Compositing System Patents (Class 367/59)
  • Patent number: 10061045
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for obtaining and/or processing slip sweep seismic survey data. The methods compute harmonic weight ratios using two types of data: 1) direct survey data where a harmonic sweep does not overlap with the fundamental component of responses of Earth interior and 2) another set of data representative of fundamental component of responses of Earth interior where the harmonic sweep does overlap with the fundamental component of responses of Earth interior. The set of data representative fundamental component of responses of Earth interior can be extracted from ground force measurements or a different sweep. The harmonic weight ratios using ground force measurements at overlapped frequencies may be calibrated with one or more harmonic weight ratios at non-overlapped frequencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2018
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventor: Claudio Bagaini
  • Patent number: 9798026
    Abstract: Provided is elastic reverse-time migration system and method using an absolute value function for improving the quality of subsurface structure images, and more particularly, elastic reverse-time migration system and method using an absolute value function for improving the quality of subsurface structure images capable of minimizing waveform changing by separating wavefields using stress-displacement relationships and improving accuracy of the subsurface structure images by applying the absolute value function to migration images.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: KOREA INSTITUTE OF GEOSCIENCE AND MINERAL RESOURCES
    Inventors: Jiho Ha, Wookeen Chung, Sungryul Shin, Young-Jun Kim, Wonsik Kim
  • Patent number: 9213118
    Abstract: A method for processing seismic data including contiguous-sweep records corresponding to rotated sweep segments includes attenuating harmonics and generating stacked traces, each stacked trace being a weighted sum of traces corresponding to same location in the subsurface, based on seismic data from different seismic receivers, following plural shots at plural locations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2015
    Assignee: CGGVERITAS SERVICES SA
    Inventor: Olivier Winter
  • Patent number: 8953411
    Abstract: Provided are an apparatus and method for imaging a subsurface using frequency-domain reverse-time migration in elastic medium. The subsurface imaging method represents a frequency-domain imaging condition as convolution of measured data and a partial derivative wavefield. That is, the subsurface imaging method applies a back-propagation algorithm to represent an imaging condition as convolution of a virtual source and a back-propagated wavefield. Then, the subsurface imaging method divides a virtual source vector and the back-propagated wavefield represented by a displacement vector into P- and S-wave potentials through Helmholtz decomposition, thereby providing a new imaging condition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignee: SNU R&DB Foundation
    Inventor: Changsoo Shin
  • Patent number: 8947976
    Abstract: A technique includes generating seismic sweep sequences. Each of the seismic sweep sequences has an associated sweep rate. The technique includes varying the sweep rates to reduce harmonic distortion present in a composite seismic measurement produced in response to the sweep sequences.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventor: Kambiz Iranpour
  • Patent number: 8902708
    Abstract: Seismic data representing the propagation of seismic energy through a geologic volume of interest is processed. The seismic energy propagates through the geologic volume of interest from one or more source locations at or near the geologic volume of interest to one or more detector locations at or near the geologic volume of interest. In processing the seismic data, the seismic energy is modeled as beams (e.g., Gaussian beams). The processing performed (i) corrects for misalignment of the one or more source locations and/or the one or more detector locations with a regular, predetermined mesh, and (ii) steers the seismic data based on the modeled beams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventors: Norman Ross Hill, Yue Wang
  • Patent number: 8559271
    Abstract: Systems and methods for asynchronously acquiring seismic data are described, one system comprising one or more seismic sources, a plurality of sensor modules each comprising a seismic sensor, an A/D converter for generating digitized seismic data, a digital signal processor (DSP), and a sensor module clock; a seismic data recording station; and a seismic data transmission sub-system comprising a high precision clock, the sub-system allowing transmission of at least some of the digitized seismic data to the recording station, wherein each sensor module is configured to periodically receive from the sub-system an amount of the drift of its clock relative to the high precision clock. This abstract is provided to comply with rules requiring an abstract to ascertain the subject matter of the disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. 37 CFR 1.72(b).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 15, 2013
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventors: Simon Barakat, Kambiz Iranpour, Daniel H. Golparian
  • Publication number: 20130215717
