Metal Vapor Patents (Class 372/56)
  • Patent number: 10997522
    Abstract: A quantum computer comprises an apparatus having atomic objects therein; a first manipulation source configured to provide a first manipulation signal; a second manipulation source configured to provide a second manipulation signal; and a controller. The controller is configured to cause the first manipulation source to provide the first manipulation signal to a region of the apparatus; and cause the second manipulation source to provide the second manipulation signal to the region. The first manipulation signal is tuned to excite atomic objects within the region from a leaked state outside of the qubit space to an intermediary manifold and to suppress excitation of atomic objects that are in the qubit space. The second manipulation signal is tuned to excite atomic objects from the intermediary manifold to a decay manifold from which there is a non-zero probability that an atomic object will decay into the qubit space.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventors: David Hayes, Russell Stutz
  • Patent number: 10128629
    Abstract: A laser oscillator which can effectively remove scattered light by a simpler configuration. The laser oscillator comprises an output mirror and a rear mirror which are arranged facing each other and a discharge tube which is arranged between the output mirror and the rear mirror. The discharge tube has a first part which gets larger in inner diameter from a first end part in an axial direction facing the output mirror toward the rear mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2018
    Assignee: FANUC CORPORATION
    Inventor: Tetsuya Chiba
  • Patent number: 10096966
    Abstract: A gas laser device may include: a laser chamber containing laser gas; a first discharge electrode disposed in the laser chamber; a second discharge electrode disposed to face the first discharge electrode in the laser chamber; and a condenser including a polyimide dielectric and configured to supply power to between the first discharge electrode and the second discharge electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2018
    Assignee: Gigaphoton Inc.
    Inventors: Akira Suwa, Kouji Kakizaki, Hiroaki Tsushima, Tomoyuki Ohkubo, Hiroshi Umeda, Hisakazu Katsuumi
  • Patent number: 10042189
    Abstract: A backplane for an electrophoretic display is provided with a plurality of layers, including a base film layer, an interconnect layer, a foil layer, and a display film layer. The foil layer includes at least one laser-formed gap, with the gap being defined in the foil layer after the foil layer has been applied to one of the other layers. In one embodiment, the interconnect layer is a printed interconnect layer. In another embodiment, the interconnect layer is a second foil layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2018
    Assignee: AVERY DENNISON RETAIL INFORMATION SERVICES, LLC
    Inventor: Ian J. Forster
  • Patent number: 9385734
    Abstract: An atomic oscillator includes: a gas cell which includes two window portions having a light transmissive property and in which metal atoms are sealed; a light emitting portion that emits excitation light to excite the metal atoms in the gas cell; a light detecting portion that detects the excitation light transmitted through the gas cell; a heater that generates heat; and a connection member that thermally connects the heater and each window portion of the gas cell to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2016
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventor: Yoshiyuki Maki
  • Patent number: 8942271
    Abstract: A blower apparatus includes a blower casing; an elastic member for mounting a mounting portion that projects on an outer circumferential portion of the blower casing, to a blower support member disposed on the inlet side of the mounting portion; and a flange portion provided on the inlet side of the mounting portion. At least three elastic members are disposed in the same plane that is almost orthogonal to a rotation shaft, and adhesion surfaces are provided on both ends, in the rotation shaft direction, of each elastic member. The mounting portion is fixed to one of the adhesion surfaces, and the blower support member is fixed to the other of the adhesion surfaces. The flange portion is provided so as to oppose the blower support member through a gap having a thickness less than a thickness, in the rotation shaft direction, of the elastic member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Kouji Funaoka, Takayuki Nakayama, Tomohiro Kyoto
  • Patent number: 8913642
    Abstract: In a slab laser, a gas mixture containing carbon dioxide CO2 is formed as a laser-active medium in a discharge space which is formed between two plate-shaped metal electrodes, the flat faces of which are located opposite one another. A resonator mirror is arranged on each of the mutually opposite end faces of the discharge space, the mirrors forming an unstable resonator parallel to the flat faces. At least one of the mutually facing flat faces is provided either on the entire flat face with a dielectric layer the thickness of which is greater on at least one sub-surface than in the remaining area of the flat face, or the at least one flat face is provided with a dielectric layer exclusively on at least one sub-surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Rofin-Sinar Laser GmbH
    Inventors: Florian Engel, Stefan Ruppik, Volker Scholz, Hermann Hage
  • Patent number: 8889251
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.
