Transparency Patents (Class 365/127)
  • Patent number: 9558783
    Abstract: A system includes a utilization calculation module, a performance calculation module, an input module and an output module. The input module to receive a user-selection of tape drives and time ranges over which to calculate utilization data and calculate performance data. The utilization module to calculate utilization data of the selected tape drives over the selected time ranges. The performance module to calculate performance data of the selected tape drives over the selected time ranges. The output module to generate single data points representing output of utilization data and performance data of the respective selected tape drives, and to analyze the data points to determine whether to highlight the data points in a first user-definable display region representing higher utilization and performance tape drives relative to data points in a second user-definable display region representing lower utilization and performance tape drives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2017
    Assignee: Hewlett Packard Enterprises Development LP
    Inventors: Scott Spivak, Richard Bickers, Robert Hazel
  • Patent number: 9275671
    Abstract: An optical information storage medium includes a multilayer film that includes a plurality of extruded alternating active data storage layers and buffer layers, which separate the active data storage layers. The active data storage layers and buffer layers have thicknesses that allow the active data storage layers to be writable by permanent or reversible one- or multiphoton, linear, nonlinear, or threshold optical writing processes to define data voxels within the active data storage layers that are readable by an optical reading device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2016
    Assignee: Case Western Reserve University
    Inventors: Kenneth Singer, Chris Ryan, Jie Shan, Joseph Lott, Christophe Weder, Brent Valle, Eric Baer
  • Patent number: 9136184
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a photovoltaic device 100, includes the steps of providing a glass substrate 102, depositing a molybdenum layer 104 on a surface of the glass substrate, directing light through the glass substrate to the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 206, detecting an optical property of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer after interaction with the incident light 208 and determining a density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer from the detected optical property 210. A molybdenum deposition parameter may be controlled based upon the determined density of the near-substrate region of the molybdenum layer 218. A non-contact method measures a density of the near-substrate region of a molybdenum layer and a deposition chamber 300.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2015
    Assignee: Alliance For Sustainable Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Jian Li, Dean Levi, Miguel Contreras, Stephen Glynn
  • Patent number: 9135992
    Abstract: Methods of forming and operating phase change memory devices include adjusting an activation energy barrier between a metastable phase and a stable phase of a phase change material in a memory cell. In some embodiments, the activation energy barrier is adjusted by applying stress to the phase change material in the memory cell. Memory devices include a phase change memory cell and a material, structure, or device for applying stress to the phase change material in the memory cell. In some embodiments, a piezoelectric device may be used to apply stress to the phase change material. In additional embodiments, a material having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than that of the phase change material may be positioned to apply stress to the phase change material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2015
    Assignee: MICRON TECHNOLOGY, INC.
    Inventor: Roy E. Meade
  • Patent number: 8546827
    Abstract: A light emitting device that can radiate heat generated by a semiconductor light emitting element and/or a resin layer at not only a position directly under the light emitting element, but also a position remote from such a position with respect to the main plane direction is provided. In the light emitting device, a light emitting element is carried on a substrate, and a resin covers the light emitting element. An anisotropic heat conduction material showing a heat conductivity for the substrate main plane direction larger than that for the substrate thickness direction is carried on the substrate. A side of the anisotropic heat conduction material contacts with the resin. Thereby, the anisotropic heat conduction material can receive heat of the resin, conduct it along the main plane direction, and radiate it to the substrate at a position remote from the light emitting element and/or the resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Stanley Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takahiko Nozaki, Hiroshi Kotani
  • Patent number: 8542518
    Abstract: An optically-controlled memory resistor includes (1) a memory resistor having a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photo-responsive active layer disposed between the first and second electrodes and (2) a light source in cooperation with the memory resistor. The light source is configured to controllably illuminate the memory resistor for affecting a resistance state exhibited by the memory resistor. Also, a method for operating a memory resistor includes changing a resistance state of the memory resistor in response to an application of photons to the memory resistor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2013
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
    Inventors: Alexandre M. Bratkovski, Iakov Veniaminovitch Kopelevitch