    Abstract: Microseismic mapping using buried arrays with the integration of passive and active seismic surveys provides enhanced microseismic mapping results. The system is initially set up by recording seismic data with the buried array installation while shooting a significant portion of the 3D surface seismic survey. The 3D surface seismic survey provides the following data: shallow 3D VSP data from the buried arrays; P-wave and converted wave data for the area covered by the buried array that benefits from the planned data integration processing effort; and microseismic data and associated analysis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 5, 2013
    Publication date: August 22, 2013
    Inventors: Gregg S. Hofland, Jacques P. Leveille, Daniel S. Kahn, Kees Faber, Rick Laroo, Jerry L. Lawson, William A. Balla, Michael J. Saur
  • Patent number: 8358562
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for replacing the individual receivers used with a seismic interferometry process with an array of seismic receivers and then manipulating the array data in order to measure and modify the typical non-uniform directionality function of the background seismic energy. The non-uniform directionality function is a significant cause of noise with seismic interferometry. Furthermore, the array of receivers may be used to significantly enhance the preferred reflection energy and damp undesirable near surface energy. The directionality function may be modified by using an array of receivers for the virtual source location of seismic interferometry to measure the non-uniform directionality function, generating multiplication factors, and applying the multiplication factors to convert the measured directionality function into a desired directionality function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2013
    Inventor: Christof Stork
  • Patent number: 8325561
    Abstract: A seismic data acquisition system includes a controller, a plurality of sensor stations and a plurality of seismic sources. Each sensor station includes a sensor coupled to the earth for sensing seismic energy in the earth. The sensor provides a signal indicative of the sensed seismic energy and a recorder device co-located with the sensor unit that receives and stores the signals. A communication device is co-located with the sensor station and provides direct two-way wireless communication with the central controller. In one embodiment, in-field personnel determine elevation values, or Z values, for the sensor stations and seismic source by accessing a digital elevation model or a look-up table based on the digital elevation model. It is emphasized that this abstract is provided to comply with the rules requiring an abstract which will allow a searcher or other reader to quickly ascertain the subject matter of the technical disclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Inova Ltd.
    Inventors: Andrew Bull, John Barratt, Scott T. Hoenmans, Martin C. Williams
  • Patent number: 8284630
    Abstract: A method for interpolating irregularly sampled seismic data, including receiving seismic data acquired at irregularly spaced seismic sensors in a survey area, defining a plurality of regularly spaced locations in the survey area, forming an annular ring around one of the plurality of regularly spaced locations, and interpolating the seismic data inside the annular ring to estimate seismic data that would have been acquired at the one of the plurality of regularly spaced locations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2012
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventor: Ralf G. Ferber
  • Patent number: 8279707
    Abstract: Geophysical data representing at least first and second overlapping geophysical spaces may be aggregated. A first set of geophysical data representing the first geophysical space and a second set of geophysical data representing the second geophysical space may be obtained. The second set of geophysical data may be separate and discrete from the first set of geophysical data. The first set of geophysical data may be transformed from a first parametric domain to a third parametric domain, while the second set of geophysical data may be transformed from a second parametric domain to the third parametric domain. The first set of geophysical data may be fused with the second set of geophysical data in the third parametric domain to create a fused set of geophysical data. The fused set of geophysical data may be transformed from the third parametric domain to a fourth parametric domain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: Gilles Hennenfent
  • Publication number: 20120051182
    Abstract: Provided are an apparatus and method for imaging a subsurface using frequency-domain reverse-time migration in elastic medium. The subsurface imaging method represents a frequency-domain imaging condition as convolution of measured data and a partial derivative wavefield. That is, the subsurface imaging method applies a back-propagation algorithm to represent an imaging condition as convolution of a virtual source and a back-propagated wavefield. Then, the subsurface imaging method divides a virtual source vector and the back-propagated wavefield represented by a displacement vector into P- and S-wave potentials through Helmholtz decomposition, thereby providing a new imaging condition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 15, 2011
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicant: SNU R&B FOUNDATION
    Inventor: Changsoo Shin
  • Publication number: 20110082647