    Inventors: Thomas F. Soules, Raymond J. Beach, Scott C. Mitchell
  • Patent number: 8842704
    Abstract: An RF power-supply for driving a carbon dioxide CO2 gas-discharge laser includes a plurality of power-oscillators phase-locked to a common reference oscillator. Outputs of the phase-locked power-oscillators are combined by a power combiner for delivery, via an impedance matching network, to discharge-electrodes of the laser. In one example the powers are analog power-oscillators. In another example, the power-oscillators are digital power-oscillators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: Coherent, Inc.
    Inventors: David P. Schmelzer, W. Shef Robotham, Jr., Frederick W. Hauer, Joel Fontanella
  • Patent number: 8817839
    Abstract: The invention relates to a two-stage laser system well fit for semiconductor aligners, which is reduced in terms of spatial coherence while taking advantage of the high stability, high output efficiency and fine line width of the MOPO mode. The two-stage laser system for aligners comprises an oscillation-stage laser (50) and an amplification-stage laser (60). Oscillation laser light having divergence is used as the oscillation-stage laser (50), and the amplification-stage laser (60) comprises a Fabry-Perot etalon resonator made up of an input side mirror (1) and an output side mirror (2). The resonator is configured as a stable resonator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 26, 2014
    Assignees: Komatsu Ltd., Gigaphoton Inc.
    Inventors: Osamu Wakabayashi, Tatsuya Ariga, Takahito Kumazaki, Kotaro Sasano
  • Publication number: 20140133514
    Abstract: Alkali-vapor laser and related methods of lasing are described herein. In some embodiments, a diode-pumped gas-vapor laser is provided that can be scaled to high power. For example, in one embodiment, a triply-transverse configuration of a diode-pumped-alkali-laser (DPAL) is disclosed in which alkali-buffer gain medium is flowed through an laser chamber (for example, configured as an optical resonator or amplifier) whose optical axis is nominally transverse to the flow direction, and whose pump array radiation is propagated into the alkali-buffer gain medium in a direction nominally transverse to both the direction of gain medium flow and the direction of the optical axis.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 16, 2013
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: General Atomics
    Inventors: William F. Krupke, Jason Stuart Zweiback, Alexander A. Betin
  • Patent number: 8611390
    Abstract: A fan for circulating laser gas in a gas laser, the fan having a shaft which is supported by at least one radial bearing and at least one axial gas bearing. The axial gas bearing has at least two rotating bearing faces, one or both being structured with a groove pattern, and at least two stationary bearing faces that are arranged at both sides of a plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: TRUMPF Maschinen AG
    Inventors: Andreas Lehr, Patrick Bon, Kenworthy Molyneaux Alexander
  • Patent number: 8411720
    Abstract: A system and method for automatically performing gas optimization after a refill in the chambers of a two chamber gas discharge laser such as an excimer laser is disclosed. The laser is continuously fired at a low power output, and the gas in the amplifier laser chamber bled if necessary until the discharge voltage meets or exceeds a minimum value without dropping the pressure below a minimum value. The power output is increased, and the gas bled again if necessary until the voltage and pressure meet or exceed the minimum values. The laser is then fired in a burst pattern that approximates the expected firing of the laser in operation, and the gas bled if necessary until the discharge voltage meets or exceeds the minimum value and the output energy meets or exceeds a minimum value, again without dropping the pressure in the chamber below the minimum value. Once the minimum values are provided, the process runs quickly without manual interaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin Michael O'Brien, Joshua Jon Thornes, Daniel Jason Riggs, Rui Jiang
  • Patent number: 8295316
    Abstract: A laser light source experiencing an EOL condition, which might otherwise cause an unscheduled shutdown, is instead operated in a diminished capacity in one or more predetermined or calculated increments. Operating in such diminished capacity continues until the laser system can undergo appropriate maintenance either during a regularly scheduled shutdown or a newly scheduled shutdown. In the meantime, the diminished capacity of the laser system is accommodated by the utilization tool, as appropriate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert P. Akins, Richard L. Sandstrom, Daniel J. W. Brown, Matthew R. Graham, Kevin W. Zhang, Patrick L. Nelissen