  • Patent number: 8040712
    Abstract: An information memory device using an electromagnetic-wave resonance phenomenon is provided to achieve both high density and long-period storage of stored data. Memory cells are three-dimensionally arranged in the inside of a solid-like medium which is not contacted with a surface of the medium, and the memory cell has resonance characteristics to electromagnetic waves depending on the space coordinates of the memory cell. For the medium, a material is selected so that an electromagnetic wave having the resonance frequency of the memory cell. By observing absorption spectra of the irradiated electromagnetic wave or emission spectra after the absorption, three-dimensional space coordinates of the memory cell are calculated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2011
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Watanabe, Toshimichi Shintani, Takeshi Maeda, Akemi Hirotsune, Yoshitaka Bito
  • Publication number: 20080070162
    Abstract: An information storage element has a carbon storage material including hexagonally bonded carbon and tetrahedrally bonded carbon. The information is formed by a changeable ratio of hexagonally bonded carbon and tetrahedrally bonded carbon.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 25, 2006
    Publication date: March 20, 2008
    Inventor: Klaus-Dieter Ufert
  • Patent number: 7124441
    Abstract: A CD-ROM has an obscurable section wherein exists a photosensitive mask material layer or constituent operative to alter the optical properties of areas subjected to prolonged exposure to the CD-ROM read laser radiation. Digital information stored on a CD-ROM is made accessible by use of a password, which is generated from user machine unique information, and which is written on the CD-ROM via selective exposure of the CD-ROM to the radiation used to read the CD-ROM.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2006
    Assignee: Global Anti-Piracy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Kerry R. Gaston
  • Patent number: 6608774
    Abstract: Selected domains, normally 2×103×2×103 such domains arrayed in a plane, within a three-dimensional (3-D) volume of radiation-sensitive medium, typically 1 cm3 of spirobenzopyran containing 2×103 such planes, are temporally and spatially simultaneously illuminated by two radiation pulses, normally laser light pulses in various combinations of wavelengths 532 nm and 1024 nm, in order, dependent upon the particular combination of illuminating light, to either write binary data to, or read binary data from, the selected domains by process of two-photon (2-P) interaction/absorption. One laser light pulse is preferably directed to illuminate all domains during its propagation along one directional axis of the volume. The other laser light pulse is first spatially encoded with binary information by 2-D spatial light modulator, and is then (i) directed and (ii) time sequenced to intersection with the other light pulse in a locus of intersection domains.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Peter M. Rentzepis
  • Patent number: 6483735
    Abstract: Three-, and four-dimensional (“3-D” and “4-D”) volume radiation memories store multiple binary bits of information—typically about five to ten and more typically eight such bits—in the same physical volumes on several different photochromic chemicals co-located in the volume. Each of the multiple photochromic chemicals is individually selectively written with an individually associated pair of radiation beams of an appropriate combined frequency—i.e., a “color”—and energy by a process of two-photon (“2-P”) absorption. All the multiple information bits that are stored within all the photochromic chemicals in each addressable domain are read in common, and induced to simultaneously fluoresce, again by process of 2-P absorption.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2002
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Peter M. Rentzepis
  • Patent number: 6118685
    Abstract: It includes: a substrate; a plurality of optical data processing units arranged in an array on the substrate, a super graphite sheet on LEDs of the optical processing units, and a glass substrate on the super graphite sheet. Each optical data processing unit includes an optical signal receiving circuit on the substrate for receiving an optical signal and generating a reception signal; a data processing circuit on the substrate for processing the reception signal and generating resultant data; a drive circuit and an LED on the substrate for emitting an output optical signal and heat in accordance with the resultant data. The super graphite sheet on the LED transmits and radiates the heat from the LEDs. The super graphite film is provided by sintering a high polymer sheet and has a high heat conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshinori Takeuchi, Hideo Kawai, Asako Baba
  • Patent number: 6084796
    Abstract: A programmable metallization cell ("PMC") comprises a fast ion conductor such as a chalcogenide-metal ion and a plurality of electrodes (e.g., an anode and a cathode) disposed at the surface of the fast ion conductor and spaced a set distance apart from each other. Preferably, the fast ion conductor comprises a chalcogenide with Group IB or Group IIB metals, the anode comprises silver, and the cathode comprises aluminum or other conductor. When a voltage is applied to the anode and the cathode, a non-volatile metal dendrite grows from the cathode along the surface of the fast ion conductor towards the anode. The growth rate of the dendrite is a function of the applied voltage and time. The growth of the dendrite may be stopped by removing the voltage and the dendrite may be retracted by reversing the voltage polarity at the anode and cathode. Changes in the length of the dendrite affect the resistance and capacitance of the PMC.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2000