    Abstract: To perform noise attenuation for seismic surveying, a sensor assembly is deployed on a ground surface, where the sensor assembly has a seismic sensor to measure seismic waves propagated through a subterranean structure, and a divergence sensor comprising a pressure sensor to measure noise. First data is received from the seismic sensor, and second data is received from the divergence sensor. The first data and the second data are combined to attenuate noise in the first data.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 5, 2009
    Publication date: April 7, 2011
    Inventors: Pascal Edme, Everhard Muyzert, Julian Edward (Ed) Kragh, Johan O. A. Robertsson, Quinglin Liu
  • Publication number: 20100302906
    Abstract: Despite full waveform propagation capabilities offered by reverse time migration or inversion, prior art methods can generate spurious events from multiples and therefore are limited to using data without free-surface multiples. By eliminating or largely reducing artificial transmission of multiples, the enhanced reverse time migration or inversion in the present invention can correctly use data that contain free-surface and internal multiples and improve image quality or properties estimation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 28, 2009
    Publication date: December 2, 2010
    Inventor: Wei Liu
  • Publication number: 20100085837
    Abstract: A technique includes generating seismic sweep sequences. Each of the seismic sweep sequences has an associated sweep rate. The technique includes varying the sweep rates to reduce harmonic distortion present in a composite seismic measurement produced in response to the sweep sequences.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2008
    Publication date: April 8, 2010
    Inventor: Kambiz Iranpour
  • Publication number: 20090310443
    Abstract: A walkaway VSP survey is carried out with receivers located in a borehole under a salt overhang. Redatuming of the multicomponent data to virtual sources in the borehole followed by vector Kirchhoff migration using a simple velocity model provides an accurate image of the salt face.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2009
    Publication date: December 17, 2009
    Applicant: BAKER HUGHES INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Min Lou, Francis D. Doherty, James C. Jackson
  • Patent number: 7599798
    Abstract: A subterranean structure is characterized using composite seismic response data received from a plurality of sources. Phase encoding is applied to the data in which phase shifts are selected based on frequency variation of noise terms. The phase-encoded data is then migrated and a representation of the subterranean structure is produced according to the migrating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: WesternGeco L.L.C.
    Inventors: Craig J. Beasley, Phil Kitchenside, Nicolae Moldoveanu
  • Publication number: 20090225628
    Abstract: In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a method for determining properties of a subterranean formation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 17, 2009
    Publication date: September 10, 2009
    Applicant: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventor: Colin Michael Sayers
  • Publication number: 20090175126
    Abstract: A method and system of detecting and mapping a subsurface hydrocarbon reservoir includes acquiring seismic data having a plurality of components, applying a data transform to the seismic data to obtain seismic data spectral component maxima and maxima profiles, and recording the maxima or maxima profile in a form for display.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Publication date: July 9, 2009
    Applicant: Spectraseis AG
    Inventors: Marc-Andre Lambert, Erik Hans Saenger, Stefan Schmalholz
  • Publication number: 20080159076
    Abstract: A method and system for seismic data processing utilizes azimuthal variations in the velocity of seismic signals. The system and method utilizes a plurality of seismic energy sources that are located at known positions at the surface of the earth. The seismic energy sources generate seismic signals that propagate downward into the earth. Some of the seismic signals are reflected and diffracted by various sub-surface layers and are returned to the surface of the earth. The returned seismic signals are received by a plurality of receivers. The method includes the step of determining the distance from an energy source to an image point. A fast travel time of the seismic signal from the energy source to the image point is determined, and a slow travel time of the seismic signal from the energy source to the image point is determined. The azimuth angle between the energy source and the surface location of the image point is calculated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2007
    Publication date: July 3, 2008
    Inventors: Charles Sicking, Smart Nelan, William H. "Bill" McLain
  • Patent number: 6920084
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for compensating acquired seismic data for the presence of dipping events are disclosed. The method includes migrating the acquired, unstacked seismic data; and spatially mapping the migrated seismic data to correct their respective offsets while maintaining the angle of incidence to a dipping event. The method may be performed by a programmed computing device or encoded as instructions for a computing device on a program storage medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2005
    Assignee: Western Geco, L.L.C.