  • Patent number: 8258884
    Abstract: A system is disclosed for charging a compact vapor cell, including placing an alkali-filled capillary into a reservoir cell formed in a substrate, the reservoir cell in vapor communication with an interrogation cell in the substrate and bonding a transparent window to the substrate on a common face of the reservoir cell and the interrogation cell to form a compact vapor cell. Capillary action in the capillary delays migration of alkali in the alkali-filled capillary from the reservoir cell into the interrogation cell during the bonding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2012
    Inventors: Robert L. Borwick, III, Alan L. Sailer, Jeffrey F. DaNatale, Philip A. Stupar, Chialun Tsai
  • Patent number: 8217347
    Abstract: A system for detecting at least one contamination species in an interior space of a lithographic apparatus, including: at least one monitoring surface configured to be in contact with the interior space, a thermal controller configured to control the temperature of the monitoring surface to at least one detection temperature, and at least one detector configured to detect condensation of the at least one contamination species onto the monitoring surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2012
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Vadim Yevgenyevich Banine, Levinus Pieter Bakker, Ralph Kurt, Johannes Hubertus Josephina Moors, Lucas Henricus Johannes Stevens, Peter Cornelis Zalm
  • Patent number: 8199789
    Abstract: RF power is transmitted to a CO2 gas discharge laser form a source of RF power via a series combination of transmission line sections. The lengths and characteristic impedances of the transmission line sections are selected to transform the impedance of the RF power source to the operating impedance of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Coherent, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick W. Hauer, Patrick T. Tracy, R. Russel Austin
  • Patent number: 8126027
    Abstract: An apparatus is disclosed which may comprise a grating receiving light, a first prism moveable to coarsely select an angle of incidence of the light on the grating, and a second prism moveable to finely select an angle of incidence of the light on the grating. In one application, the apparatus may be used as a line narrowing module for a laser light source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2012
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: J. Martin Algots, Robert A. Bergstedt, William N. Partlo, German E. Rylov, Richard L. Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 7970037
    Abstract: RF power is transmitted to a CO2 gas discharge laser form a source of RF power via a series combination of transmission line sections. The lengths and characteristic impedances of the transmission line sections are selected to transform the impedance of the RF power source to the operating impedance of the laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2011
    Assignee: Coherent, Inc.
    Inventors: Frederick W. Hauer, Patrick T. Tracy, R. Russel Austin
  • Patent number: 7957449
    Abstract: The invention relates to a two-stage laser system well fit for semiconductor aligners, which is reduced in terms of spatial coherence while taking advantage of the high stability, high output efficiency and fine line width of the MOPO mode. The two-stage laser system for aligners comprises an oscillation-stage laser (50) and an amplification-stage laser (60). Oscillation laser light having divergence is used as the oscillation-stage laser (50), and the amplification-stage laser (60) comprises a Fabry-Perot etalon resonator made up of an input side mirror (1) and an output side mirror (2). The resonator is configured as a stable resonator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2011
    Assignee: Komatsu Ltd.
    Inventors: Osamu Wakabayashi, Tatsuya Ariga, Takahito Kumazaki, Kotaro Sasano
  • Patent number: 7929586
    Abstract: An electromagnetic pumped alkali metal vapor cell system is provided. The system comprises a vapor cell and windings. The vapor cell contains alkali metal and a buffer. The windings are positioned around the vapor cell and are configured to create an electromagnet field in the vapor cell when an AC signal is applied to the windings. The electromagnetic field pumps unexcited alkali vapor into unionized D1 and D2 states.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: Alliant Techsystems Inc.