    Assignees: Axon Technologies Corporation, Arizona Board of Regents
    Inventors: Michael N. Kozicki, William C. West
  • Patent number: 6072712
    Abstract: A compact optical memory is disclosed in which data are stored in an optical data layer capable of selectively altering light such as by changeable transmissivity, reflectivity, polarization, and/or phase. The data are illuminated by controllable light sources and an array of multi-surface diffractive imaging lenslets which cause a data image to be projected onto an array of light sensors by reflecting, hence folding the image rays, by means of a Mangin mirror that both reflects and optically modifies the light rays to redirect them onto the sensor array located substantially coplanar with the data layer. Data are organized into an annular array of patches (called pages). By selective illumination of each data page, one of the lenslets images the selected data page onto a central image plane where the sensor array is located. Light in the data image pattern strikes different ones of the arrayed light sensors, thereby outputting a pattern of binary bits in the form of electrical data signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Ioptics, Inc.
    Inventor: James T. Russell
  • Patent number: 6061264
    Abstract: Provided are a self-aligned semiconductor fuse structure, a method of making such a fuse structure, and apparatuses incorporating such a fuse structure. The fuse break point, that point at which the electrical link of which the fuse is part is severed by a laser beam, is self-aligned by the use of photolithography and an anti-reflective coating. The self-alignment allows the size and location of the break point to be less sensitive to the laser beam size and alignment. This has several advantages, including allowing photolithographic control and effective size reduction of the laser spot irradiating the fuse material and surrounding structure. This permits reduced fuse pitch, increasing density and the efficiency of use of chip area, and results in reduced thermal exposure, which causes less damage to chip. In addition, laser alignment is less critical and therefore less time-consuming, which increases throughput in fabrication.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: LSI Logic Corporation
    Inventors: Gary K. Giust, Ruggero Castagnetti, Yauh-Ching Liu, Subramanian Ramesh
  • Patent number: 6026053
    Abstract: The present invention stores and retrieves digital information by altering the phase transmission characteristics of a multiple layer phase recording by modulating the carrier frequency and the carrier frequency angle. These layers are organized into several regions, called page areas, which contain an array of juxtaposed encoded digital information data. Each page area may have several pages of digital information; each recorded with a different carrier frequency and carrier angle. The data layers are stacked together and aligned such that the page areas and encoded digital information on them are also aligned with each other into books. When one of these books is selectively illuminated by a controllable light source, a lenslet aligned with that book projects the transformed images of the data pages within that book, through a shutter array, and a reimaging lens onto a photosensor detector array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Director of the National Security Agency
    Inventor: Duane Anthony Satorius
  • Patent number: 5926411
    Abstract: An optical memory (10) is disclosed in which data is stored in an optical data layer (19) capable of selectively altering light such as by changeable transmissivity, reflectivity, polarization, and/or phase. The data is illuminated by controllable light sources (15) and an array of multi-surface imaging lenslets (21) project the image onto a common array of light sensors (27). Data is organized into a plurality of regions or patches (called pages) and by selective illumination of each data page, one of the lenslets (21) images the selected data page onto the light sensors (27). Light in the data image pattern strikes different ones of the arrayed light sensors (27), thereby outputting a pattern of binary bits in the form of electrical data signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: ioptics Incorporated
    Inventor: James T. Russell
  • Patent number: 5828595
    Abstract: In a system (apparatus and method) which employs a light absorbent material surrounded by an optically transparent matrix as a recording medium and in which the presence or absence of emission light of a specific wavelength from unity of the light absorbent material is used for optical writing and reading, the light emitted in response to reading light is condensed and spectrally diffracted and the light intensity is detected for each specific wavelength and related to recorded information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Director General, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Norio Murase, Tetsuo Yazawa
  • Patent number: 5761111
    Abstract: Sub-micron-scale, micron-scale and greater than micron-scale, crack-free and regularly-shaped structures of high-contrast refractive index are provided in transparent storage media by controllably focusing ultrashort laser pulses in the bulk of virtually any transparent medium respectively during operation in a "low energy," a "high energy", and a "third" operating regime. In any operating regime, the crack-free and regularly-shaped structures of high-contrast refractive index may be controllably patterned in 2-D or 3-D so as to permanently store both digital and non-digital information in the bulk of the transparent storage medium. For digital-type information, greater than one (1) Terabit, and up to one hundred (100) Terabit, digital information storage capacity in a CD-ROM sized disc is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1998