    Inventor: Scott W MacKay
  • Patent number: 6868038
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of performing the time picking step in a VSP (vertical seismic profile) survey. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the time picking step is carried out on a combined three-component amplitude of the received seismic energy, which contains the amplitude of all the seismic energy received at the receiver. The amplitude of the direct pulse in the combined trace will not decrease to zero as the offset of the source is changed, as can be the case for the single-component amplitude of the direct pulse. In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention, the combined three-component amplitude is calculated by summing the Hilbert instantaneous amplitudes of the x-, y- and components of the seismic data using the equation (I). The present invention also provides two new time picks. One time pick involves finding the maximum positive gradient of A(t).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2005
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Scott Leaney
  • Patent number: 6859416
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus and a method for analyzing the correlation geophysical data and seismic data, physical data monitoring apparatus and method, and an earthquake monitoring method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2005
    Inventor: Hiroyuki Inubushi
  • Patent number: 6836448
    Abstract: A system and method of creating a filter for use with locally dense seismic data is disclosed. The method includes obtaining survey geometry characteristics from a locally dense seismic survey. A filter is designed which uses spatial derivatives of the wavefield of order between (1) and the maximum order of spatial derivatives of the wavefield that can be estimated within a group. The filter can be designed so as to separate up/down going components, p/s components, or both up/down and p/s components. Partial derivatives in space and time of the wavefield can be calculated, using, for example, a taylor series expansion as an approximation. The seismic data is filtered by combining estimated near surface material properties, the seismic data, and the calculated partial derivatives.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2004
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Johan Olof Anders Robertsson, Andrew Curtis
  • Patent number: 6757216
    Abstract: A method for assessing the suitability of seismic data for quantitative amplitude analysis, where the concern is excessive residual normal moveout (RNMO). The invention uses a near offset stack and a far offset stack, the time difference between the two, a mute pattern, a reflection shape assumption for the RNMO, and a waveform and frequency for the far stack traces to generate a formula that estimates far stack amplitude error caused by RNMO. The formula can be used to compensate the far stack amplitude where the error is not so great as to require reprocessing of the data. The method can also be applied to interpreted amplitude maps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company
    Inventors: Peter Varnai, Stefan Hussenoeder, Brian P. West, John E. Eastwood, Spyridon K. Lazaratos
  • Patent number: 6345108
    Abstract: The invention is a statistical method for analyzing exploration data associated with image elements showing physical properties of a complex environment such as subsoil for identifying the spatial relations between image elements. The method comprises successive identification of the spatial structures of the data, separation of these spatial structures with removal of possible redundancies, formation, from initial images, of synthetic images or spatial components that show the spatial structures of the data, providing a typology of the initial images according to the spatial structures shown by the spatial components, and filtering of the initial images in order to suppress the noise and to select one or more identified spatial structures. The method can be used for study of any spatial data, notably in geosciences in order to process seismic images of the subsoil, but also in geography, agronomy, hydrology, geomarketing, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2002
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Abdelaziz Faraj
  • Patent number: 6317384
    Abstract: A method for identifying faults and stratigraphic features within seismic data without interpreter bias by processing seismic data to identify the minimum difference between seismic traces. Large values of difference are plotted as display attributes for seismic reflection data interpretation for two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data. The large values of difference represent faults and stratigraphic features within the seismic data. Dip azimuth and dip magnitude attributes can be generated and displayed as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A., Inc.