    Inventor: John S. Canham
  • Patent number: 7852899
    Abstract: Feedback timing control equipment and process for an injection seeded modular gas discharge laser. A preferred embodiment is a system capable of producing high quality pulsed laser beams at pulse rates of about 4,000 Hz or greater and at pulse energies of about 5 to 10 mJ or greater for integrated outputs of about 20 to 40 Watts or greater. The feedback timing control is programmed to permit in some circumstances discharges timed so that no significant laser energy is output from the system. Use of this technique permits burst mode operation in which the first discharge of a burst is a no-output discharge so that timing parameters for each of the two chambers can be monitored before the first laser output pulse of the burst. Two separate discharge chambers are provided, one of which is a part of a master oscillator producing a very narrow band seed beam which is amplified in the second discharge chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander I. Ershov, Richard M. Ness
  • Patent number: 7804876
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a laser oscillator is provided comprising an optical cavity, the optical cavity including a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas, the buffer gas including 3He gas, wherein if 4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the 3He gas to the 4He gas is greater than 1.37×10?6. Additionally, an optical excitation source is provided. Furthermore, the laser oscillator is capable of outputting radiation at a first frequency. In another embodiment, an apparatus is provided comprising a gain medium including an alkali vapor and a buffer gas including 3He gas, wherein if 4He gas is also present in the buffer gas, the ratio of the concentration of the 3He gas to the 4He gas is greater than 1.37×10?6. Other embodiments are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Raymond J. Beach, Ralph Page, Thomas Soules, Eddy Stappaerts, Sheldon Shao Quan Wu
  • Patent number: 7804877
    Abstract: The present invention provides in one of the embodiments for either a continuous wave (cw) or pulsed alkali laser having an optical cavity resonant at a wavelength defined by an atomic transition, a van der Waals complex within the optical cavity, the van der Waals complex is formed from an alkali vapor joined with a polarizable gas, and a pump laser for optically pumping the van der Waals complex outside of the Lorentzian spectral wings wherein the van der Waals complex is excited to form an exciplex that dissociates forming an excited alkali vapor, generating laser emission output at the wavelength of the lasing transition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignees: CU Aerospace, LLC, The Board of the University of Illinois
    Inventors: Joseph T. Verdeyen, James Gary Eden, David L. Carroll, Jason D. Readle, Clark J. Wagner
  • Publication number: 20100232460
    Abstract: An electromagnetic pumped alkali metal vapor cell system is provided. The system comprises a vapor cell and windings. The vapor cell contains alkali metal and a buffer. The windings are positioned around the vapor cell and are configured to create an electromagnet field in the vapor cell when an AC signal is applied to the windings. The electromagnetic field pumps unexcited alkali vapor into unionized D1 and D2 states.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2009
    Publication date: September 16, 2010
    Inventor: John S. Canham
  • Patent number: 7738752
    Abstract: It is made possible to provide an optical waveguide system that has a coupling mechanism capable of selecting a wavelength and has the highest possible conversion efficiency, and that is capable of providing directivity in the light propagation direction. An optical waveguide system includes: a three-dimensional photonic crystalline structure including crystal pillars and having a hollow structure inside thereof; an optical waveguide in which a plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed in a dielectric material, the optical waveguide having an end portion inserted between the crystal pillars of the three-dimensional photonic crystalline structure, and containing semiconductor quantum dots that are located adjacent to the metal nanoparticles and emit near-field light when receiving excitation light, the metal nanoparticles exciting surface plasmon when receiving the near-field light; and an excitation light source that emits the excitation light for exciting the semiconductor quantum dots.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2010
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Masakazu Yamagiwa, Kenji Todori, Reiko Yoshimura, Miho Maruyama, Kou Yamada, Yasuyuki Hotta, Tsukasa Tada
  • Patent number: 7643528
    Abstract: An apparatus and method which may comprise a pulsed gas discharge laser which may comprise a seed laser portion; an amplifier portion receiving the seed laser output and amplifying the optical intensity of each seed pulse; a pulse stretcher which may comprise: a first beam splitter operatively connected with the first delay path and a second pulse stretcher operatively connected with the second delay path; a first optical delay path tower containing the first beam splitter; a second optical delay path tower containing the second beam splitter; one of the first and second optical delay paths may comprise: a plurality of mirrors defining the respective optical delay path including mirrors located in the first tower and in the second tower; the other of the first and second optical delay paths may comprise: a plurality of mirrors defining the respective optical delay path including mirrors only in one of the first tower and the second tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2010
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: William N. Partlo, Alexander I. Ershov, German Rylov, Igor V. Fomenkov, Daniel J. W. Brown, Christian J. Wittak, Rajasekhar M. Rao, Robert A. Bergstedt, John Fitzgerald, Richard L. Sandstrom, Vladimir B. Fleurov, Robert N. Jacques, Ed Danielewicz, Robin Swain, Edward Arriola, Michael Wyatt, Walter Crosby
  • Patent number: 7586968