    Assignee: President and Fellows of Harvard College
    Inventor: Eli Nathan Glezer
  • Patent number: 5696714
    Abstract: An optical memory (10) is disclosed in which data is stored in an optical data layer (19) capable of selectively altering light such as by changeable transmissivity, reflectivity, polarization, and/or phase. The data is illuminated by controllable light sources (15) and an array of multi-surface imaging lenslets (21) project the image onto a common array of light sensors (27). Data is organized into a plurality of regions or patches (called pages) and by selective illumination of each data page, one of the lenslets (21) images the selected data page onto the light sensors (27). Light in the data image pattern strikes different ones of the arrayed light sensors (27), thereby outputting a pattern of binary bits in the form of electrical data signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1997
    Assignee: Information Optics Corporation
    Inventor: James T. Russell
  • Patent number: 5625524
    Abstract: A reversible thermosensitive recording medium having a support, a reversible thermosensitive recording layer formed thereon which contains a matrix resin and an organic low-molecular-weight material dispersed in the matrix resin, capable of reversibly assuming a transparent state and a white opaque state depending on the temperature thereof, and a magnetic recording layer formed on the reversible thermosensitive recording layer, and optionally, an anchor layer, which is provided on the reversible thermosensitive recording layer. The magnetic recording layer is integrally provided in a part of the reversible thermosensitive recording layer or the anchor layer by a step of fusion-bonding, applying, or transferring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1997
    Assignee: Ricoh Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yukio Konagaya, Takao Igawa, Fumihito Masubuchi, Akihide Itoh, Tohru Nogiwa
  • Patent number: 5581499
    Abstract: A device for optically storing and retrieving information incorporating a cadmium fluoride crystal. Using focused ionizing radiation, patterns can be formed in the crystal by the creation of color centers and/or intrinsic luminescence quenched areas. The stored information can then be retrieved by irradiating the crystal with visible light, ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation or combinations thereof. The device and the storage technique allows the storage of various different levels of information, the different levels being retrievable by using different irradiating media and magnifications of the retrieved information. The device and technique also allows the information to be stored for a predetermined period of time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1996
    Inventor: Gilbert Hamamdjian
  • Patent number: 5499231
    Abstract: An optical disk drive with a multiple data layer optical disk uses computed axial velocity values of the data layers to optimize the interlayer transition of the focused light beam. In the preferred embodiment, the axial velocities of the data layers are computed for a set of radial and angular positions on the data layer surfaces using one of several techniques. The data layer axial velocity values are computed from the measured current values to the voice coil motor focus actuator or from the output of the detector that generates the focus error signal (FES). A routine is run at disk drive startup, or at various times during disk drive operation, to measure the coil current or FES at different radial and angular positions and compute the axial velocity values. The computed axial velocity values are then mapped into memory storage according to addresses corresponding to their radial and angular positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Alan A. Fennema, Wayne I. Imaino, Hal J. Rosen
  • Patent number: 5440507
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for storing data is provided incorporating an amorphous solid having covalent bonds and a first index of refraction and an energy source for thermally heating selected areas of the amorphous solid to change the index of refraction without melting or substantially crystallizing the amorphous solid. The invention overcomes the problem of corrosion, moisture, or microbial attack resulting in deterioration of the storage medium over time, i.e., 100 years.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael J. Brady, Bodil E. Braren, Richard J. Gambino, Alfred Grill, Vishnubhai V. Patel
  • Patent number: 5361222
    Abstract: An associative memory apparatus having a 2f Fourier transform optical correlation configuration wherein the correlation spots produced in the correlation plane are projected back by a mirror through the inverse Fourier transform lens and a phase correction reference image filter to produce the output image representing the best match between the input image and the associative memory reference images. A 4f Fourier transform embodiment projects the correlation spots forward through a second filter and transform means and the output image can be fed back to the input image display SLM to enhance the output image.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1994
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: Jihad A. Khoury, Jonathan S. Kane, Philip R. Hemmer, Charles L. Woods
  • Patent number: 5325324