    Inventors: Yi Luo, William G. Higgs
  • Publication number: 20010004727
    Abstract: A system for, and method of, orienting seismic energy sources and seismic energy receivers to substantially separate a compressional wave from a vertical shear wave. The method includes reflecting a seismic energy from a subsurface interface to produce a reflected seismic energy wave that has a compressional energy and vertical shear energy associated therewith. A first seismic energy receiver is oriented such that it is aligned with an angle of emergence of the reflected seismic energy wave to thereby maximize the vertical shear energy received by a second seismic energy receiver.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2001
    Publication date: June 21, 2001
    Inventors: Allen L. Gilmer, Bob A. Hardage, James L. Simmons
  • Patent number: 6195028
    Abstract: In a peak detection system having a variable gain amplifier (VGA), a counter is initialized and a countdown is triggered. Each time a qualified peak is detected, the counter is re-initialized. If the countdown is completed, the VGA gain is updated. This method can be used to boost amplifier gain that is too low to generate a qualifying threshold, even while overlooking short periods of very low output.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 27, 2001
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Lisa Fredrickson, Dennis C. Stone, LeRoy Volz
  • Patent number: 6091668
    Abstract: A system and method for periodically providing information about subsurface formations in a marine environment using a non-towed seismic signal source (3) and a static array of seismic signal receivers (4) is disclosed. The seismic signal source (3) comprises a support frame (10) and a line (7) attaching the support frame to a stationary platform (2), wherein the line (7) restrains the support frame (10) in a position that is static in relation to the formation (8). The seismic signal source (3) includes eight air guns (12) attached to the support frame (10) such that the air guns (12) are discharged to provide a tapered, heavy centered, point source seismic signal at a specific location relative to the formation (8) that is reflected to the static array of seismic signal receivers (4) such that changes in the formation characteristics may be observed over time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: SeaScan, Inc.
    Inventor: Harold Pauley Barber, Sr.
  • Patent number: 6081482
    Abstract: A computationally efficient semi-recursive Kirchhoff migration algorithm is capable of obtaining accurate images of complex structures in complex geological environments which commonly give rise to multivalued arrivals. The method alternates wave-equation datuming (downward continuation) and Kirchhoff migration. Breaking up the complicated velocity structure into small depth regions allows traveltimes to be calculated in regions where the computation is well behaved and where the computation corresponds to energetic arrivals. Because traveltimes are computed for small depth domains, the effects of multivalued arrivals are implicitly accounted for in the migration and the adverse effects of caustics and headwaves do not develop. The invention can use any simple first-arrival traveltime algorithm, and thus benefits from the computational efficiency, robustness, and simplicity of such algorithms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: 3DGeo Development, Inc.
    Inventor: Dimitri Bevc
  • Patent number: 6075752
    Abstract: The method consists in building a common midpoint gather of seismic traces of which the CMP point is said given point, subjecting the traces of this gather to dynamic and/or static corrections, and characterized in that the gather associated with the given point (A) is built by recording four CMP sub-gathers associated with said given point along four angular directions (1 to 4) passing through said given point, and dynamic and/or static corrections are applied to each of the four CMP sub-gathers in order to determine, for each sub-gather, a value of the curvature and/or the velocity optimizing the energy of the trace stack of the corrected sub-gather concerned, the four values thus obtained representing the components of the stacking velocity field desired for each of the reflector elements corresponding to the given point, and characterized by a vertical propagation time t0 with reflection for zero offset.Application in particular to the exploration of a medium with a complex tectonics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: Elf Aquitaine Production
    Inventor: Eric de Bazelaire
  • Patent number: 6052333
    Abstract: Monofrequency continuous wave signals of long duration are used as inputs form sources of known characteristics and location. These signals are reflected off subterranean features and serve to paint the features for display and evaluation. A primary feature is the use of continuous wave, long duration signals as opposed to the standard short pulse technique.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth Edward Williams
  • Patent number: 6028820
    Abstract: A method for seismic data interpretation for the purposes of identification of oil, gas and water accumulation locations and delineation of their contours uses a model of discrete media with inhomogeneous stresses. For a selected reflection horizon, the relative value of overall pressure gradient is calculated on the basis of instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies of seismic signals using a derived relationship between the reflection coefficients of elastic waves and the stress condition parameter. The calculation technique uses estimates of instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies smoothed over the entire seismic horizon or its fragment. A generalized model of normal (lithostatic) pressure is excluded, and the final interpreted parameters have the sense of relative estimates of anomalous pressure caused by basin dynamics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2000
    Assignee: Trans Seismic International, Inc.