    Abstract: An alkali-encapsulated cell internally having an alkali metal vapor G encapsulated is provided with first and second heaters 11, 12. The alkali-encapsulated cell 10 has first and second end faces 10a, 10b opposed to each other, and a side face 10c connecting the two end faces 10a, 10b. Each of the first and second heaters 11, 12 has a covering portion 11B, 12B and an extending portion 11C, 12C. Some portions of the alkali-encapsulated cell 10 are inserted in the covering portions 11B, 12B. On the other hand, the extending portions 11C, 12C extend in directions away from the alkali-encapsulated cell 10. The first and second heaters 11, 12 are separated from each other with a distance d0 between them in an opposing direction of the first and second end faces 10a, 10b.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2009
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Minoru Niigaki, You Wang, Yujin Zheng, Hirofumi Kan
  • Patent number: 7567607
    Abstract: An oscillator-amplifier gas discharge laser system and method is disclosed which may comprise a first laser unit which may comprise a first discharge region which may contain an excimer or molecular fluorine lasing gas medium; a first pair of electrodes defining the first discharge region containing the lasing gas medium, a line narrowing unit for narrowing a spectral bandwidth of output laser light pulse beam pulses produced in said first discharge region; a second laser unit which may comprise a second discharge chamber which may contain an excimer or molecular fluorine lasing gas medium; a second pair of electrodes defining the second discharge region containing the lasing gas medium; a pulse power system providing electrical pulses to the first pair of electrodes and to the second pair of electrodes producing gas discharges in the lasing gas medium between the respective first and second pair of electrodes, and laser parameter control mechanism modifying a selected parameter of a selected laser output lig
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2009
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: David S. Knowles, Daniel J. W. Brown, Herve A. Besaucele, David W. Myers, Alexander I. Ershov, William N. Partlo, Richard L. Sandstrom, Palash P. Das, Stuart L. Anderson, Igor V. Fomenkov, Richard C. Ujazdowski, Eckehard D. Onkels, Richard M. Ness, Scot T. Smith, William G. Hulburd, Jeffrey Oicles
  • Patent number: 7518787
    Abstract: A laser light source is disclosed having a laser oscillator producing an output beam; a first amplifier amplifying the output beam to produce a first amplified beam, and a second amplifier amplifying the first amplified beam to produce a second amplified beam. For the source, the first amplifier may have a gain medium characterized by a saturation energy (Es, 1) and a small signal gain (go, 1); and the second amplifier may have a gain medium characterized by a saturation energy (Es, 2) and a small signal gain (go, 2), with (go, 1)>(go, 2) and (Es, 2)>(Es, 1). In another aspect, a laser oscillator of a laser light source may be a cavity dumped laser oscillator, e.g. a mode-locked laser oscillator, q-switched laser oscillator and may further comprising a temporal pulse stretcher.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2009
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander N. Bykanov, Jerzy R. Hoffman, Igor V. Fomenkov, William N. Partlo
  • Patent number: 7505504
    Abstract: A laser processing device in which even a short nozzle provided with a follower roller (35) can prevent disturbance of a laser beam and contamination of protective glass and in which shield gas can act effectively. The laser processing device comprises a head section (11) from which a laser beam that is condensed by a condenser lens (16) provided inside the device is irradiated through a nozzle section (13); a gas delivery means (28) opened in a processing direction X, in the vicinity of the focal point of laser beam, and jetting a shield gas from the opening; a primary air delivery means (31) directed in the processing direction X, above the focal point F of the laser beam, and jetting primary air A1 substantially in the horizontal direction to form a first air curtain; and secondary air delivery means (18, 13, 19) directed to the focal point from the vicinity of the condenser lens and jetting secondary air A2 to form a second air curtain.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2009
    Assignee: Sango Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hirotaka Sakai, Tetsuya Watabe, Hidenori Nakano
  • Publication number: 20080285614
    Abstract: The present invention provides in one of the embodiments for either a continuous wave (cw) or pulsed alkali laser having an optical cavity resonant at a wavelength defined by an atomic transition, a van der Waals complex within the optical cavity, the van der Waals complex is formed from an alkali vapor joined with a polarizable gas, and a pump laser for optically pumping the van der Waals complex outside of the Lorentzian spectral wings wherein the van der Waals complex is excited to form an exciplex that dissociates forming an excited alkali vapor, generating laser emission output at the wavelength of the lasing transition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 19, 2008
    Publication date: November 20, 2008
    Applicants: CU AEROSPACE, LLC, THE BOARD OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
    Inventors: Joseph T. Verdeyen, James Gary Eden, David L. Carroll, Jason D. Readle, Clark J. Wagner
  • Patent number: 7382816
    Abstract: A charging voltage Vosc applied to a main capacitor C0 disposed in an oscillating high-voltage pulse generator 12 of an oscillating laser 100 is subject to constant control such that a pulse energy Posc of the oscillating laser 100 becomes a lower limit energy Es0 or more of an amplification saturation region. And, a charging voltage Vamp applied to a main capacitor C0 disposed in an amplifying high-voltage pulse generator 32 of an amplifying laser 300 is controlled, and pulse energy Pamp of the amplifying laser 300 is determined as target energy Patgt. Thus, the pulse energy of a two-stage laser is controlled to stabilize the pulse energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2008
    Assignee: Gigaphoton Inc.