    Abstract: Selected domains, normally 10.sup.3 .times.10.sup.3 such domains arrayed in a plane, within a three-dimensional (3-D) volume of active medium, typically 1 cm.sup.3 of spirobenzopyran containing 10.sup.2 such planes, are temporally and spatially simultaneously illuminated by two radiation beams, normally laser light beams in various combinations of wavelengths 532nm and 1024nm, in order, dependent upon the particular combination of illuminating light, to either write binary data to, or read binary data from, the selected domains by process of two-photon (2-P) absorption. One laser light beam is preferably directed to illuminate all domains of the selected plane in and by a one-dimensional spatial light modular (1-D SLM). The other laser light beam is first spatially encoded with binary information by 2-D SLM, and is then also directed to illuminate the domains of the selected plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1994
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Peter M. Rentzepis, Sadik Esener
  • Patent number: 5289407
    Abstract: In a method of high density (>10.sup.12 bits/cc) optical recording of information in a three-dimensional multilayered format, information is written in a photopolymer as submicron volume elements of altered index of refraction. The index change results from alteration of the photopolymer induced by two-photon excitation of the photo-sensitizer at the waist of a highly focused beam from a subpicosecond colliding pulse modelocked laser. Quadratic dependence of two-photon excitation on incident instantaneous intensity serves to confine crosslinking of the polymer to the focal volume; hence, bit array layers may be written with thicknesses on the order of the confocal parameter. As an example, eight well resolved bit planes can be written in a olymer film about 30 microns thick. Information written in this manner may be read with sufficient axial resolution by differential interference contrast (DIC) or confocal microscopy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 22, 1994
    Assignee: Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventors: James H. Strickler, Watt W. Webb
  • Patent number: 5272667
    Abstract: There is disclosed an optical information recording apparatus for recording optical information in a phase change type optical recording medium and a method therefor. The order of the atomic arrangement of the optical recording medium is capable of changing between a first state of order thereof and a second state of order thereof higher than the first state. A first light source generates a first light including the optical information and projecting the generated first light on the optical recording medium so as to change the order of the atomic arrangement of the optical recording medium from the first state to the second state and from the second state to the first state, mainly by heating the optical recording medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Noboru Yamada, Kenichi Nishiuchi, Eiji Ohno, Nobuo Akahira
  • Patent number: 5184323
    Abstract: A photorefractive device is disclosed capable of optically coupling intersecting beams of electromagnetic radiation comprised of first and second electrodes for establishing a potential gradient between first and second spaced locations and, interposed between the electrodes, a photorefractive medium comprised of a homogeneous charge neutral organic photoconductor containing organic noncentrosymmetric molecular dipoles capable of imparting to the photorefractive medium a second order polarization susceptibility of greater than 10.sup.-9 esu, the molecular dipoles each containing an electron donor moiety linked through a conjugated .pi. bonding system to an electron acceptor moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1993
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Jay S. Schildkraut, Ralph H. Young, David J. Williams, Michael Scozzafava
  • Patent number: 5160572
    Abstract: An apparatus for manufacturing an optical memory device, which includes supplying rolls for continuously supplying a sheet-like substrate, a masking endless belt having a plurality of windows of size corresponding to the optical memory device, rolls for moving the sheet-like substrate and the masking endless belt in the same direction and at the same speed, a recording portion forming device for forming recording portions on the substrate through the masking endless belt, a guide track providing device for providing along the substrate guide tracks for guiding a light beam, and a cutting device for cutting the substrate to a predetermined size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1992
    Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Junichiro Nakayama, Kazuhiro Kimura, Hiroyuki Katayama, Kenji Ohta
  • Patent number: 5001667
    Abstract: An optical memory includes a storage for optical data carriers, a means for transferring data carriers from the storage to one or several stations for data recording or reading, a modulated electromagnetic radiation source and photodetectors which are optically connected to the carriers, and a switching unit for switching the modulated electromagnetic radiation from the source to the optical carriers and from the carriers to the photodetectors in accordance with the address of the station where a respective carrier is disposed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1991
    Assignee: Institut Problem Modelirovania v Energetike Akademii Nauk
    Inventors: Alexandr A. Antonov, Vyacheslav V. Petrov
  • Patent number: 4999809