    Inventor: Vladimir B. Pisetski
  • Patent number: 6009043
    Abstract: A method of determining the continuity of earth formations between wellbores by analyzing seismic energy imparted to the formations. The energy is imparted to the formations at a plurality of depths in one wellbore and is received at a plurality of depths in another wellbore. Compressional and shear components of the seismic energy received in the other wellbore are separated. A frequency spectrum is determined for the compressional component and the shear component of the seismic energy at each selected depth. Common imparted depth stacks of the compressional components and shear components are assembled at the depths at which the seismic energy is imparted. Common received depth stacks of the compressional components and the shear components are assembled at the selected depths at which the energy is received.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventors: Yu Taik Chon, Walter R. Turpening, Tawassul A. Khan
  • Patent number: 5999489
    Abstract: A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: TomoSeis Inc.
    Inventor: Spyridon K. Lazaratos
  • Patent number: 5991237
    Abstract: A method for the determination of migration velocities in seismic processing in which a blasting point S is associated with receivers (R.sub.1 to R.sub.n) which are separated by offsets such that in a given speed range, a first set of traces derived from the blasting point and registered on the receivers, and a second set of traces in constant and colinear offset to the first set are migrated. Two migrated images of the part of the site corresponding to the two sets of traces are obtained. The two images are correlated by means of a spatial two-dimensional correlation, the result thereof determining the deviation between the migration used and the investigated velocity. The result is particularly useful in the seismic prospection of a site.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: Elf Exploration Production
    Inventor: Eric de Bazelaire
  • Patent number: 5986974
    Abstract: A method for identifying faults and stratigraphic features within seismic data without interpreter bias by processing seismic data to identify the minimum difference between seismic traces. Large values of difference are plotted as display attributes for seismic reflection data interpretation for two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data. The large values of difference represent faults and stratigraphic features within the seismic data. Dip azimuth and dip magnitude attributes can be generated and displayed as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A., Inc.
    Inventors: Yi Luo, William G. Higgs
  • Patent number: 5903515
    Abstract: A method for generating an unaliased 3-D DMO operator using two dimensional sampling theory to the spatial traverse of the operator as well as to the temporal axis. First a continuous DMO operator is generated along the line segment connecting a source and a receiver directed at an arbitrary azimuth relative to a biaxial output grid. The operator is discretized at spaced-apart sample points along the DMO aperture segment, the spacing being equal to or less than the output grid dimensions. A exponentially tapered sinc filter function is applied to the samples which are then interpolated onto the output grid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1999
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig J. Beasley, Everett C. Mobley
  • Patent number: 5892732
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the exploration of hydrocarbons comprising the steps of: obtaining a set of seismic signal traces distributed over a predetermined three-dimensional volume of the earth; dividing the three-dimensional volume into a plurality of analysis cells having portions of at least two seismic traces located therein; computing outer products of the seismic traces within each cell; forming the covariance matrix for each cell from these outer products; computing the dominant eigenvalue and the sum of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of each cell and computing a seismic attribute from the ratio of the dominant eigenvalue to the sum of the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of each cell; and forming map of the seismic attributes of selected groups of cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Amoco Corporation
    Inventor: Adam Gersztenkorn
  • Patent number: 5831935
    Abstract: A method for identifying faults and stratigraphic features within seismic data without interpreter bias by processing seismic data to identify the minimum difference between seismic traces. Large values of difference are plotted as display attributes for seismic reflection data interpretation for two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data. The large values of difference represent faults and stratigraphic features within the seismic data. Dip azimuth and dip magnitude attributes can be generated and displayed as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1998
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventors: Yi Luo, William G. Higgs
  • Patent number: 5740125
    Abstract: A method of determining the continuity of earth formations between wellbores by analyzing seismic energy imparted to the formations. The energy is imparted to the formations at a plurality of depths in one wellbore and is received at a plurality of depths in another wellbore. Compressional and shear components of the seismic energy received in the other wellbore are separated. A frequency spectrum is determined for the compressional component and the shear component of the seismic energy at each selected depth. Common imparted depth stacks of the compressional components and shear components are assembled at the depths at which the seismic energy is imparted. Common received depth stacks of the compressional components and the shear components are assembled at the selected depths at which the energy is received.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 14, 1998