    Inventors: Tatsuya Ariga, Osamu Wakabayashi, Kouji Kakizaki
  • Publication number: 20080031299
    Abstract: An alkali-encapsulated cell internally having an alkali metal vapor G encapsulated is provided with first and second heaters 11, 12. The alkali-encapsulated cell 10 has first and second end faces 10a, 10b opposed to each other, and a side face 10c connecting the two end faces 10a, 10b. Each of the first and second heaters 11, 12 has a covering portion 11B, 12B and an extending portion 11C, 12C. Some portions of the alkali-encapsulated cell 10 are inserted in the covering portions 11B, 12B. On the other hand, the extending portions 11C, 12C extend in directions away from the alkali-encapsulated cell 10. The first and second heaters 11, 12 are separated from each other with a distance d0 between them in an opposing direction of the first and second end faces 10a, 10b.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 26, 2007
    Publication date: February 7, 2008
    Inventors: Minoru Niigaki, You Wang, Yujin Zheng, Hirofumi Kan
  • Patent number: 7283576
    Abstract: Optically-pumped group IIB atomic vapor lasers emitting at discrete wavelengths shorter than 230 nm are disclosed. This laser device utilizes an active medium comprising a mixture of a group IIB atomic vapor and one or more buffer gases placed within a doubly-resonant optical cavity that enables the realization of a population inversion between the first 1P1 level and the 1S0 ground level of the group IIB atoms. The laser may operate in a pure continuous-wave mode, or in a high-repetition pulsed mode, at DUV wavelengths of ˜185 nm (mercury), ˜229 nm (cadmium) and ˜214 nm (zinc).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2007
    Inventor: William F. Krupke
  • Patent number: 7154928
    Abstract: Apparatus/method providing bandwidth control in narrow band short pulse duration gas discharge laser output light pulse beam producing systems, producing a beam comprising pulses at selected pulse repetition races, e.g., comprising a dispersive bandwidth selection optic selecting at least one center wavelength for each pulse determined at least in part by the angle of incidence of the beam containing the respective pulse on the optic; a tuning mechanism operative to select at least one angle of incidence of the beam containing the respective pulse upon the optic; the tuning mechanism comprising a plurality of incidence angle selection elements each defining an angle of incidence for a different spatially separated but not temporally separated portion of the pulse to return from the optic a laser light pulse comprising a plurality of spatially separated but not temporally separated portions, each having one of at least two different selected center wavelengths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2006
    Assignee: Cymer Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Sandstrom, Daniel J. W. Brown, Alexander I. Ershov, Igor V. Fomenkov, William N. Partlo
  • Patent number: 7145931
    Abstract: Optically-pumped mid-infrared vibrational-rotational transition gas lasers and amplifiers with improved efficiency and practicality. Inventive laser and amplifier devices include: laser active media comprising a mixture of alkali vapor, selected hetero-nuclear molecular gas, and one or more buffer gases; conventional semiconductor laser diode pump sources with nanometer scale spectral bandwidths; and preferential laser emission in ro-vibrational transitions among relatively low-lying vibrational levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2006
    Inventor: William F. Krupke
  • Patent number: 7106776
    Abstract: A novel practicable type of gaseous optical gain medium for efficiently generating intense, highly monochromatic, continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed, coherent light beams is disclosed. Gain results from nonlinear optical pumping of a gas of ?-type “three-level” atoms, coherently phased (“dressed”) via application to the medium of two monochromatic laser beams tuned to the resonance frequencies ?0 and ??0. Nonlinear optical pumping of the “dressed-atom” gas is accomplished through the combined action of two separate physical processes: (1) A low pressure gaseous discharge, occurring continuously within the vessel containing the gain medium, produces intense narrow-band fluorescence at ?0 and ??0 through the process of electron impact excitation (EE).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2006
    Inventors: Peter P. Sorokin, James Glownia, Rodney T. Hodgson
  • Patent number: 7085302
    Abstract: There is to provide a laser apparatus that emits a laser beam by exciting gas enclosed in a chamber, including a gas characteristic detecting mechanism for detecting a characteristic of the gas in the chamber, and a calculation mechanism for calculating an oscillation wavelength and/or a wavelength spectral bandwidth of the laser beam based on a detected result by the gas characteristic detecting mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2006
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yoshiyuki Nagai
  • Patent number: 7061960
