nanometers. The combinations of the deliberately optimized multilayer thin film structures and the fabrication of such films at the elevated temperatures are disclosed to obtain the large TCR.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2017
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Wei Tian, Declan Macken, Huaqing Yin, Venkateswara Rao Inturi, Eric Walter Singleton
  • Patent number: 9659585
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor has a bottom shield layer, an upper shield layer, and a sensor stack adjacent the upper shield layer. The sensor includes a seed layer between the bottom shield layer and an antiferromagnetic layer of the sensor stack. The seed layer has a magnetic layer adjacent the sensor stack and a nonmagnetic layer adjacent the bottom shield layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Eric Walter Singleton, Antonia Tsoukatos, Liwen Tan, Jae-Young Yi
  • Patent number: 9653102
    Abstract: A data reader may have a magnetoresistive stack consisting of at least magnetically free and magnetically fixed structures. The magnetically fixed structure can be set to a first magnetization direction by a first pinning structure separated from an air bearing surface by a front shield portion of a magnetic shield. The front shield portion may be set to a different second magnetization direction by a second pinning structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2017
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Mark T. Kief, Kevin A. McNeill
  • Patent number: 9643385
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are layered Heusler alloys. The layered Heusler alloys can comprise a first layer comprising a first Heusler alloy with a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and a second layer comprising a second Heusler alloy with a fcc crystal structure, the second Heusler alloy being different than the first Heusler alloy, wherein the first layer and the second layer are layered along a layering direction, the layering direction being the [110] or [111] direction of the fcc crystal structure, thereby forming the layered Heusler alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2017
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of The University of Alabama
    Inventors: William H. Butler, Kamaram Munira, Javad G. Azadani
  • Patent number: 9634244
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an MRAM element comprising a magnetic free layer structure and a magnetic reference layer structure with an insulating tunnel junction layer interposed therebetween. The magnetic free layer structure has a variable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to the layer plane thereof. The magnetic reference layer structure includes a first magnetic reference layer formed adjacent to the insulating tunnel junction layer and a second magnetic reference layer separated from the first magnetic reference layer by a first non-magnetic perpendicular enhancement layer. The first and second magnetic reference layers have a first fixed magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to the layer plane thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Huadong Gan, Yiming Huai, Zihui Wang, Yuchen Zhou
  • Patent number: 9633678
    Abstract: A data reader may be configured with at least a detector stack positioned on an air bearing surface and consisting of a spin accumulation channel continuously extending from the air bearing surface to an injector stack. The injector stack can have at least one cladding layer contacting the spin accumulation channel. The at least one cladding layer may have a length as measured perpendicular to the ABS that filters minority spins from the detector stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: David A. Deen, Taras G. Pokhil
  • Patent number: 9634240
    Abstract: Magnetic memory devices include a plurality of first magnetic patterns on a substrate so as to be spaced apart from each other, a first insulating pattern between the first magnetic patterns to define the first magnetic patterns, and a tunnel barrier layer covering the first magnetic patterns and the first insulating pattern. The first insulating pattern includes a first magnetic element, and the first magnetic element is the same as a second magnetic element constituting the first magnetic patterns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 25, 2017
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jongchul Park, Byoungjae Bae, Shin-Jae Kang, Eunsun Noh, Kyung Rae Byun
  • Patent number: 9568564
    Abstract: The invention discloses a magnetic nano-multilayers structure and the method for making it. The multilayer film includes—sequentially from one end to the other end—a substrate, a bottom layer, a magnetic reference layer, a space layer, a magnetic detecting layer and a cap layer. The, up-stated structure is for convert the information of the rotation of the magnetic moment of the magnetic detecting layer into electrical signals. The magnetic detecting layer is of a pinning structure to react to the magnetic field under detection. On the other hand, the invention sandwiches an intervening layer between the AFM and the FM to mitigate the pinning effect from the exchange bias. Moreover, the thickness of the intervening layer is adjustable to control the pinning effect from the exchange bias. The controllability ensures that the magnetic moments of the magnetic reference layer and the magnetic detecting layer remain at right angles to each other when the external field is zero.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2017
    Assignee: INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    Inventors: Qinli Ma, Houfang Liu, Xiufeng Han
  • Patent number: 9570100
    Abstract: A two-dimensional magnetic recording (TDMR) read head with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer recessed behind a center shield. The TDMR read head comprises a first read sensor and a center shield over the first read sensor, wherein the center shield has a first thickness at an air-bearing surface (ABS) and a second thickness at a back surface, the first thickness being greater than the second thickness. A ferromagnetic layer is disposed over a portion of the center shield, wherein the ferromagnetic layer is recessed from the ABS. The TDMR read head also includes an antiferromagnetic layer over the ferromagnetic layer and a second read sensor over the antiferromagnetic layer. By recessing the AFM layer away from the ABS, the down-track spacing between read sensors is reduced, thereby improving TDMR read head performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2017
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: James Freitag, Zheng Gao, Stefan Maat
  • Patent number: 9558767
    Abstract: The CPPGMR element of the present invention has an orientation layer 12 formed on a substrate 11 to texture a Heusler alloy into a (100) direction, an underlying layer 13 that is an electrode for magneto-resistance measurement stacked on the orientation layer 12, a lower ferromagnetic layer 14 and an upper ferromagnetic layer 16 each stacked on the underlying layer 13 and made of a Heusler alloy, a spacer layer 15 sandwiched between the lower ferromagnetic layers 14 and the upper ferromagnetic layers 16, and a cap layer 17 stacked on the upper ferromagnetic layer 16 for surface-protection. This manner makes it possible to provide, inexpensively, an element using a current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magneto-resistance effect (CPPGMR) of a thin film having a trilayered structure of a ferromagnetic metal/a nonmagnetic metal/a ferromagnetic metal, thereby showing excellent performances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2017
    Assignee: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Inventors: Ye Du, Takao Furubayashi, Yukiko Takahashi, Kazuhiro Hono
  • Patent number: 9536548
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a magnetic write head comprising a main pole, a write gap over the main pole, a first hot seed layer over the main pole, wherein the first hot seed layer comprises a first hot seed material having a first anisotropy value, and a second hot seed layer comprising a second hot seed material having a second anisotropy value, the second anisotropy value being greater than the first anisotropy value, wherein at least a portion of the second hot seed layer is adjacent to the first hot seed layer to mitigate adjacent track interference. Also disclosed are methods to fabricate magnetic write heads having first and second hot seed layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2017
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Supradeep Narayana