    Abstract: A photorefractive device is disclosed comprised of a first and second electrodes for establishing a potential gradient between first and second spaced locations and, interposed between the first and second electrodes, intermediate means capable of producing in a readout beam of electromagnetic radiation an image pattern corresponding to that present in a spatially intersecting writing beam of electromagnetic radiation when a potential gradient is applied to the intermediate means by said first and second electrodes. The intermediate means consists of a photorefractive layer capable of internally storing the image pattern of the writing beam created by its interference with an intersecting reference beam of electromagnetic radiation, the photorefractive layer being comprised of a homogeneous organic photoconductor containing organic noncentrosymmetric molecular dipoles capable of imparting to the photorefractive layer a second order polarization susceptibility of greater than 10.sup.-9 esu.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1991
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Jay S. Schildkraut, Ralph H. Young, David J. Williams, Michael Scozzafava
  • Patent number: 4991157
    Abstract: In an optical information storage apparatus including an optical information storing medium having a retrieval index storing area and an information storing area, the apparatus comprises an optical head for recording and reading information on and from the optical information storing medium and a signal generator for generating a delete signal to the optical head in order to directly or perfectly delete (destroy) information recorded on the information area of the storing medium, in addition to the indirect deletion of a retrieval index. Further, the above direct and indirect deletions can be selected by the operator. The above apparatus is useful in particular to delete confidential documents stored in a picture information filing system, for instance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 5, 1991
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Junichi Ohtomo
  • Patent number: 4980262
    Abstract: A photographic contact printing process is disclosed having application in the mass production of replicate video discs from a master disc, and other applications wherein it is desired to replicate micro-detail over a relatively large area. A problem with conventional contact printing from a mask to a photographic medium is one of maintaining intimate contact over a relatively large area since dust, dirt, etc., are almost impossible to completely eliminate in any practical manner. In accordance with the present invention, a contact printing process is provided wherein intimate contact is not necessary for making high quality contact prints. The present invention recognizes that in contact printing information from a master disc to a replicate disc, the contact printing process is significantly less sensitive to imperfect contact between the master disc and the replicate disc if one employs a replicate disc comprising a photosensitive material having a certain optical properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1990
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Harold T. Thomas, Dennis G. Howe
  • Patent number: 4956813
    Abstract: An apparatus for reproducing information from records made by an optical-wavelength-multiplexing method which includes a first medium acting as a data carrier which data can be recorded on and reproduced from by the optical-wavelength-multiplexing method and which further includes a second medium having the same characteristic as that of the first medium on which no records have been made, wherein components of light reflected or transmitted by the first and second mediums are then detected by a first and second photodetectors, respectively, and wherein the outputs of the first and second photodetectors are further processed so that a ground level of the "reproduced signal" is adjusted to substantially constant value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 11, 1990
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masatomo Seya, Kazuo Okada
  • Patent number: 4922462
    Abstract: In a reversible memory system, a pulsed laser beam generated from a laser unit is directed to a recording layer formed on a substrate 1. The recording layer essentially consists of a recording medium, for example, an iron-nickel alloy containing iron as a major component and 27 to 30 atomic % of nickel, which undergoes martensite transformation from a low-temperature phase to a high-temperature phase at a predetermined temperature Af and which undergoes a stress-induced transformation at a characteristic temperature Md. When a region of the recording layer is irradiated with the laser beam having a predetermined intensity, the region undergoes a stress-induced transformation so that the region is changed from the high temperature phase to the low temperature phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Sumio Ikegawa, Yoshiaki Terashima, Nobuaki Yasuda, Katsutarou Ichihara, Shuichi Komatsu, Shinji Arai
  • Patent number: 4891790
    Abstract: This device is an all-optical digital architecture for carrying out compuions. Residue number system addition and multiplication tables are produced on an optically-addressable plane composed of optically bistable material. The plane of optically bistable material devices represents a residue number system addition or multiplication tables and is addressed by two intersecting signal beams from the top and a bias beam from the bottom. A combination of two signal beams exceeds the material transmission threshold in the intersection region letting bias light emerge as a position encoded signal beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1990
    Assignee: United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Lee O. Webster, Larry Z. Kennedy, Joseph G. Duthie
  • Patent number: 4866696