    Abstract: Compact, high-power, near-diffraction-limited sources of radiation in the near infrared spectral region are provided by a new class of power amplifiers that can be pumped by conventional high-power, multimode, relatively-broadband 1-D and 2-D laser diode arrays, where the pumped amplifier gain medium is an atomic vapor of one of the alkali elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), buffered with a mixture of rare-gas (He, Ar, Kr, Ne, or Xe) and selected molecular gases. Given the central role of the alkali atomic vapor as the entity providing amplifier gain, this new type of amplifier is herein designated as the diode-pumped alkali amplifier (DPAA).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2006
    Inventor: William F. Krupke
  • Patent number: 7061958
    Abstract: A new class of lasers is provided that can be pumped by conventional high-power, multi-mode, broadband 1-D and 2-D laser diode arrays with spectral widths greater than 0.01 nm, where the pumped laser gain medium comprises an atomic vapor of one the alkali elements (Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs), buffered with a mixture of rare-gas (He, Ar, Kr, Ne or Xe) and selected molecular gases. The alkali atom gain medium is pumped at a wavelength matching the wavelength of the 2S1/2–2P3/2 electric-dipole-allowed transition (the D2 transition). After kinetic relaxation of pump excitation to the excited 2P1/2 electronic level, laser emission takes place on the 2P1/2–2S1/2 transition (the D1 transition).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2006
    Inventor: William F. Krupke
  • Patent number: 7058109
    Abstract: An optical image amplifier comprising a copper bromide laser (10) to provide a source of optical radiation, an optical amplifier (18) for amplifying the optical radiation received from the laser (10), an optical image forming device (16) located intermediate the laser (10) and optical amplifier (18) for forming an image to spatially modulate the output of the laser (10), and optical focusing means (22) located at the output of the optical amplifier for translating the image or a portion thereof to a surface to be illuminated (30). The system increases the efficiency of irradiation of photo-sensitive films, used for example in the manufacture of integrated circuits and printed circuit boards using laser direct imaging.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2006
    Assignee: Norseld Pty LTD
    Inventor: Peter Eric Davis
  • Patent number: 7058110
    Abstract: An excited state atomic line filter. The present invention solves the problem of lack of ground state resonant lines in at wavelengths substantially longer than those of visible light. Atomic line filters of the Faraday or Voigt crossed polarizer type are provided in which alkali metal atomic vapor in a vapor cell is excited with a pump beam to an intermediate excited state where a resonant absorption line, at a desired wavelength, is available. A magnetic field is applied to the cell producing a polarization rotation for polarized light at wavelengths near the resonant absorption lines. Thus all light is blocked by the cross polarizers except light near one of the spaced apart resonant lines. However, the polarization of light at certain wavelengths near the resonant is rotated in the cell and therefore passes through the output polarizer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2006
    Assignee: Trex Enterprises Corp.
    Inventors: Zhong-Quan Zhao, Michael Joseph Lefebvre, Daniel H. Leslie
  • Patent number: 6987790
    Abstract: Precise timing control can be obtained for a gas discharge laser, such as an excimer or molecular fluorine laser, using a timed trigger ionization. Instead of using a standard approach to control the timing of the emission or amplification of an optical pulse using the discharge of the main electrodes, the timing of which can only be controlled to within about 10 ns, a trigger ionization pulse applied subsequent to the charging of the main electrodes can be used to control the timing of the discharge, thereby decreasing the timing variations to about 1 ns. Since ionization of the laser gas can consume relatively small amounts of energy, such a circuit can be based on a fast, high-voltage, solid state switch that is virtually free of jitter. Trigger ionization also can be used to synchronize the timing of dual chambers in a MOPA configuration. In one such approach, ionization trigger can include at least a portion of the optical pulse from the oscillator in a MOPA configuration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2006
    Assignee: Lambda Physik AG
    Inventors: Sergei V. Govorkov, Rainer Paetzel, Igor Bragin, Rainer Desor, Andreas Targsdorf, Andriy Knysh
  • Patent number: 6963595
    Abstract: An automatic F2 laser gas control, for a modular high repetition rate ultraviolet gas discharge laser. The laser gas control includes techniques, monitors, and processor for monitoring the F2 consumption rates through the operating life of the laser system. These consumption rates are used by a processor programmed with an algorithm to determine F2 injections needed to maintain laser beam quality within a delivery range. Preferred embodiments include F2 controls for a two-chamber MOPA laser system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 8, 2005
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Rule, Richard C. Morton, Vladimir V. Fleurov, Fedor Trintchouk, Toshihiko Ishihara, Alexander I. Ershov, James A. Carmichael
  • Patent number: 6931049