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventors: Yu Taik Chon, Walter R. Turpening, Tawassul A. Khan
  • Patent number: 5677892
    Abstract: A computer-aided method for providing a de-aliased output data set d.sub.L (t,x.sub.L,y.sub.L) from a spatially aliased, three-dimensional, input data set of known seismic signals, a(t,x,y), where L is an interpolator. The known data set is zero-padded by L. The zero-padded data set is zero-masked. The zero-padded data set is divided by a zero-padded, zero-masked data set to provide an interpolation operator H.sub.L. L-1 zero traces are interleaved between the known traces of data set a(t,x,y) to provide a zero-inserted data set c.sub.L ((t,x.sub.L,y.sub.L) whose transform is C.sub.L (m,k.sub.xL,k.sub.yL). The product of (H.sub.L) with (C.sub.L) is (D.sub.L) which is inverse-transformed to provide the desired de-aliased data set d.sub.L (t,x.sub.L,y.sub.L).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventors: Necati Gulunay, Ronald Edward Chambers
  • Patent number: 5661697
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for analyzing amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) seismic data to distinguish sand formations, such as Morrow sands, from limestones and other similar intervals, is disclosed. For each of the traces in the survey, AVO intercept and AVO slope traces are generated, preferably after normalization of the amplitudes of the traces to account for geophone coupling variations. After normalization and conventional processing and corrections, spatial summation may be performed to further improve the traces. AVO trend lines are then generated, preferably on a weighted window basis, to generate localized trend lines against which the intercept and slope values of individual depth points may be compared. This comparison allows the plotting of AVO intercept versus AVO slope deviation from the trend line, from which sand formation interfaces may be identified by their presence in certain quadrants of the intercept-slope deviation cross-plot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1997
    Assignee: Atlantic Richfield Company
    Inventors: Herbert W. Swan, Kenneth O. McDowell, James A. Specht
  • Patent number: 5648937
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for adjusting the results of a seismic survey according to well log data obtained from wells within the survey region is disclosed. The disclosed method operates on one seismic horizon at a time, and first applies well log data, arranged by location of the wells in the survey region, to the seismic survey. Deviation values are calculated for each well location, as a signed difference between the actual depth data for the geological interface and a deduced horizon depth from the seismic survey. A difference function is evaluated for each survey point to be adjusted in the survey region (ranging from a single point to all survey points), preferably as a weighted average of the deviations at the wells, where the weighting is inversely related to the distance of the well from the survey point under adjustment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1997
    Assignee: Atlantic Richfield Company
    Inventor: Bruce S. Campbell
  • Patent number: 5617372
    Abstract: Sparsely spatially-sampled seismic time-scale trace gathers may be aliased for certain spatial and temporal frequencies. Aliasing may be avoided by application of a spatial interpolation scheme that uses the phase difference between the f-k phase spectra of the odd and the even traces to generate an interpolation operator in the f-k domain. The operator is multiplied point-by-point with the f-k transform of the original recorded trace gather. The resulting complex product is inverse transformed to the t-x domain whereupon the interpolated traces are interleaved between the original recorded traces to unwrap the aliased events.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: Western Atlas International, Inc.
    Inventors: Necati Gulunay, Ronald E. Chambers
  • Patent number: 5586082
    Abstract: The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 17, 1996
    Assignee: The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York
    Inventors: Roger N. Anderson, Albert Boulanger, Edward P. Bagdonas, Liqing Xu, Wei He
  • Patent number: 5475589
    Abstract: A method for translating seismic time data via seismic depth data to seismic depth/lithology data, enabling reduced-risk location of hydrocarbons. Reducing dry hole risk is accomplished by introducing a new work domain which provides a several-fold increase in parameters per data point corresponding to geophysical space and associated with seismic sequence data. This work domain provides improved separation and definition and quality control of a panoply of relevant geofactors which in turn provide enhanced material information about a plurality of sedimentary rock properties. The enhanced material information is quality-controlled to be geologically possible, then further quality-controlled to be consistent with probability via quantification of burial history, depositional facies distribution and data resolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1995
    Assignee: Spiral Holding, Ltd.
    Inventor: Kenneth R. L. Armitage
  • Patent number: 5463594
    Abstract: Methods for generating seismic data and creating a seismic section are disclosed in which the difference in offsets between stacked traces is limited.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1995
    Inventors: Joe P. Lindsey, James R. Patch