    Abstract: A pre-formatted optical data storage member is described in which format zones are generated by the provision in the surface of the optical medium of a "moth-eye" structure, i.e. regular surface pattern in the form of an arrangement of grooves or protuberances. The pitch and depth of the pattern is such that when irradiated with illumination of predetermined optical characteristics, the format zones display a reflectivity substantially lower than that of the remainder of the optical storage member. Methods of producing optical data storage members with such pre-formatting are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1989
    Assignee: Plasmon Data Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert J. Longman, Peter R. Helfet, Philip A. Storey
  • Patent number: 4864537
    Abstract: A polymer and dye combination suitable for use in optically recording information. The present invention includes a material which may exhibit the property of birefringence under selected conditions such as when stretched. This birefringence can be relaxed in localized areas by heating the localized areas. Incorporated within the material is a dye. The dye is selected so that it has a high optical density, or absorption maximum, in a specific range. This range may cover, for example, the wavelength of a gallium arsenide laser. Radiation with a wavelength within the selected range is the directed into the material at selected locations. This radiation is converted to heat, which in turn relaxes the birefringence in the localized areas or may cause other physical or chemical changes within the polymer. The localized relaxation of birefringence or other change can then be detected or "read." This allows information to be optically recorded on the polymer and subsequently detected and used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: University of Utah
    Inventors: Josef Michl, Parvathi S. Murthy
  • Patent number: 4855950
    Abstract: An optical memory comprising a doping modulated multilayer made of amorphous semiconductor, and at least two electrodes, one of the electrodes being transparent and the multilayer being sandwiched between two electrodes. Data is written by increasing the electrical conductance of the amorphous semiconductor by irradiating it with light. Data is erased by the application of a bias voltage to the electrodes and also by irradiating the amorphous semiconductor with light having photon energy of approximately half or less of the optical energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. The memory effect can be maintained for a week or longer, and the memory can be erased without heating the memory device, whereby the lifetime of the device is lengthened.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1989
    Assignee: Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Company, Limited
    Inventor: Jun Takada
  • Patent number: 4839861
    Abstract: A rewritable information recording medium which has a recording layer containing a Group I transition element and a Group IV representative elements of the Periodic Table as two principal element and a support substrate for physically supporting the recording layer, and an information-write, -read, and erase method using this recording medium. When the recording layer is immediately cooled after it is heated up to near a eutectic temperature of the two principal elements, two metastable phases having different energy levels appear. A state in the first metastable phase of the higher energy level has a reflectivity sufficiently higher than that of a state of a mixed phase including the second metastable phase of the lower energy level, or that of the equilibrium state. The state in the first metastable phase can be obtained by heating a recording layer in another state by light beam irradiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 13, 1989
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Sumio Ikegawa, Shuichi Komatsu, Shinji Arai, Sumio Ashida, Nobuaki Yasuda
  • Patent number: 4825419
    Abstract: In an optical information storage apparatus including an optical information storing medium having a retrieval index storing area and an information storing area, the apparatus comprises an optical head for recording and reading information on and from the optical information storing medium and a signal generator for generating a delete signal to th eoptical head in order to directly or perfectly delete (destroy) information recorded on the information area of the storing medium, in addition to the indirect deletion of a retrieval index. Further, the above direct and indirect deletions can be selected by the operator. The above apparatus is useful in particular to delete confidential documents stored in a picture information filing system, for instance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1989
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Junichi Ohtomo
  • Patent number: 4805144
    Abstract: A memory medium for information storage and reproduction and an apparatus for reading information from the memory medium are set forth herein. The memory medium includes a solid storage layer formed of a pyroelectric and electro-optic material, and information is stored in the medium through local residual polarization of the layer owing to the pyroelectrical property of the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 14, 1989
    Assignee: Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Makoto Suzuki, Akihiro Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4774702
    Abstract: A portion of a chalcogenide transformation film in a less reflective phase responds to a low energy laser beam writing pulse by transforming to a crystalline phase. A marmem alloy, secured to the bottom side of the film, responds to a longer erasing pulse of a lower energy laser beam at the same portion by physically stressing the film only at that same portion. The film portion responds to the physical stress by transforming back to a less reflective phase. An optical reader interprets the crystalline phase as a digital logic "1", and the less reflective phase as a digital logic "0".