    Abstract: A main laser beam is focused to irradiate a tip of a high-density spouting gas flow formed by heating and then vaporizing a target material by a light beam for preheating making it to the plasma. As the result, the generation of a fast debris in the target material can be suppressed. And a discharge of the fast debris from the target material is also suppressed and extinguished by heating and then vaporizing them by a light beam for transpiration which is emitted at an adjusted time after the generation of the plasma. Thus, the fast debris which still appears in the plasma formed after preheating can be almost perfectly vaporized and extinguished by the light beam for transpiration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2005
    Inventor: Takayasu Mochizuki
  • Patent number: 6879617
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a two stage laser system in which a desired spectral line width can be obtained at high output even when the integrated spectral characteristic of oscillator laser does not have the desired spectral line width, comprising an oscillator laser device 10 which has discharge electrodes 2 within a laser chamber 1 filled with laser gas containing F2 and emits laser beam which is band-narrowed by means of a band narrowing module 3 arranged in a laser resonator, and an amplifier laser device 20 which has discharge electrodes 2 within a laser chamber 1 filled with laser gas containing F2 and amplifies laser pulse injected from said oscillator laser device 10. In the system, a synchronous time interval having a predetermined spectral line width exists in laser pulse from the oscillator laser 10, and the system is set such that a discharge occurs in the amplifier laser 20 within the synchronous time interval.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2005
    Assignees: Komatsu Ltd., Ushio Denki Kabushiki Kaisya, Gigaphoton Inc.
    Inventors: Tatsuya Ariga, Kyohei Seki, Osamu Wakabayashi
  • Patent number: 6865210
    Abstract: Feedback timing control equipment and process for an injection seeded modular gas discharge laser. A preferred embodiment is a system capable of producing high quality pulsed laser beams at pulse rates of about 4,000 Hz or greater and at pulse energies of about 5 to 10 mJ or greater for integrated outputs of about 20 to 40 Watts or greater. The feedback timing control is programmed to permit in some circumstances discharges timed so that no significant laser energy is output from the system. Use of this technique permits burst mode operation in which the first discharge of a burst is a no-output discharge so that timing parameters for each of the two chambers can be monitored before the first laser output pulse of the burst. Two separate discharge chambers are provided, one of which is a part of a master oscillator producing a very narrow band seed beam which is amplified in the second discharge chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2005
    Assignee: Cymer, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander I. Ershov, Richard M. Ness
  • Patent number: 6856639
    Abstract: A gas laser comprises a pair of elongated electrodes arranged to define a discharge region between two opposing surfaces of said elongated electrodes, wherein the discharge region defines a longitudinal axis, a wide axis and a narrow axis. The gas laser further includes a lasing gas disposed in said discharge region and an excitation means for energizing the electrodes to excite the lasing gas. A first mirror is arranged in front of a first end of the pair of elongated electrodes, wherein the first mirror is spaced apart from the first end along the longitudinal axis by a first distance, and a second mirror is arranged in front of a second end of the pair of elongated electrodes. Moreover, the two opposing electrode surfaces define an electrode curvature, respectively, that is adapted such that a wave front of the a fundamental transverse radiation mode with respect to the narrow axis substantially coincides with a mirror curvature of the first mirror at the first distance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2005
    Assignees: Gosudarstvennoye Predpriyatie Nauchnoissledovatelsky Institut Lazernoy Fiziki, Amada Company, Limited
    Inventors: Alexander Ivanovich Dutov, Victor Semenov, Alexey A. Kuleshov, Nikolay A. Novoselov, Alexander A. Sokolov
  • Patent number: 6826221
    Abstract: A laser oscillator capable of effectively collecting and removing particulate foreign matter contained in gas laser medium flowing in a circulating path. An electric discharge section arranged in an optical resonator is incorporated into a circulating path of the gas medium including a heat exchanger and a blower. The gas laser medium flows at a high speed in the circulating path. At least one spiral-flow dust collecting mechanism is provided in the circular path downstream of the heat exchanger, and the gas laser medium discharged from the blower is supplied to the electric discharge section through the spiral-flow dust collecting mechanism. The gas laser medium containing the particulate foreign matter spirally flows around an inner pipe in a cylindrical body of the spiral-flow dust collecting mechanism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2004
    Assignee: Fanuc Ltd
    Inventors: Akira Egawa, Michinori Maeda, Kazuya Ohta, Akira Miyake