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignee: LTV Aerospace and Defense Company
    Inventor: Jeffrey A. Giacomel
  • Patent number: 4757472
    Abstract: An optical memory system for storage and retrieval of digital data using a source of writing light in the visible light range and a separate source of near infrared, polarized reading light. The writing light is amplitude modulated by a signal containing the digital data to be stored. Horizontal and vertical deflectors deflect the beams to scan horizontally and vertically in response to control signals. The scanning beams are focused to a focal point to impinge upon a stationary medium manufactured of a dry film having submicron electrically photosensitive particles embedded in a thermoplastic layer mounted on a substantially transparent electrically conductive substrate. The particles are insensitive to light at the reading light wavelength. The particles are initially uncharged and the film is sensitive to light after receiving an initial surface charge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1988
    Assignee: Tecon Memory, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick N. Magee, William M. Brooks
  • Patent number: 4737934
    Abstract: Disclosed is an optical data storage device and system, and a method of doing one or more of entering data into, reading data out of, or erasing data from the device. The optical data storage device is characterized by an encapsulated structure including an optically non-transmissive, chalcogenide, phase changeable layer. The phase changeable layer is sufficiently thick such that the impinging vitrifiying energy pulse does not vitrify all the way through the layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1988
    Assignee: Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Randall Ross, Erik Bjornard
  • Patent number: 4731755
    Abstract: Reversible phase change storage material is thermally isolated in a storage medium by means of grooves in the substrate and at least one layer of a thermally conductive dielectric material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1988
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Gary C. Bjorklund, Martin Y. Chen, Victor B. Jipson
  • Patent number: 4731756
    Abstract: Optical devices using an organic charge transfer salt as the switching and storage media are disclosed. Generally, a light beam of a given intensity directed to a film of certain organic charge transfer salts causes the illuminated area to change from a first to a second state. This electrochemical process is reversible with heat energy transforming the illuminated area back into the first state. The first and second states have identifiably different optical and electrical properties. The organic charge transfer salt is used to fabricate an erasable or permanent optical memory and a threshold on bistable optoelectronic switch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1988
    Assignee: The Johns Hopkins University
    Inventors: Richard S. Potember, Theodore O. Poehler, Richard C. Benson
  • Patent number: 4707787
    Abstract: A system and method for forming a model of an underground geological formation is disclosed wherein a quantity of non-solid material of the type which solidifies at volumetric positions impinged upon by preselected incident energy as used. Memory means are provided which have uniquely addressable location for storing data indicative of the desired and actual material states at respective volumetric positions. Means are additionally for scanning the data and sequentially directing the energy at supported, non-blocking, volumetric positions in the medium volume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 10, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1987
    Assignee: Western Geophysical Company of America
    Inventors: Carl H. Savit, Rhonda Boone, Mark Doyle
  • Patent number: 4663738
    Abstract: A block oriented solid state optical memory having a distributed data storage architecture comprises a lens array including a plurality of laterally separated lenslets which have numerical apertures selected to cause them to focus essentially diffraction limited images of a photoemitter array in parallel onto laterally displaced sections of a data mask, so that the images optically align with respective photosensors. The lenslets are formed on the first surface of the lens array, and the data mask is supported on or very close to the last surface of the lens array to minimize the scattering of reflected light. An opaque light shield on the first surface of the lens array optically masks the area between the lenslets to eliminate unwanted stray light. Furthermore, in at least some embodiments of the invention, the light shield extends into the apertures of the lenslets to stop them down sufficiently to obtain substantially diffraction limited performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1984
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1987
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Robert A. Sprague, John C. Urbach